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Full text of "The star of the West, or, National men and national measures [microform]"

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TAR OF THE WEST; 



OR, 



llalional Pen anb lational Ptasures. 



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■ ANNA ELLA CARROLL, 

ACTHOR OF TH« " ORRAT AUMUOAH BATTLI^" BTC. 



" Our Country^s glory is our chief concern : 
For this we struggle, and for this wc bum ; 
For this we smile, for this alone we sigh ; 
For this we live, for this would flreely die.*' 



SECOND EDITI ON. 



ii^ 



BOSTON: 
JAMES FRENCH AND COMPANY. 

NEW YORK: 

MILLER, ORION & MULLIGAN. 

1857. 



E 

33?. 

C-6} 

1^57 



Entered according to Act of Congress, In tlie yenr ISftfl, t)y 

W. S. TISDALE, 

in the Clerk's OlUce of the District Court of the District of Mjissucliusetts. 



WiieI 
rue pi 
jpirati 



Bt«r««t7p*d bj 

aOBART * R0BBIN8, 

N»w XngUnd Typ« and Stertotrr* Fouadtry, 



■OITOM. 



Jiflrication. 



When the principles of the government are at stake, 
■ue patriotism, which rises above party, above selfish 
jpirations, or a thought of personal aggrandizement, is 
ivesied with peculiar value, and becomes an object of 
icreased respect. And when we find one whose past life 
id present action furnish a clear record of devotion to 

principle for principle's sake ; one who has alwaj'B stood 

In the van of the great American battle, and freely encoun- 
;red the adversary, giving his means with his energies ; 
id who will adhere tenaciously to the cause he knows to 

|e just, and to men he believes to be true, without regard 
the labor or sacrifice which may inure to himself, wo 

lannot but ofier him as an example to others to pursue a 

(ourse alike honorable and patriotic. 
Such a man is 

CHESTER DRIGGS, OF NEW YORK CITY; 

[nd when to this strong patriotic feeling is added his high 
loral excellence and worth, his public spirit, energy, and 

Enterprise, as a citizen of the great commercial mart of the 
'^estern world, we feel pride and pleasure in dedicating, 

^s we now do, this national volume to the true American, 

/HESTER DrIGGS. 



5 



foundation 
Tlie llugi 
1866. — ( 
bt9. — Fcj 
Union u\v 
ton agaii 
slavery. - 



tierce's fra 
foreigners 
conacquei 



estoration 
jjrosperit 
Appeal f 



I Inrentiou 
through 
Bailroai 



CONTENTS. 



THE UNIOxV OF THE STATES. 

CHAPTER I. 

foundation of the Uni>,n. — The Puritans. —The Mayflower. — riymouth compact. — 
Tlie Huguenots. — Poverty of the original stJites. — The cotton crop in 1792 — 96 and 
1S56. — Growth of the nation. — Callmun. — Wfl)sttT. — Henry Cls>y and the abolition- 
ists. — Four crises of the Union. — Fillmore. — Oeorge III. and Adams. — Effects o? the 
Union u\Hm European governments. — Keaources of the repul)lic. — Kings and empe- 
rors against the Union. — Jealousy of England. — Ordinance of 1737, prohibiting 
slavery. — Missouri Compromise, 8 






CHAPTER II. 

^lerce's fraud upon the people. — Virginia democratic resolutions of 1798-9, respecting 
foreigners. — Mutual beneQts of the Union. — America for Americans. — Disastrous 
consequences of a separation of the states. — The man for the crisis, 27 

CHAPTER III. 

estoration of the Missouri Compromise impracticable. — Kansas. — Our commercial 
prosperity. — Material /alue of tlie Union. — Tiie remedy for all our national troubles. — 
Api)eal for the Union. — Mr. Fillmore's speech explained, 47 



THE PACIFIC RAILROAD. 

CHAPTER I. 

I Invention and effects of printing. — The commerce of the world controlled by a railroad 
through this continent. — Anglo-American enterprise. — Joel Barlow. — Erie Canal. — 
Railroad from Portland, Maine, to Nova Bcotia, M 



fl 



CONTENTS. 



CirAPTKll ir. 

Vuur ami u nair tiuyii' triivcl fr >iii Nfw York lo Culif<>riila l)jr ruilnmd. — C'<itanii>u.< — 
Twi'iity-foiir il:iys Ixlvvt en Niw Yurk ami Cdliiii. — Th" <i|,iiiiii tiiiilc. — T il>ucc<> irrxiti' 
opium. — KiikHhIi jealousy. — Tea iriv(k'. — Tlio roinl in u iiionil uud cilucall.iiiil vliw. 

— The thrie routes, 70 

CIIAI'TIIK I If. 

Valup of the whulliiB Irailo. — (JraiiU of Texas laiuU to ml iho rmvl. — The a-ntral route. 

— CuuHlti b8 

en A I'TKH IV. 

Bnmaiiism oppose*! to tlic rail. — <i"ll uf f'alifinii.i nuA AwUaWn. — Bllver mines of 
Houora. — Laborers ami inaiiufacturtr.'i licii'lU'tl by llie road, K'J 

CHArTMIl V. 

Effects of the ^oM of ralifomia upon real e:,tale, eoiinnLTtv, currency, labor, niul tnanii 
factures. — Tele^'raph. — .Mellio.l of l;iyiii>; tin- suhmariiie tr|c;.'ra|ili. — Conf,'res.H and 
the Pacillc Uailmatl. — Tin' (liiDucraik- adiiiinistnitiun aj,'ainal the road. — Tlie Ainiri- 
oan party and Millard Fillmore coimnitt'.d U tliu road, lOS 



ROMANIS:\[ OITOSKT) TO OUU LIBERTIES. 

CIIAl'TKll I. 

First prayer In Congress. — >\ a.-^hintjton the I'rotcslant. — Franklin Pownal's proph- 
ecy. — Brownson and MeMastera betray tlie objeets of the Piipaey in America. — 
Romani:jm opposed to progress. — .Marriage. — Absolution. — I'ower of the I'ope, . 119 

C HATTER II. 

The sacrament of niafria>,'c. — Dispensation. — llonianists disiiualiiicd from holding trusta 
under Protestant governments. — Creed of Pope Pius IV. — Sacrillce of the mass. — The 
wafer-Qod. — Purgatory. — i^iirits. — Images and relics. — Indulgences. — Bills of 
exchange on purgatory. — Council of Trent, l."0 

CHAPTER III. 

The bishop's oath. — The Jesuits. — The Bible. — Forgery. — The commentary of Meno- 
chius. — Hellarmini'. — Cuise of Pope Benedict AIH. — The Council of Constance. — 
Maynoolh College. — Dens' theolvy. — Pojk; I'rban II. — Pope Sixtus V. — Tlie Inqui- 
sition. — Romanism unchaiigeablc. — Illustrations of the i-pirit of Popery. — The nature 
of Romanism, 137 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF HON. ERASTUS BROOKS. 

Bis early life. — Vicissitudes. — Printer. — Teacher. — Editor. — Correspondent. — His 
great industry. — New York Express. — Visits Europe. — Letters of " E. B." — Elected 



CONTENTS. 



vn 



lo ihf SonAte of N'-w Ycirk. — Ailv.icnto!! tho p«<»imirc of the rrlehrntwl • Oiurch Prop. 
crty llitl." — Cli.iraciir itii<l |iui|>. »•■< i.r Ifv I'ill. — Tli" lull In |t:ii«*n|. — Mr. llriMik* \» 
i«li.»cki'<l l>y ArclitiNli<>|» l|ii«h<'ii. — The contri»v»T»y. — Thr prliidplv Involvt-d In ilin 
liill. —Ttii- ilini^'. r* liivilvril. — Mr llrni;,* riiioMiliiiil<il for tin- f*tiinU'. — Atlfinpt T 
Ili«li"p HiiK'lit s to iltffut hliii. — Mr. UriHik^ U th-ct'il t>y u vny lur^ji! miij"rily. — I« 
iiotnliiHtfd t'lr the goViriiiirship of Srvt York. — Mr. btmjkt ui ii cikiiipit>i!>i*!i'i • • 1"! 



CKXTKAL AMKIMCA. 



CIIAPTHll I. 

Our ciuiinifrolul relutions. — Thu IVdcrul Itcpublic of Contrul Arrn-rica. — Outiprul Fran* 
Cisco Moruziui. — I)<'!«trui-ll(iii if tht; ri'p'ildlf. — Ofrn'ral Willium Wiilkt-r. — III-* flr><t 
(•x|K'iliti<in. — l'rf'<iil>'iit cif liiwiT ('iilir>riii:t. — Iiiv:is|.in nf Sinnni. — (.'I'limn'ri'ial ciuii- 
piiiiy firmi'd in ('alif.irniii. — (iraiit of l.tml. — I'axttllaii, tin; ripnlilicaii (liiiUK'rat. — 
Chiiniorra, the nristitcrat. — t'ahanos. — The prk'sthixxl unite with the nut<HTat Chii- 
niorra, 109 

(II AFTKR II. 

The hattle of Uivns. — Its cITfCt up'>n the Nlrara;;imns. — Ilattli" nf Virtrhi Ilay. — (Iran- 
aila. — llnniish church us.d as a f..rl. — IJattli' of (Jraiiada. — Walkur is olTiritl tho 
prfsideiicy i)f Nicara^rua. — IIi- il.cliiKS in favir uf (ImkiuI Corral. — St. fleornf can- 
nnnadid. — Malkt r rcinfurcid. — Arrival of Cnl. Fry and I'arktr II. French. — Kxpo- 
ditlon n^ainst San Carlis.— Padre Vijil. — Walker's forces nucniented. — l'i<pl:iy of 
firmness. —Treason of (Jen. f'orral. — His execution. — lUva'* i)re«idei,t. — The " jVj- 
rnrrtj/i/f ;».«f " newspaj^r starl>d. — ("o|. Fn-mh sent as tninlster plenipotentiary to 
Washinfrton. — Is not received. — Shanvfully trentd hy the Pierce administration. — 
Natural scenery of Nicarajiua. — Schlesslnger, 179 



i 



CHAPTER III. 

Battle of Santa Rosa. — Solileasin^'er's treachery. — Hattle of Rivas. — German deserters. 
— Individual prowess. — The testimoiual at Nashville, 194 

CHAPTER IV. 

English Interference. — American enteriaise. — Pojiularity of Oen. Walker. — His elec- 
tion to the Presidency. — Tnauguralion. — March of Clirislianity in Nicaragua, . . 206 



THE ROMISH SYSTEM A POLITICAL CORPORA- 
TION. 

CHAPTER I. 

Rome opposed to the circulation of the Hihle. — Contrast l)etween enliffhtened freedom and 
Romish ignorance and servituile. — Power of the Confessional. — Secrets extorted by 
confessors. — Ballot-box, 2W 



vm 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER II. 

Rome opposed to printing and freedom of tiie press. — Tlie Council of Lateran. — Proliib* 
ited books. — Booksellers subjected to penalties and restrictions. — Penalty of " excom 
munication " for reading " heretical " books, 225 

CHAPTER III. 

Encyclical letter of Pope Gregory XVI. — Arrogated power of the priesthood. — Rome 
persecutes beyond the grave. — Political agents of the Pajjacy in America. — Pliglitiii': 
effects of Popery, — History of the interdict of Venice fulminated by Pope Paul V., 234 

CHAPTER IV. 

The Pope and the sword. — The claim of the HoiuL^h church to infallibility. — Preposter- 
ous claims of the Pope. — Bull against Queen Elizabeth. — Leo III. — "Ceremonies 
of the Holy Roman Church." — Romanism the same now as ever, 2n4 

CHAPTER V. 

Bishop England's authority. — The " Host." — Catholic Telegraph, of Cincinnati, denounces 
republicanism. — Bishop Flaget, of Kentucky, against our republican government. — 
The canon laws, 265 

CHAPTER VI. 

The Eternal City. — The effects of Romanism and Protestantism contrasted. — Lutlior 

America is Bible ground. — The Jesuits and state politics. — Spies. — The silejt press. 
— America the last battle-field of Popery, 273 



TIIE AMERICAN N.r^Y. 

CHAPTER I. 

Foreign navies. — Navy Retiring Board. — Noble daring of Lieut. Rolando. — Pierce and 
Dobbin. — Affray between Capt. Perry and Heath. — Shubrick 280 

CHAPTER II. 

Stribllng and Dlaboleto. — Commodore Hull. — Pondegrast's inefflcicncy, 205 

CHAPTER III. 

Commodore Perry. — Japan expedition. — Captains Graham, Inraan, and Levy. — Abol- 
ishmeut of flogging in the navy. — Conduct of Pierce, 305 

CHAPTER IV. 

Cost of a naval education. — Corruption. — Maliory, a foreigner, aims to destroy the 
navy. — Insufficiency of the bureaus. — Notes. — Great American Battle.— Lieutei. ant 
Blel, 317 



CONTENTS. 



IX 



BIOGRAPHY OF CAPTAIN' LEVY, U. S. N. 

Heroic action. — Prisoner. — Post-captain. — Statue of Jeff;rson. — Capt. Levy purcliast-a 
Mtmticello, tlie »iirtlii>lace of JefTcrsun. — Excitir.j,' incident and adventure. — I'atriotic 
action. —The Emperor Don Pedro, of Brazil. — A deed of dari:ii,'. — Millard Fillmore 
and Captain Levy, 327 



stliooil. — Rome 



CONVENTS AND THE CONFESSIONAL. 

CHAPTER I. 

Convents strengthen the Romish hierarchy. — Their revenues. — The effect. — Schools.— 
Michelet. — Appearance of convents conceal their real purpose. — Our laws. — Death. 

— Means that entich convents. — Academy of Visitation. — Maryland legislature. — 
Decrees of regulars. — Nuns sanctified. — Convents destroyed. — Number and orders. 

— Marriage. — Gregory VH. — Parents. — Mary Ann King. — Duty of parents. — 
Maria Monk. — Miss Reed. — Her De Sanctis. — Taxes, 336 

CHAPTER II. 

France, Austria, Russia. — What the press would do. — Col. Lemanouski. — The Inquisi- 
tion. — Revolution in 18J8. — Voters. — Bishop of Tuscany — Bishop Bc/,e. — Ameri- 
can Sentinel. — Rev. Blanco White. — Nuns. — What Americans should do. — Oliver 
Cromwell. — America's power. — A case. — Confesftional. — Lcopo! I. — Pierre Pac- 
chiani. — Crimes. — Europe's history. — Key of Paradise. — Catechism. — The whole 
mind. — Protestants. — Mystery, . 354 

CHAPTER III. 

Ferdinand VII. — Mr. Ewbank. — Rev. Pierce Connelly. — Freeman's Journal. — Wom- 
en. — Archbishop Kendrick.— Mr. IIo^Mn and women. — Pagan pollution. — Trials 
and failure. — Maynooth Culicgc. — What the papists would do. — Husbands and 
fathers. — Popish priests. — Bishoj) of New York. — Death of a Baltimorean. — Milly 
McPherson. — Griii-'ell's convent life. — Masons. — Maria Monk. — Nuns who have 
exposed American convents. — American women. — Affecting ceremony in Baltimore. 

— Convents suppressed in Europe. — Secret instructions. — Baneful effects. — Age of 
nuns 365 






A PROTESTANT EDUCATION FOR AMERICAN 

CITIZENS. 

CHAPTER I. 

Papists opposed to public schools. — Education. — " Christian Brothers." — Rules of the 
order. — Archbishop Iluirlies. — Romish C(jnv<'Mlion. — Proscription of Americans by 
Franklia Pierce. —Bible banished from our schools 384 

1* 



I! 



^'! 



CONTENTS. 

394 

404 

™. ''-".or „«„,„,_„, „*'"/."^'« IV. 

412 

Crtina, Wfee„a„ ..,, CHAPTER V. 

"iseman.— Ribbon socit'Mps t> 
persecutes genius ~ Th» ^'''-^''S— Pope Barberini.— St P^f.r „ , t 

B nms. -The poorer of Popery in America, . ;^''"'^'""'' J"Piter.-Rome 

' 420 

„ ' ]'^' " COL. G. B. LOCKE, ^ 

„ " " A.B.ELY, ^35 

I " SI1>NEY KOPMAN, .' ^» 

" TJIOJIAS II. clay' *^^ 

tmi^n .KOM un. la.mnC: "''":'; '^"'^''- • • • •' .' .' .' ' 2 

• .451 




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litesses, — Their 
394 



Bible. — Int(>r- M 
401 



lomish instruc- 
412 



upiter — Rome 
420 



' .433 
.435 
.436 
.439 
.442 
.444 
.451 






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THE UNION OF THE STATES. 



CIIAPTERI. 

" What Ciiid ill liis mercy ami AvisJoni doislgnctl, 
And armed with his weapons of thunder, 
Not all the earth's despots and factions ccnibiued 
Have the power to conciuor or sjindcr ! " 

Americans, let us sec iiow tlie first stone?; were 
gathered, and the foundation of this Union laid. 
It began under great tribulation ; but God over- 
ruled its origin, and has been its great support. 

A reformed church of ''poor people," or those 
in moderate circumstances, called Puritans, dwelt 
in England at the close of the reign of Qneeu 
Elizabeth, and lived in the villages of Lincolnshire, 
Nottingliamslurc, and Yorkshire. 

These people, under their pastor, John Robin- 
son, were assailed dny and night b}' the ministers 
of the ecclesiastical tvrannv which governed and 
swaj^ed England. 






'1' 



k 



4 THE UNION OF THE STATES. 

At great suflering and peril, they resolved t< 
seek safety by exile, in Holland. In 1G07, their | 
first attempt to leave England was arrested, under | 
King James, and some of* the Puritans were im- 
prisoned ; but they had an unfrequented heath in 1 
Lincolnshire, where they continued to worship ; 
and, on procuring the release of their wives and 
children, in 1G08, they were successful in making | 
their escape to Amsterdam. 

From Amsterdam, these Puritans went to Ley- 
den, under the guidance of Robinson an( Brews- 
ter, and there betook themselves to industrial pur- 
suits of all kinds, which fitted them for their future 
but unsuspected destiny. The desire to advance 
the Gospel in the Ncav World, the cherished idea 
of their minds, finally induced them to turn their 
thoughts to the settlements in America. Still, the 
Pijgrims loved their native soil, their native lan- 
guage, and their Anglo-Saxon liberty ; and so 
deep was the love of country yet implanted in their 
affections, that they sought the protection of the 
English government for the colony tliey projected 
in the western world. 

John Carver and AVilliam Bradford repaired to 
London, and succeeded, after a negotiation of two 



THE UNION OF THE l^TATES. 



jars, in obtaining a patent U)V the riynioutli Com- 
jany. After an a])sence of twelve years from their 
lative land, these exiles made ready for embarking 
leioss the ocean. They sold their estates, and 
ised their money in fitting out two vessels for the 
)urpose; ])ut these could acconnnodate only a part 
)f the congr gation. 

These Pilgrims sailed from Delfthaven, near 
iCyden, via Southampton, for America, after being 
fortnight in ]"]ngland. But the Speedwell proved 
lot to be seaworthy, and they returned to Dart- 
Imouth for repairs. Finding, however, that this 
vessel could not l)e trusted for such a voyage, they 
left Darti'iouth for Plymouth, where, with ono 
'hundred souls, they embarked, on the 17th of Sep- 
tember, 1020, for America. Their small vessel, 
the Maijflowcr, consisted of only one hundred and 
eighty tons ; and after a passage of sixty-three 
days, it reached the harbor of Capo Cod, and this 
precious cargo of human souls was landed on the 
Hock of Plymouth Dec. 22d, 1620. 

While the Alavflowcr was at anchor, the form 
of government to which they should conform, as 
one people, was seriously discussed ; and, after 
prayer and thanksgiving to almighty God, an instra- 

1* 



i 

C 

5 



5 



Tin-: UNION OF THK .STATES. 



iiicnt or compact was dniwn, to which for(y-onc oi 
the crew su])scribe(l tlieir iiamos ; the rest of tli 
one lmii(h'c(l being the wive^i ami chiklreii of thoi 
men. 

This, American^, was the first republic erects 
in America, and is the most remarkable instani 
of the true spirit of li1)crty upon the record of his- 
tory. Think of a cohjny, under the sanction oil 
a royal charier, from jui English monarch, coming, 
nnder the inspiration of God and liljerty, to plant 
upon American soil republican freedom ! 

Here is the document : 



i ! 



I 



TLYMOUTII COMPACT. 

*'In the name of God, amen! We, whose 
names are underwritten, the royal subjects of our 
dread Sovereign, King James, having undertaken 
for the glory of God and advancement of the Chris- 
tian faith, and honor of our King and country, a 
voyage to plant the first colony in the northern part 
of Virginia, do, by these presents, solemnly and 
mntually, in the presence of God and of one 
another, covenant and combine ourselves together 
into a civil body politic, for our better ordering and 
preservation ; and, in furtherance of the ends 



TIIK UNION OF TMK {?T..TEt<. 



forosaid, couslitutp iiml fniiiie siioli just and equal 

|iw-, ordiiiaiKc^, ads, eonslihitid is, and oiricos, 

i-oni time to i'nnv, as sliall bu thought most cou- 

onicnt lor tho <^()od ol" the 'ji»Iony. 

*' Unto which uc promise all duo submission and 

)bO(rKMU'0." 

Signed by John Carver, AVilliam Brewster, Ed- 
Iward Winslow, and forty-one in all. 

J» > p aiii^l For five thousand years this vast eontinent lay 
u[)on the bosom of the deep, oecu[)ied by untutored 
man, of the manner and the date of Avliose origin 
here we have no account ; ])ut n passage is supposed 
to have been ellected across Behring's Straits, where 
Asia ami America are separated hy only Ibrty miles. 
This continent, nearly as large as Europe and 
Africa nnited, extending on both sides of the equa- 
tor, lying between the western shore of Fairo})eand 
Africa, and tlio east of Asi;i, surrounded by groups 
of islands on either ocean, presented an impenetra- 



bl 



terv to the eastern world, 



e mystery 

Not less remarkable has been the unparalleled 
development of liberty, growing out of the desire 
for a retreat for freedom to worship God. The 
Iluffuenots of the South came to this land under the 






8 



THE UNION OP THE STATES. 



sjinio iiis[)irjiti()ii, i\\u\ suircnMl even inoro by pcvsfi.l 
cution. Auicricjms, can Mio convit'tioii that (ht'Sf;' 
were Iho iikmi wlio.so viow.s wcro canuMl out in 
founding this r('[)ublic now bo .slighttnl '/ We im 
the only peoph) stron^r, courageous, an«l (Vce — 
the only nation ^\l^K•]l has tlio oh-nicnt of dura- 
bility. AVhon the Hag ol' our country was borne 
to Mexico, alter so hnv^ a period of prolbund peace, 
it was i)rophesied by all the woild we were to 
meet an ignominious deCeat ; but when the first flash 
"was seen, and tlie first thunder of cannon heard, 
American men, who had lived only to protect their 
homes and firesides, rushed to the scene of action, 
and fought so gloriously and so triumphantly that 
the world was lost in admiration at their victories. 
"With our little army of eight or ten thousand op- 
posed to eight or ten millions of Mexicans, added 
to barriers which nature had made seemingly in- 
surmountable, Americans, under the free spirit 
which formed the republic on the Mayflower, 
fought like soldiers, and died like freemen ! 

The same God wdiich had taken the English 
Pilgrim and set him on Plymouth Rock led the 
French Huguenot to the South. It was the genius, 
the heroism, the instinct, of liberty. So have the 



THE UNION OF THE gTATES. 



9 



ordi and South, wbon frront prliiciplos were at 
;|;ik«', c<miiniii;^l<Ml ns oini s[>irit and oiiu Mood ! 
[Froiii tho days o[' 'TC*, to tlio day den. SimjII, at 
the head <d' tli'* American army, eaused Santa Anna 
to lay down tho sword and bow to the .sni>reniaey 
(if American arms, tlic North and tlie South knew 
no section, divided no interest, when a common 
(hm;rer peril hjd our existenc(i as a i're(,' people. 

In ]7i'2, we were thirteen [)oor and compara- 
tively feeble states. The whole cotton crop did 
not exceed three hundred and til'tv-seveu bales. 
Alter Whitney's cotton-gin machine \\as invented, 
in 171)4, there was an increase in its growth, and 
in 1705 it amounted to three thousand seven hun- 
dred and fifty bales. Now, we are a people count- 
ing thirty millions, with thirty-one states, and an 
expansive territory, out of which many others will 
ultimately be made. The constitutions of most of 
the old states have beeu altered. Vast resources 
are being developed, and our cotton-bales count 
annually nearly four millions. 

The United States are yet only in their infancy. 
The growth of their marketable staples, their agri- 
cultural resources, and their annual incomes, is 
beyond all present calculations, as well as the 



i 

C 



1 1 ' 



10 



THE UNION OF THE STATES. 



■:i ^1 



benefits of commerce ami art, which wo cannot] 
even conjecture. 

Our reprc.'sentiitivc government, our religious! 
freedom, our trial by jury, our free press, and 
other atlviljutes of Anglo-Americau liberty, urge' 
this people to extend themselves under peaceful 
arts, and to cherish pei-petually the compact of the 
Union, Jis the only bond, the everlasting bond, of 
our national life, and faith, and action. 

Ancient Home excited glorious patriotism by 
heaping bright garlands upon her living sons ; 
but her nationality and pride forbade her stop- 
ping there. She looked behind, and forgot not 
the founders of her political edifice. How much 
more than Romans should we Americans cherish 
the sacred ashes of our dead, who gave the Union 
its fair proportions, and taught the lesson of self- 
denial and conciliation by which it must be pre- 
served ! 

Jositdi Quincy went from Boston to Charleston, 
South Carolina, to enlist the Huguenots with the 
descendants of the Puritans for our independence, 
— the descendants of men who were answered in 
their last prayer, and shown by God the way to 
this their promised land. 



THE UNION OF THE STATES. 



11 



WIru the Union was oiidaiigercd for the tliinl 
mie, in iJ^oO, J. C. Cjilhoun, oi' South Carolina, 
liscourscd upon this bond of jittachnicnt ^vllich 
lound together ^Massachusetts and Carolina, and 
[icclared, with rapture, shortly before he died, that 
it was as indissoluble as ever. 

Webster, too, who lirst read the eonstiUition on 
fa cotton handkerchief, w^anted that constitution to 
give its right.j to all parts of the Union. AVhen 
I warned, in lo50, that his course on the comprom- 
ise would endanger his hopes for the presidency, 
the triumph of the Union over selfish and)ition 
showed itself, as he exclaimed, "I would not 
swerve a hair to be president." 

Henry Clay, dear to the hearts of millions, from 
this same love of the Union, was warned in 1839, 
in the Senate, by William C. Preston, of South 
Carolina, j'. gainst unnecessarily exciting the aboli- 
tionists, as it might interfere with the aspirations 
ho then enjoyed for the presidency. The great 
American's prompt response is above all Greek or 
Konian fame — "I had rather be right than be 
president!" The abolitionists became ever after 
his unrelenting foes, and, in connection with Mr. 
Buchanan's false charge of bribery, of which liu- 



i 

5 



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m 



/Vil i: 



12 



IIIE UNION OP THE STATES. 



chanan himself was the sole author, and the Romisli 
hierarchy, defcjited his prospects and blighted the 
hopes of his friends forever. 

Americans, for the fourth time our national 
existence is in peril ! Its first danger was under 
Madison ; second, under Jackson ; third, under 
Taylor and Milhird Filhnore ; and lastly, under 
Franklin Pierce, our present cliief magistrate. 

Under the administration of (Jen. Taylor, three 
Southern States of the Union submitted the question 
to the people whether they ::hould remain in the 
Union. Olficers of the army and navy were then 
sounded, to see if they would declare for a Southern 
republic. They declared for the Union as it is, 
under the American (lag. All the Southern States 
but one did likewise. It was the Roman firmness 
of Mr. Fillmore, after the death of Taylor, that 
saved the Union in 1850. 

The treaty of peace, which acknowledged our 
national independence, in 1783, was not only highly 
honorable to us, but England made far greater 
concessions to us than she did at that time to Spain 
or France. In 1785, Congress elected John Adams, 
by ballot, as the first minister to Great Britain ; 
and on the 25th of May of that year, the King of 



THE UNION OF THE STATES. 



13 



lEiif land, 'vvho had waged war upon us as sulyects, 
aiid attempted to brow-beat us as iiienials, was 
hiuiuiliated to a pniblic reception of our national 
ambassador, wlio represented the new republic. 
Keenly did England I'eel the blow wliieh liad forced 
her, before mankind, to recognize our power and 
dignity among the nations of the earth. George 
the Third, the king, received Mr. Adams by a 
speech, to which Mr. Adams replied. lie was 
afterwards presented to the (jueen, who also had a 
kind word to sav of "America and Americans.'* 
"You are not," said the king to Mr. Adams, 
"like the most of your countrymen, attached to 
France." "I have no attachment bui^ to my 
native country," said Mr. vVdams. "An honest 
man will have no other," said tlie king. And this 
was the feeling under Avliich we were baptized a ' 
free people. 

Messrs. Jay, Adams, and Franklin, were sent 
to Paris to obtain formal protection to our com- 
merce. But while other European nations entered 
readily into treaties of commerce, England refused 
to do so, and during the six years of our confeder- 
acy after peace, no minister was sent to America. 
Mr. Adams, failing to induce Great Britain to 

2* 






l!||i: 



14 



THE UNION OF THE STATES. 



■m 



mu 



send a ininistor, or to form a treaty of commerce, 
returned lionie in 1787. 

After tlie Union avus oro:niizod, tlie strength aiii 
dignity of the government were felt hy jill foreign] 
nations, and respected. Gen. AVashington ro- 
quested Governeur ]\[orris, who was in Europe, to 
see if Enghmd wouhl then send a minister ; to 
which she readily acceded, and George Hammond 
presented his credentials from that court in An- 
gust, 1791. ! 

The strength and dignity obtained for the gov- 
ernment hy the Union of the States were at once 
felt and manifested hy foreign powers. In 1793, 
when France declared war against England, Gen. 
Washington issued his celebrated proclamation for 
neutrality, and recommended to Congress that a 
' special messenger be sent to Englr.nd, to aid Mr. 
Pinckney, of South Carolina, already our accred- 
ited minister to that court. General Washington 
determined to save the Union, but just formed ; and, 
in defiance of the unpopularity of this measure, to 
preserve the policy of neutrality. lie therefore 
immediately nominated John Jay, and hence the 
treaty which laid the f mnilation of this Union's 



THE UNION OF THE STATES. 



15 



joinmercijil prosperity, and miJo its basis still 

norc iniprcguablc. 

And iK'W, Amuncans, it is the iiriniiess of the 
lUiiioii, its ceh^brity, its prosperity, its past happi- 
ness, attained pnder our free and fair constitution, 
which has struck terror to Europern despots, and 
made them tremble on their thrones. This gov- 
ernment is the only one upon earth which meets 
the wants of the masses, and embraces, as far as 
its limits extend, the entire continent under the 
shadow of its protecting wings. Under its wise 
laws and benign policy, nothing can stay our na- 
tional progress, — nothing, nothing ! The bravest, 
the freest, the most energetic peonle on the face 
of the globe, have been born under the flag of the 
American States. 

Look, my countrymen, at the resources of your 
mighty republic, and see how the Union has devel- 
oped them ! Look at your territory, and see how 
the Union, in its triumphant march, has expanded 
its boundaries from a fragment to a continent ! 
Look at your inventive genius, your skilful artists, 
the busy hum of internal trade, the multiplied 
products of healthy sinews and free labor, and see 
how the Union has prospered you ! Look at your 



i 

9 



1 1/ 



ilj 



16 



THE UNION OF THE STATES. 



Ill 



sublime mountains, your ma^ificent rivers, youil 
luxuriant prairies, your vast and beautiful lakes, 
your cxhaustlcss mines of gold and silver, aiiil 
your rich and beneficent soil, and see wliy y')m| 
population has swelled fron.. two million five hun- 
dred thousand to tliirty millions, in eighty years! 

It is the Union of these States, under the great- 
est and best form of government human wisdor 
ever conceived, that has done it all. It is the ci 
of love and peace, which has been drunk from ti ) 
fountain of the constitution, by the whole popul 
tion. The nation, from all points of our compas , 
have met in the circling bond of the Union, and 
clasped the pillars of the constitution with unied 
heart and hand ; and, under t\\Q inspiration f ( its 
proud stars and stripes, have exclianged the ^ :atc- 
ful and joyful tokens of faith and aileetion. 

What should be the cry of all the inhabita.is of 
this land, but *'The Constitution and the Union 
forever! *' AVith this glow of magnanimity, with 
this cry of patriotism, traitors and emissaries 
from without can as easily upturn the ocean 
from its bed, or tear the pillars of the Alleghany 
from their deep foundations, as to brevdc up this 



THE UNION OF THE STATES, 



17 



go>ornment by the dissolution of this blessed, 
blood-boiight, heaven-descended Union. 

We know fall well the jejilousy of foreign des- 
pots. To arrest our '* manifest destiny," by the 
destruction of republicanism, is ilie ceaseless aim 
of the despotisms of Europe, to fuAor their own 
self-preservation. Russia, England, France, Aus- 
tria, Rome, Spain, and every oth(?r monarchical 
and despotic government, now swell with joy to 
witness internal disscnsicns wliicli threaten a vsev- 
erance of the states ; but how much more would 
they exult in its actual occurrence ! Philip of 
j\lacedon, when he set about conquering Greece, 
did not invade it by an aggressive army, but by 
creating and cherishing dissensions among the 
states of Greece. So it is now with European 
governments. They feel the moral as well as the 
political reaction upon them of the United States. 
They know that the principles upon which the 
Union is founded are subversive of Ivaropcan aris- 
tocracies. They were aware of the sympathy of 
Americans with the struggling patriots of Greece, 
— with the struggling patriots of Italy, in the 
revolution of '48, — and the moral influence which 
ever reacts in favor of a people panting for free- 



i 

5 



18 



THE UNION OF THE STATES. 



m 



1 I 



■'1' 



(loin. Tlioy Loliokl, Avith secret wonder and envy, 
the rapid growth oC the United States in [)ow(r 
nnd greatness. 

Englantl — we speak of her government partic- 
ularly — is jealous of* us, because she is monarchi- 
cal, and moves in the reciprocal sympathies of the 
other monarchies of Europe. But the great body 
of her people are strongly opposed to a war witli 
the United States. AVhen we speak of England, 
therefore, we more particularly speak of her gov- 
ernment, which found, in 1812, that no thunder 
could be obtained by her arms in a contest with 
the Americans, ller oligarchy try a more quiet 
course of action, to sow dissension, and reap the 
benefit of contention, among the states, by favor- 
ing any symptoms of disallection which may spring 
up to disturb our happy Union. In thi.j unholy 
antagonism, the press of Europe has heaped its 
slanders upon us. But its praise or blame neither 
disturbs our sleep, nor intercepts our influence and 
onward march. . 

Our commercial marine, on the high seas, is 
greater than that of France or England, — perhajs 
both unit ^d ; amk, in case of danger, our marine 
and fishermen would supply our navy. England 



TUE UNION OF THE STATES. 



19 



friirs our strengtli, while she feels our ^ollon and 
hrcidstuirs essential to her very existeuee. These 
mutives constrain her to Jesuitical cautiousness in 
her attempts to divide the Union, ])y wliicli she 
t'XjX'cts to treat with both North and JSoutli on her 
own terms. 

Once let England, France, Austria, Russia, and 
rriissia, send us representative men, — men of 
large ideas, who can understand the principles of 
our political nnichinery, and iaitlifully report the 
progress and development of our country at home, 
— tlien the value and the permanence of the 
Union can be appreciated, and nmch useless ex- 
penditure of money and time may ])e averted. 

Tint who is it that now cries out, ** Join us, to 
save the Union " ? Americans, it is the very 
p;u'ty — the democratic party — wdio have shown 
the people, by their acts, that they arc not compe- 
tent to administer the government of our country. 
The Missouri Compromise law, which was framed 
to give peace and perpetuity to the Union, and the 
repeal of which was in all respects the most atro- 
cious act ever perpetrated by the representatives 
of the people, was the achievement, of the demo- 



i 



20 



THE UNION OF THE STATES 



cratic party, under an imbecile democratic pri«si 
dent. 

Americans, the day has come wlicn you must H 
not and will not be deceived by tlieso specious 
pretences of loving the Union ; and it is idle fur 
that party, which has more than once endangerod 
it, longer to attcnpt to cheat tlic people. \Vhiit 
are the facts from the records of history ? At the 
time the government of the United States was 
formed under the constitution, there W'as a large- 
tract of land lying north-west of the Ohio River, 
called, on that account, the North-west Territory ; 
and, to have all those who participated in the 
battles of the Revolution possess a common right 
to it, our fathers passed a law called the Ordi- 
nance of 1787, which prohibited slavery in all 
the territory then belonging to the United States. 
In 1803, we acquired, by a treaty under Mr. Jef- 
ferson, another tract of land, known as Louisi- 
ana Territory ; and as the Ordinance of '87 had 
reference only to the Nortli-west Territory exclu- 
sively, and not to tliat which the framers of the 
constitution never supposed we would possess, agi- 
tation at once was created betw^een the North and 



THE UNION OF THE STATES. 



21 



BouUi as to tho mode of disposing of the slave 
fjuestion on tlioir new territory. 

Ill a little wliil(; the State of Mis.sonri was 
[formed out of a part of the Louisiana Territory, 
land knoekcd for admission into the Union at tiio 
door of Cungress. The South, at that time, was 
in a minority in Congress, and it was therefore in 
the [)0wcr of the North to admit Missouri as a 
slave state, or to rejeet it, and insist that the law 
uf 1787, whieh forhade the extension of the insti- 
tution of slavery into the North-west Territory, 
should be made also to apply to the Louisiana 
Territory. 

Finally, the South introduced the famous Mis- 
souri Compromise^ and it was passed by Southern 
votes. It is true a Northern man irtroduced the 
measure ; but the proposition came from the South, 
and was supported by the South. The South said 
to the North, '' If you will allow us — you being 
in the majority, and having the control — if you 
will permit us to carry slavery up to the line of 
36 deg. 30 min., we will pledge ourselves not to 
attempt to carry slavery beyond 3G deg. 30 min.*' 
They said, ** We will allow every state south of 36 
deg. 30 min., that chooses, to adopt slavery or 
3 






22 



THE UNION OF THE STATES. 



reject it, us thoy please ; " l»iit, if they come to Con- 
gress, as Missouri hjis done, you will iiuikc no 
opposition to their adniissiou on the ground of 
slavery, whether it is in or out of their consti- 
tution. W 

In the Senate of the United States every 
senator from the South voted for this Missouri 
Compromise, but two, and every senator from the 
North voted n*^ainst it, hut/o2/r. There were tlion 
eighteen Northern votes east in opposition to it, 
and but two Southern votes ; Mr. Macon, of North 
Carolina, and Mr. Smith, of South Carolina. 
"When the bill went to the House of Kepresenta- 
tives, it passed by one hundred and thirty-four to 
forty-two votes. Forty Southern representatives 
went for it, and thirty-seven against it. Mr. Clay, 
Mr. Lowndes, a '^ others from the South, were the 
chief advocates of the measure ; and the history 
of the events of that day demonstrates with w^hat 
enthusiasm that Compromise of 1820 was received 
by the whole South. Mr. Monroe was President 
at that period, and before he signed the law it was 
submitted to Wm. II. Crawford, J. C. Calhoun, 
and Wm. Wirt, Southern members of his cabinet, 
who were unanimous as to its constitutionality. ,. 



To t| 
j>(.uth 

:he iA 

Tsvaitcd 

* 1 

|,opula 

lund pi 

Make \v| 

jsouri, 

kept o 

The 

Louisi; 

until t 

party, 

*1 of a ic 

a rcsol 

right t 

their 

" twei 

tens 

iusisti 

cratic 

rule. 

satisf 

cated 



THE UNION OF THE STATES. 



23 



ih; to Con. 

injikc no 

ground of 

ir cousti- 

tcs every 

Missouri 
from the 
vere (hen 
on to it, 
of" North 
Carolina. i|; 
presenta- 
y-lbur to 
entativcs 
Ir. Clay, 
were the 

history 
ith what 
received 
resident 
v^ it was 
'alhoun, 
3abinet, 
iity. 



To this law, then, the intc^j^rity and honor of the 
^(»lllh was |»hMl;:(Ml. And now, Americans, mark 
;he conduct <>!' this dcniocratii; party ! Thoy 
ivaitcd to people all the territory that could ho 
iKipnlated by slaves, and then disturhed th(^ peace 
jiiid prosperity of the country hy attempting to 
t;ike what of right belongs to the North ; lor Mis- 
souri, Arkansas, and Florida, could have all been 
ke{it out of the Union, if the North had seen fit. 

Tiie Missouri Compromise being applied to the 
Louisiana Territory, all settled down in peace, 
until the annexation of Texas. The democratic 
party, in the mean while, having made a scare-crow 
of a few abolitionists in the North, by introducing 
a resolution refusing the people their constitutional 
right of petition, kept alive agitation, as a part of 
their sacred creed ; and by the passage of the 
"twenty-first rule" they brought thousands and 
tens of thousands of these petitioners to Congress, 
insisting upon their right to be heard. The demo- 
cratic party then became alarmed at the unpopu- 
larity of their act, and repealed the twenty-first 
rule. What was the result '( The people became 
satisfied, when once their own rights were vindi- 
cated, and, instead of flooding Congress with these 



i 






%''\ 






i 



ill! 



|i!llii:-:ii!|i| 



24 



THE UNION OP THE STATES. 



petition ;i the succeeding session, it was a rare 
occurrence to hear that one was presented. 

When Texas became a state, the Missouri Com- 
promise line was applied to it by act of Congress, 
and that matter was thus settled. It passed the 
House by a vote of one hundred and twenty tn 
ninety-eight, and every Southern democrat in tliat 
assembly voted for it. 

But not long after this the Mexican w;ir 
occurred, and California, Utah, and New Mexico, 
were added to our territory. Oregon had just 
been organized as a territory, with tlie ordinami 
of 1787, which you will bear iu mind, Americans, 
was a proliibition to the extension of slavery, and 
was signed by ]\[r. Polk, h;iving as Ins cabinet 
adviser James Buchanan, of Pennsylvania ! 

The next thing to be done was to provide for tlie 
Territory of California. The Missouri Compromise 
was then olfered iu Congress to l)e ap[)lied to it, 
and every Soutliern senator voted for it. But, 
tliere was other territory acrpiired from Mexico, 
which was not included in this legislation, an;l 
about which great ditficulty was created. Then it 
was that Mr. Clay, in the decline of life, left his 
own fireside, to forego all its pleasures in his lust 



I hours,! 
I the pij 
* And 11 
j who c| 
! the III 
I and d| 
, nents 
Union 
At 
the C 
oifere 
vecogi 
of th( 
tion 
it to 
uiises 
them 
tive . 
the 
I'artli 
that 

of til 
of (|1 
tion 
gcrc 



M 



m 



THE UNION OP THE STATES. 



26 



'«f.. 



fis a rare 

1. 

)uri Com- 

assed (he 
wen ty t«i 
tit in tliat 

can \v;ir 

Mexico, 

had just 

'I'dinanci 

iici'iciiiis, 

eiy, Mild 

cabinet 
I 

for the 
i]>roiniso 
Ml to it, 

. I}ll^ 

Mexico, 
^n, ami 
Then it 
left his 
his la«t 



Sliours, to heal the impending strife by aiding in 
itlio passage of the Compromise measures of 1850. 
Ami let it not be overlooked that the demo(,'rats, 
who caused the twenty-first rule to be enacted in 
the House, a short time before, to create agitation 
and disunion at the North, were tlie stern oppo- 
nents of the Compromise of 1850, Avhich saved the 
Union, and restored harmony to all sections. 
At the beginning of the session, subsequent to 
1 the Compromise of 1850, Col. Jackson, of Georgia, 
f oilered this resolution : — " Resolved ^ That we 
recognize the binding efficacy of the compromises 
I of the constitution, and believe it to be the inten- 
1 tion of the people generally, as we hereby declare 
it to be ours individually, to abide such compro- 
mises, and to sustain the laws necessary to carry 
tliem out, — the provision for the delivery of fugi- 
tive slaves and that act of the last Congress for 
the purpose included, — and we deprecate all 
lartlier agitation of all questions growing out of 
that provision, of the questions end)racod in the acts 
of the last Congress known as the Compromise, and 
(»r questions generally connected with the institu- 
tion of slavery, as unnecessary, useless, and dan- 
gerous;'* when sixty-four voted against it. Tho 

3* 



i 

s 



' I 



26 



THE UNION OP THE STATES. 



democratic papers of that day said, " AVe notice! 
the ultra Southern members from South Carohnal 
voted with the free-soilers." That is, against thei 
acquiescence of the two sections in peace; and a^ 
settlement of the slavery question. 

Mr. Ilillyer, another member of the House, 
offered, in addition, this resolution : — " Resolved, 
That the series of acts passed during the first ses- 
sion of the Thirty-first Congress, known as the 
Compromise, are regarded as a fi\ial adjustment 
and a permanent settlement of the question therein 
embraced, and should be regarded, maintained, and 
executed, as such ; " which w^as also opposed by 
sixty-five votes ! And these from the South w^ere 
every one democrats, who united with the abol' 
tionists of the North against the very meiisures, 
Americans, wdiich had just restored peace to your 
distracted country. 



In 



We noficf 
» Carol in,, 
g'Jiiust t\]v 
<-'o; and a 

House, 
Resolved^ 
first so.s- 
'n as the 
Ijustnioiit 
>n therein 
iiied, and 
posed bv 
'uth were 
lie abol' 
leasures, 
) to jour 



i 



CHAPTER II. 

In 1852 Pierce obtained the nominaticn for 
President by the democratic party, and was elected 
by fraudulently deceiving the people, and inducing 
them to believe he was true to the compromises of 
the Constitution and the Union. The democratic 
party then got into power by that deception. And 
what has it done, my countrymen ? Why, it has 
plunged us into civil war ; arul we should also have 
been in foreign war, but for the respectable position 
i\\Q British cabinet took when they saw that Frank- 
lin Pierce and the democratic leaders were not rep- 
resenting, but personating, the American people. 
They have introduced an insurrectionary and revo- 
lutionary spirit among the masses, that they may 
hold out the Union flag, after staining it with blood, 
and call on the people to rally around it for the 
safety of the Union. Great Heaven, defend us 
from this serpent rule another four years ! Defend 
this people, 0, our nation's God, our people's only 



t 



;«^ 



I'l! 



,! .1 I 






I' il' "i :!i 



THE UNION OF THE STATE8. 

refuge, from James Biiclianan's power to poipctn 
ate this slianiefiil democratic rule, which is now 
shaking the edifice of the Union through an execu- 
tive instrument who sacrilegiously occupies ih 
chair of state ! 

Out of ten senators in Congress who voted for 
the repeal of the Missouri Compromise in 1854, 
thereby unsettling the compromises of 1820 and 
1850, seven of that number have gone over to the 
fortunes of the democratic party, with Atchison, 
Douglas, and Franklin Pierce, and just where the 
American people want them to remain. ** Pierce 
suits us well; " *'w^e know our man," wa-^ said 
with no more truth by Van Buren, in 1852, than 
it is now said of James Buchanan. It is the inter- 
est of the democratic leaders to keep up the agita- 
tion of slavery ; in this they live, move, and have 
their being ; and James Buchanan is pledged to 
keep all its elements in full blast, to perpetuate 
the po\ver of the democratic dynasty. • 

And who is it now, Americans, who can arrest 
the dangerous, evils that democratic misrule has 
brought upon the land ? AVe answer, there is hit 
one man now before the people who can restore us 
to the peace, prosperity, and progress, which were 



I glV('l| 

and 
1 A. 1)| 
•i very 
I extra 
I and 
-; eniiiv| 
was 
nomi 

real 
that 
' dest 
was 
tinu 
who 
thei 
\ like 
the 
I he 

i tv) 

I nc 
as 



4 



■, Hi 



THE UNION OF THE HTATES. 



29 



L'li is no^\ 

Jin oxccu. 

'"pies tli.j 

voted for 
in 1854, 
1820 and 
'er to the 
Atchison, 
^liere the 

*^ Pierce 
waj said 
52, than 
le inter- 
e agita- 
nd have 
(%ed to 
petuate 

t arresfc 
le has 
is l"i 
ore us 
I were 



1 given llio country by the Compromise of 1850 ; 
land that man ir^ ^liUard FiUmore. Mr. Stephen 
I A. Doughis, United States senator A'om Illinois, is 
I very good demoeratic authority ; and we give you an 
I extract Irom his speech made in Richmond in 1852, 
I and published in the Richmond Examiner, an influ- 
ential dc\nocratic paper oC that state. Mr. Douglas 
was denouncing the Raltimore convention for not 
nominating Mr. Fillmore at that time, and said, 
" We say — ay, all of us — that Mr. Fillmore was a 
real God-send ; that he was sent by his Creator, 
that he was sent by God himself, to rule over the 
destinies of this country, wdien the ship of state 
was sinking in the tempest. (Loud and long- con- 
tinued cheers.) It was the calming of the waters 
when the ship was sinking in tlie tempest. All, 
therefore, look kindly on ^Ir. Fillmore ; and we 
like to give him all the consolation we can, after 
the bad treatment he received at Baltimore, because 
he was a Avhig, and yet did no harm to the coun- 

I'-y." 

No, Americans, the most violent political oppo- 
nent cannot and dare not assume that ]\lillard Fill- 
more did not advance the welfare of his country 
as a whole, and protect all its interests every wliero 



9 












lli 



30 



THE UNION OF THE STATES. 



Anoilnr fact, not to be omitted at this crisis, is, 
tliat the democratic party were the first to oppose 
the introduction of foreiyners into the national 
councils, a^ well as Roman Catholics, though they 
have since courted these influences, and denounced 
the American party for insisting that none but 
Americans shall rule America. In the celebrated 
Virginia democratic resolutions of '98 and '99 aiu 
these : . . 

*' That the General Assembly, nevertheless con- 
curring in opinion with the Legislature of Massa- 
chusetts, that every constitutional barrier should 
be opposed to the introduction of foreign influence 
into our national councils, 

^^ Resolved, That the constitution should be so 
amended that no foreigner who shall not have ac- 
quired rights under the constitution and laws at 
the time of making this amendment shall therefore 
be eligible to the office of senator or representative 
in the Congress of the United States, nor to any 
oflice in the executive or judiciary departments." 

Now, while the American party has not any 
projaaice towards respectable foreigners, and makes 
no war upon them as foreigners, but, as subjects 
of the Poj,e of Rome, repudiates their interference. 




iiiin 



THE UNION OP THE STATES. 



31 



' ^•' ',. ivilh our just political rights, the democratic party 



Uiitioiial 

«ugli tJiey 

Jenounccil 
none but 

elebratc'd 

iJ '99 are 

'less con- 
f Massa- 
1' should 
influence 

tl be so 
lave ac- 
laws at 
lerefbro 
'ntative 
to any 
snts." 
>t any 
niakes 
ubjccts 
^erence 



% has opposed them aa" sucli ; ami we all know that in 

■■V 

I t!i(' State of New Hampshire, a state devoted to 

)ie (lemocraey, a Roman Catholic cannot, to this 

(hiy, hold any civil otrice, because he is a Catholic. 

" And yet these democratic leaders, who have made 
all the agitation, and bought and sold the papal 
vote like a hogshead of tobacco or a bale of cotton, 
to carry their own election and retain the power, 
put out the signal of disunion, and would have the 
people cheated into the belief tliat they alone can 
save it from dissolution ! 

Americans, seventy years ago, the greatest work 
of mankind was completed, when our fathers em- 
bodied into an organic form the free covenant which 
gave to this nation its life, liberty, and happiness. 
This formation of the government takes rank in 
importance above the Kevolution, and above the 
Declaration of Independence. You ask why ? 
We answer, that while the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence cost the very extreme of sacrifice and the 
essence of patriotism, the labor to maintain our 
liberties would have been lost, after being won, had 
not the American Union been the result. And the 
grea^r error now being comii:itted by the people is 



C 



32 



Tin: UNION OF TIIK STATES. 



.lilii' 



'li: 



if 111 



in putting the Declaration in the place of the 
Con.stitutioi;, and looking to it as the instrument 
which governs them. 

But one ftict must be kept alive, — that no one 
man could have been the author of the Declaration 
of Independence. JeiTcrson, Franklin, Adams, 
Livingston, Lee, Hancock, &c., all differed ; and it 
Avas these shades of opinion, delicately balanced, 
which made the Declra-ation, as it subsequently did 
the Constitution. And now, my countrvmon, has 
one portion of these states been more benefited by 
the Union than the other? In other words, has 
the North or the South been gainers by the national 
compact ? Take the increase of territory, and look 
at the question in this sense. ' 

In 1803, Louisiana was bought for upwards of 
twenty-three millions of dollars, in order to control 
the commerce of the Mississippi valley, which has 
resulted in a benefit since that time to the free 
states and territories contiguous of not less, cer- 
tainly, than a thousand millions of dollars ! Iowa, 
Minesota, the Nebraska territory, with a certainty 
of Kansas and the rich prairies south of it, have 
all inured to the Northern States by that Louisiana 
purchase Tbe public lands, also, that have been 




niiiru: 
and { 

1S48 



iiiiii 



TUB UNION OP TIIK STATES, 



33 



t no one 

Adams, 
; and it 
alanccd, 
cntly did 
»i<3n, has 
Med by 
•I'fls, lias 
national 
Lnd look 

ards of 
control 
ich has 
he free 
s, cer- 
lown, 
taint J 
, havo 
isiana 
been 






{Hid yet romnin to be sold, and tlic grants to 
rXorlhcni railroads, will surely eijual two millions 
[nioro in money, which goe ' at once to the North ; 
lid makes the result of the J^ouisiana increase 
lii'iiL'licial to that section of the Union npwanls 
of cloven hundred millions of dollars. 

Then, n^^aln, look at Texas. Its annexation cost 
the country, by the Mexican war, upwards of two 
hundred nnd sev.'nteen millions ; by Texas clainio, 
sixteen millions ; by the Gadsden Treaty, ten 
millions ; making the cost for the acquisition of 
Texas to the Union two hundred and thirty- three 
millions. By this the North acquired California, 
and a specie dividend which has amounted since 
1848 to three hundred and fifty millions of gold ! 
In addition to the gain in gold, this section of the 
Union has obtained by the Texas tinnexation a 
command over the trade of the Pacific. 

The increase of territory has therefore benefited 
the whole Union, and facilitated its enterprise, 
resources, and industry ; and California gave an 
impetus to the trade of the whole country, which 
could not have been felt otherwise in two hundred 
years. , 

My countrymen, the American Union has God 






34 



THE UNION op THE STATES. 



,' 



for its author, and the welfare of the whole people 
for its basis — the weliare of men, the welfare of 
the states. Then, ill all the majesty of Americuu 
citizens, let the people stand to their rights, 
instead of trembling for their bread. The Amer- 
ican Revolution had one Arnold, but the name of 
traitor, in this present revolution, is *' legion." 
They hate the doctrine of Washington, which is 
dear to the people, because it teaches that only 
*' Americans shall rule America ; " the same doc- 
trine which made Charlemagne dear to Frenchmen, 
Robert Bruce to Scotchmen, Alfred the Great to 
Englishmen ! To intensify the love for the Union 
of these States, and make '* dissolving views" of 
disunionists, is now the aim of the American 
party. Other evils may exist singly, and impose 
but one burden, but the destruction of this Union 
would subvert the interests of evory state. It 
would change wisdom for folly, religion for 
sin, propagandism for patriotism, light for dark- 
ness. It would stop trade, commerce, and the 
development of our best agricultural resources. 
It would put an end to our unrivalled systems of 
education, and the utility of our inventions. It 
wiuld arrest the increase of our newspaper issues, 



and 
wouh 
and 
lluin( 
(Miuai 
■ Jesus 
4 Kulei 
! Nt 
adlic 
labor 
I cand 
/| an A 
stitu^ 
sovei 
The) 
niad* 
char 
uen( 
Am 
seci 
I Uul 
I bal 
I for 
for 



'4 



THE UNION OF THE STATES. 



36 



>Ie people 
i^olfare of 

A^uierican 
rights, 
le Amcr- 
name of 
legion." 
which is 
hat only 
inie doc- 
nchmen, 
Gfreat to 
e Union 
nvs '' of 

merienn 
I impose 
3 Union 
ite. It 

fon for 
r dark- 
nd the 
ources. 
ems of 

IS. It 

issues, 



4 



and the increase of population. In a word, it 
would take away the key to all our knowledge, 

i and shut n^irainst us the very gates of heaven. 

* Humanity demands that this Union be preserved ; 
equality of rights demands it ; the religion of 
Jesus Christ demands it ; and, glory to God, the 
Kuler of the world controls it ! 

No pen can expose the benefits, or portray the 
aftliction, which would jeopardize trade, interest, 
labor, life ! And now, when the Union itself is a 
candidate for popular suflrage, can any other than 
an American feeling sweep the land ? The con- 
stitution comes from the people ; the majesty of 
sovereignty is in them. Who are the people ? 
They are the sons of the soil, and their industry 
made us free ! Our farmers, manufacturers, me- 
chanics, laborers, artisans, are the tiue constit- 
uency, and they insist that the right of the 
American working-man and mechanic can only be 
secured from foreign competition by maintaining the 
Union in all its integrity. In the abuse of the 
ballot-box the American laborer has been cast aside 
for the outcasts of Europe, until foreign interests, 
foreign laws, foreign regiments, and foreign Ian- 



I 



JS 



30 



THE UNION OF THE STATES. 



iR! 



i-i 



gujif^cs, liavc made tlic luitioii totter, by rob])ing 
the Un'uMi ol" its pristine streii^Hh. 

AFy coiinlryiiKMi, do you not ronieniber that 
Home's name, once a, dread to despots, was made a 
reproach by the very act wo are now committing.' 
She gave to con([iiered races tlie right to citizen- 
ship, and this (U^stroycd her. And the Italian 
republics of the middle ages were invaded ami 
enslaved by the Guelphs, Ghibelines, Germans, 
Swiss, Austrians, and French, who broke up the 
union of those little eonl'ederacies, simply because 
they neglected to guard the nationality of their 
own people. Athens and Lacedemon, for the same 
reason, fomented disunion, and prepared the way 
for Philip of Macedon, a northern ccaqueror, who 
accomplished their destruction. 

Even the Pope of Rome teaches this national 
principle to his own subjects ; and w^ho but an 
Italian could succeed his holiness? And, we say, 
let France be governed by Frenchmen, Ireland by 
Irishmen, Germany by Germans, and America by 
Americans, if this Union of ours is to remain. 
Like the telegraph, the Union keeps no local office, 
has no visible link between the states, but is the 
electric medium which circulates through all their 



cxch 

th«'ii 

pi (lit 

A 

I and 
shim 
aloni 
fan;i 



the 




-$ 



THE UXTON OF TTTH PTATKS. 



37 



cxc'h ingcs, moots all oxtrcmes ami centralizes 
then , and is the ever-present source of the closest 
]Kilifi('al iiiliniacy. 

Ain'ricnns, can anything' dissolve tliis bright 
and s|)arklin<;' cluster of stars, wliitdi make one 
shining jewed, upon which tiie Union's image is 
ah)ne reflected i* Politicians may attempt it ; crazy 
fanatics may rail at it ; European emissaries 
niiiy toil for it, and send monc^y to the native 
traitors to facilitate it ; but we b(dieve that benc^ath 
the present agitation and strife, Provid(»nce con- 
ceals a future blessing to this Union, and that is 
its peace and permanent endurance. 

AVhen the Mexican war was declared, there was 
a majority of the people of this country who 
])clieved it aggressive and unjust. The election 
of 1844 had turned, in a great measure, upon 
the question of annexing Texas ; James K. Polk, 
the democratic nominee, favoring it, \vhile Henry 
Clay, the whig candidate, opposed it. That elec- 
tion, discarding the foreign vote, was most un([ues- 
tionably a triumph to Mr. Clay, and a significant 
sign of opposition to Texas annexation. But, 
what" effect had that freedom of opinion upon the 
war ? Why Americans, you all know, it was no 

4* 



5 



38 



THE UNION OF THE STATES. 



A 



V\ 



sooner tlecliired than citizens of all parts of the 
Union rushed to be enrolled and press into battle. | 
In six weeivs two hundred thousand were ready to 
take up arms. In three months two hunchxd 
thousand more were enlisted ; and, had it been 
necessary to vindicate our nationality and preserve 
the Union, a million of men would readily have 
gone to the fight. And can any sane mind believe 
that now, w^hen the internal foes of the Union and 
the constitution have declared war against them, to 
be fought in a single day at the ba^ht-box, that the 
love for them will be less intensely exhibited ? Who 
can doubt that the mere suspicion of treason to 
this government will merge all sectional questions, 
and occupy with one thought this whole people, 
wlu) will march to the music of the Union, and 
sweep out the offenders and the offence ? 

In the hite European war in the Crimea, it was 
difficult for the allies to keep forty thousand men 
at any one time upon duty. Wliy ? Because these 
troops did not move by patriotic emotions, or a 
culti\ated national feeling. Many of them had 
never hoid a rille before, and wmmiIcI inis.s aim in a 
hundred successive shots. Americans, on the con- 
trary, a:e mostly target-shooters, and rarely waste 



ball ai 
in pea 
privik 
under 
men, 
by all 
, magni 
all thi 



the 1 



rcme 



with 



THE UNION OP THE STATES. 



S9 



of the 
) battle, 
•eady to 
lundrcd 
it been 
)reserve 
\y have 
believe 
ion and 
hem, to 
hat the 
? Who 
lason to 
estions, 
people, 
3n, and 

it was 
id men 
e these 
s, or a 
rn had 
HI in a 
e coii- 

waste 



% 



hall anil powder. As they are in war, so they are 
in peace ; ready to saerificH^ all for the glorious 
privileges secured to them by the free institutions 
under which they live. By all, then, my country- 
men, that is dear to the patriotism of your country, 
by all that is dear to the glory and transcendent 
magnitude of its peace and rising prosperity, by 
all that is dear to your domestic firesides, to your 
lo^•ed homes, and to all that can give value to the 
landing of the Pilgrims, to the illustrious memory 
of their deeds, the achievement of the revolutionary 
battle-fields, the bright galaxy of your heroes and 
the pride of country, avoid, by some conciliation, 
the dangers that now surround us, and let not the 
Torld point ^vith scorn, and despots laugh in tri- 
amph over our crushed and ruined liberties. 

My countrymen, the love borne to the Union by 
the majorities of the people, with their vital 
'ntcrests indissolubly bound up in it, repels the 
idea that they ever will dissolve it while the simple 
remedy of the ballot-box remains in their hands. 
They cannot but see the inevitable fate of all the 
smaller states of the Union, North, Middle, and 
South. Never again would they have an equality 
with the larger states. Never again would they 



5 






It! >lilfll I 

'liliil 



, Mm] 



■ii 






J!lliin,i: 



40 



THE UNION OF THE STATES. 



stand as they now do in the Senate. Rhode IshinO, 
Delaware, Connecticut, Florida, and the like, would 
suffer absorption and annihilation. Texas woukl 
bo destroyed by the Indians on the banks of the 
Rio Grande. Every Southern state vould neud 
all the militia ^vithin its own borders to defeuil 
itself, and could not fly to the succor of its sister 
states. If the small states sought foreign aid 
against the aggression of the larger, that foreign 
power would afterwards claim them as its vassals. 

There are now five of these small states, which 
are just as strongly represented in the United 
States Senate as the five largest ones in the Union. 
New York has no more voice there than Rhode 
Island, Virginia than Florida. Hence, nearly one 
sixth of the power of the general government, and 
the treaty-making authority, is now in the smaller 
states. But, if ever separation comes, remember 
no revolution will ever make the Union again what 
it is now. Our civil and religious blessings, our 
growth, our resources, the development of our 
wealth, are gone, and the small states lost forever. 

The neglect of the Bible is, in our judgment, 
the prominent reason for our past evils and present 
oeril. Can anything bo more ominous of destruc- 



be th 
Debo 



1 ! 



THE UNION OF THE ST TES. 



41 



tion to a people, than neglect of moral culture, 
and contempt of the princi])les of virtue and Chris- 
tianity ? AVhat other bulwarks can avail to save 
our Union ? The principles of the Bible, where 
its spirit imbues the heart, and is acted out in the 
life, will save us from disunion. Without it, the 
charm of liberty and the Union is lost. Men are 
ripe for treason, stratagem, and war. We may 
make music for a thousand ages, but it wdll not 
be that of the song and the shouts of victory of 
Deborah, when the chariots and the horsemen of 
Pharaoh were overthrow- n. 

FiUmore's election will give support to private 
integrity, as wtII as national credit and honor, and 
save the reduction of property, products, and com- 
merce. He will be to the whole people as a strong 
metallic currency was to England in her bloody war 
with France - — the strong confidence by which she 
humbled the states of Europe, swept the seas with 
her navy, and sent Napoleon to St. Helena. 

Now^ what would be the result of rejecting Mil- 
lard Fillmore, whom a kind Providence has allowed 
you the privilege to elect, if you w^ould save your 
countr/? It is no fancy sketch to tell you these 









I lit 



1^ 



lli 






'p' 



42 



THE UNION or THE STATES. 



pli/i I truths. There would be a distress, deep and 
universal, in this country, never felt before. The 
banks vould be drained of their gold, because their 
credit \vould fail ; trade would be crippled, and mer- 
chants would cease to be able to procure credit at 
long dates, and therefore obliged to suspend. 
Manufacturers would not be able to sell their goods, 
or raise money on them. American industry would 
then be checked at once. The national debt would 
be doubled. The taxes upon the people would be 
increased ten-fold. The credit of the nation would 
be so reduced that the navy and army would be com- 
pelled to disband. There would be such distrust 
among all the industrial walks of the people, that 
no one could command a barrel of flour, or a bag of 
coffee, unless the money accompanied the order. 
The whole country would be in gloom, and the 
honest yeomen of the land would smite their breasts 
and cry aloud, " We are deceived, we are des- 
troyed ! " Everything w^ithin and without threat- 
ens destruction, if Fillmore is now cast aside. The 
nation's faith and the nation's honor should demand 
this pledge to be made, and the world reassured 
that the experiment of self-go"ernment has not 



THE UNION OF THE STATES. 



43 



deep and 
re. The 
use their 
and nier- 
credit at 
suspend. 
ir goods, 
rj would 
bt would 

^vould be 

)u would 
be com- 
distrust 

pie, that 

a bag of 

) order. 

ind the 
breasts 

re des- 

threat- 

^ The 

emarid 

isured 

is not 



failed — that America's fortress is stU armed and 
iiiaimcd by freemen. 

Nov, lot us look rationally at the matter, and 
ci.^k to what amounts the folly of protending to 

tdvocate, at this crisis, the restoration of the Mis- 
Duri Compromise. It plainly means nothing at 
|al!, hut to keep up a practised art of deceiving 
pionest minds. The day for this has passed ; and 
lit is as pertinent to say the repeal of the Missouri 
I Compromise might have been avoided by defeating 

(jFrauklin Pierce's election to the presidency in 
18.j2, or that some dead man might have lived, 
if proper remedies had been seasonably used, 
as to say now that the Missouri Compromise can 
ever be restored, as it stood when Pierce and the 
|deuiocratic leaders laid upon it their sacrilegious 
I liaiids. Some may ask, is this impossible? We 
I answer, it is; for, while the South could voluntarily 
I restore it, it is not to be supposed it would, and 
I thereby pass condemnation on its own acts. 
I My countrymen, it is high time to awake fi'om 

I tliis delusion, and cast aside this phantom which 

% . 

I IS being embodied into pretended substance, and 

^ made an issue in the pending presidential election, 

when, in tiuth, the restoration of the compromise 



5 



THE UNION OF THE STATES. 



^as no moro to do ^vith ilic elt^ction of Prosidpnt 
than it has Avilh tho coronation of Alexander (.f 
Russia, or Iho Itaptisni ol' {\\o, heir ol' Louis Napd- 
leon ui' France. And why? Wo answer, IJeeausi 
the ({ueslion ol' restoring the eoni[>roniise will never 
be made one i'or any iuture Presi<l(Mit to oonsidei* in 
his otricial station. 

There is no earthly pros[)eet that Con»]^ross, which 
alone could riMnstate wliat it created and has de- 
stroyed, would })ass an act of this nature hefoiv 
Kansas was admitted into the Union as a state. 
We all know that, with the sectional agitation now 
existing, such a step would rend the Union at once 
into fragments. It is morally impossible, therefore, 
and folly even to entertain such an idea. And you 
also understand the meaning of your own constitu- 
tion, and know eipially w^cll that Congress cannot, 
if it wished, lay the weight of a feather upon the 
institutions of a state of this Union. So, whether 
Kamas w^as a free or a slave state, — and God lor- 
bid it should be the latter ! — the Missouri Compro- 
mise would not and could not be restored. Then, 
if it is true — and every man and woman in tlio 
land knows it — that Kansas will soon be a free 
state, asking admission into the sisterhood of the 



I Union 

i persui 
the r 
Misso 
now t( 
to aw 
that t 



I 



THE UNION OF THE STATES. 



45 



President 
Miiulcr (if 
lis Njipd- 

vill never 
•nsidci' ill 

ss, wliich 
lins (Ic- 

J I stato. 
tioii now 
1 iit once 
heroforo, 
And you 
conslifu- 
! cjinnol, 
ipon the 
wlictlicr 
God for- 
Conipro- 
Then, 
1 in i]\Q 
3 a free 
I of the 









Union, it will ro([uiro more art, wo believe, than all 
the political demagogues Ox' the country contain, to 
persuade th(^ ^Vnierican people that the election of 
tlic President has anything to do with restoring the 
Missouri Ooniiironiise. And it needs high pressure 
now to he put upon the public virtue of the country, 
to awaken it to the true sight of its designing foes; 
that the i)eoi)le may at once see that the Union's 
strength is alone in its devotion to amslUational 
lihrrti/i and on this ahme it must stand or fall. 
The Convention which made the Constitution in 
1787, sent out a letter to all the people, giving 
them to understand the spirit of compromise upon 
which it was adjusted, and which the States, to 
maintain it, must preserve. George Washington 
signed that letter, and we give its language, as 
pertinent to our present emergency. 

"Individuals," said the Convention, ''entering 
into society, must give up a share of liberty to pre- 
serve the rest. The magnitude of the sacrifice 
must depend as well on situation and circumstances 
us on the object to be attained. In all our delib- 
erations on this subject, the object wdiich the Con- 
vention has kept steadily in view, was the cofisoli- 
dation cf the Union, in which is involved our 



5 



':¥■ 




Kl 



p^' 



46 



THE UNION OF THE STATES. 



prosperity, felicity, safety, perhaps our national 
existence. This important consideration, seriously 
and deeply impressed on our minds, led each State 
in the Convention to be less rigid on points of 
inferior magnitude than might have been otherwise 
expected/' 



:!il P' 



Note for page 50. 

The full returns to the Ist of October, 1856, will show that our com- 
mercial marine exceeds that of Great Britain one million of tons ; and, if 
our national progress and prosperity continue in the next three years at 
the same rate, we have no reason to doubt that in ^%0 our commercial 
marine will exceed that of Great Britain and France o: mbined. 



i; 



ii 



CHAPTER III 



On the 4th of March, 1857, the present Congress 
closes its power. The next Congress will begin its 
session the following December. Before tliat time, 
Kansas will either be in the Union, or at the Joor 
of Congress for admission. Now, Avith a largo 
democratic majority from the South in the House, 
and a democratic majority also in the Senate, is it 
not an insult to the intelligence of the people to 
talk of doing anything with the compromise the 
next session, while the Senate will still hold its 
democratic majority in the succeeding Congress, 
thereby putting the compromise restoration at an 
end forever ! Its repeal, in the language of Mil- 
lard Fillmore, " was the Pandora's box, out of 
which have issued all our present evils." The 
whole country had for thirty years acquiesced in 
the compromises of the constitution as sacred ; and 
the intelligence, justice, and honor, of the people of 
the South, were opposed to it^ repeal just as much 



: 
5 



u 



TTI13 UNION OP THE STATES. 







as were the people of the North. It was the act 
of the (leinocrati(5 party — we mean its treacherous 
leaders, in lejigne with Pi(^rce, wlioni they used jis 
the instrmnent to jiocomplish their long-predeter- 
mined si'henic to foster agitation, and perpetuate 
their own power. Fraidvlin Pierce was tin; man 
for their ends ; hence the occasion to appropri- 
ate him was eagerly emhraced. 0, my country- 
men, be conjured to rise in the maji^sty of your 
own intelligence ! Search into these matters, and 
see for yourselves that the Missouri Compronuse is 
dead, and cannot be restored ; that with it tlio 
President you elect will never have anything odi- 
cially to do ; that it is not truthful/// any more an 
issue before the people than the " endjargo " which 
was passed under Mi\ Jefferson's administration, or 
the alien and sedition laws under that of Jolui 
Adams. - 

Never before was so false an issue made as is 
now thrust before the people upon the Kansas ques- 
tion ; as though the majorities of the South did not 
as fu^ly as the North condemn the leaders of tlic 
democratic party and its President for allowing 
American blood to be shed on American soil ly 
American men. These leaders have incited those 



I 



THE UNION OP THE STATES. 



4» 



the act 
icherous 
used IIS 
rodctcr- 
•i)elunt(' 

\H) lllilll 

ppropri- 
oinitiy- 
of your 
ci'rf, tiiid 
oiiiise is 
it the I 



n<,^ odi- 



niorc an 

wliicli 

it ion, or 

►1' Jolm 

lo as is 
LS qiics- 
did not 
of tlio 
llowing' 
soil ly 
i those 



i 



bloody deeds in that territcjiy, rather than inter- 
posed /he government and laws to arrest the eivil 
WAY, and brin;;!; the oll'enders to pnnislmiont. AVhy, 
then, slionld fifteen slates of this Union ))e sen- 
ti'iuH-'d to the vindietive eurses of ^ixteen others? 
In conimerco and trade, in the stiugglc for a na- 
tional existence, in all the revolutionary battles, 
and the subsefjuent assoeiation since our independ- 
ence, the interests of all these states have been 
identified. The fifteen states of the South do not 
support now a candidate for their own section, but 
for the whole thirty-one states. And, in proof of 
this, a majority of these states will cast their vote 
for Millard Fillmore, a native citizen, and resident 
of the great State of New York. My countrymen, 
it is treason to the Union to support any candidate 
on account of this sectional feeling. It is madness 
on the part of the people, and will be the dying out 
of all our national fame. 

It will be death to the great commercial metropo- 
lis of the country, which has been built up by the 
common trade of the North and South. This com- 
merce, which has, in this present year, 185G, swelled 
to the enormous aggregated amount of four billions 
five hundred millions, was the origin of our present 

5* 



i 



50 



THE UNION OF THE BTATES. 



'I ( 




constitutional govcrnniont. Tho cities of New 
York, Boston, and others, reluseil to treat with 
men longer under the nnsta))le articles of tlie old 
confederacy of states ; and this desire to give secur- 
ity to the trade of the North and South led to the 
convention of 1787, which gave us the most gh>ri- 
ous system of free government "which has cvei 
blessed mankind. 

But then, Americans, that commerce was confined 
to a few privateers. The ellects of the Kevolution- 
ary War were all .around us. Now we have the 
greatest commercial tonnage of any nation on earth, 
and soon will have more, if we continue as we arc, 
than all the rest together. See, only last year, 
1855, Avhile Great Britain had five millions, the 
United States had five millions two hundred thou- 
sand, and the rest of the world together had the 
exact amount of Great Britain ; and "svhile, in the 
last tliirty years, the commercial marine has in- 
creased in Great Britain twenty-eight per cent.. It 
has increased in the United States fifty-eight per 
cent, in the same period. (See note on page 46.) 

Americans, it is your country, and New York its 
great emporium, which has outsailed and outnum- 
bered tlie commercial marine of the whole globe ; 



THE UNION OF THE STATES. 



51 



1!l' 



Now 
with 
K' old 

tlio 

rlori- 



on( 



IC 3 



1 now owes the greatness of her tnule to the Union 
of all th(? states. And who, tliat knows tlie intolli- 
ftonco of hvv [x'oplo, believes for a moment that a 
city mMintninin^ ui)war(ls of ei«^hty-fivo th(»usan(l 
(iu;ili(ie«l voters could ever give its vote to a sec- 
tional issue between these states? Who believes 
the merehiint, the banker, the shii)-owner, the prop- 
erty-holder, the men of the worksli.ip, the master 
mechanic, and builder, of New York, Boston, and 
other cities, will surrender the opportunity, when 
presented in the presidential election, to vindicate 
the Union of these states? Will the young men, 
who have all to hope in the rising greatness of their 
country, hesitate? — will they who look to New York 
as the national ti'ading and commercial metropolis, 
and whose ambition would make tliem run to the 
music of the Union? 

It is the Union as it is, the preservation of the 
rights of the North and the South, that now calls on 
the merchants and property-holders of the Empire 
City of the Union to look to its future name. In 
New York city, Ave find, by the comptroller's report 
in 185G, there is five hundred and thirteen millions 
of individual wealth ; the city corporations also 
holding forty-two millions of .real property, and a 



Ik) 






I 




;i^ ' ' fir 



11 '■■ 



62 



THE UNION OF THE STATES. 



banking and insurance capital of seventy millions. 
New Yo.'k city, then, has a capital involved in tlic 
welfare of this Union of six Imndred and thirty 
niillious of doHars, with a population of six hundred 
and thirty thousmid. 

Americans, Avhat unequalled prosperity is here 
presented ! — a city averaging a thousand dollars 
per capita ! And how comes all this ? Why, 
plainly from the concentration of all the trade and 
commerce of the thirty-one states of tliis federal 
Union. Now, let the business men of the country, 
the property-owners, young men of all trades, the 
mechanics, say Avhat would result to New York city 
alone by tlie separation of fifteen states of the Union 
from the other sixteen. Let them tell wliat would 
result to the cotton trade, raised exclusively at the 
South, but exchanged exclusively at the North. In 
the year 1855, this crop placed to Northern credit 
alone one hundred and twenty-five millions of dol- 
lars ; beside more tlKin lialf a. million oi' cotton-bales 
were manufactured last year at the North, making 
another hundred millions to the cotton exchanges 
that season. And what, too, but Northern ships 
and Northern men were employed in transporting 
these three thousand five hundred cotton-bales to be 



I 1 



nianufu 

bcUcve 

iiiuiiuh 

tlou U[ 

as wel 

Now 1 

inillloi 

factor: 

it not 

oi' yoi 

prcsid 

iiiterc! 

best t 

Comp 

uiiscs 

We s 

devot 

stratc 

privil 

Tl: 

end t 

lie \ 

Stat< 

at it 

that 



THE UNION OF THE STATES. 



illlons. 
ill the 
thirly 

iindred 

s here 
(lollai's 
Why, 
le and 
redond 
)iinhy, 
^'>s, the 
rk city 
Union 
won hi 
at the 
li. In 
credit 
f dol- 
-bales 
akin^- 
an^'es 
si dps 
•rting 
to be 



manufactured at the North ? Americans, ^vho cau 
btlieve that the practical men of the nation, the 
niunnfacturers oi' Kew England, are not above decep- 
tion upon the vital ([uestion (;!' their own interests, 
as well as tlie mechanics and property-holders of 
New York? Certainly not less than two hundred 
millions of dollars passed into the hands of carriers, 
factors, and bankers, in the year 1855 ; and is 
it not best to trust the liberties and institutions 
of your country again to a man Avho has hlled tho 
presidential chair with so nuich benefit to every 
interest, that every party endorsed him ? J^ it not 
best to take the man who endorsed the Missouri 
Compromise of 1820, when he signed the compro- 
mises of 1850, which made Kansas a free state ? 
We say, is it not wise to sccui'c the man whose 
devotion to the Union of the states has been demon- 
strated by his acts, wdiile Providence olfers us the 
privilege to place our country once more at peace ? 

The electi(m of Milhird Fillmore wouhl put an 
end to Kansas fighting in a single day. If needful, 
he would march the entire army of tiie United 
States to that scene of blood, with the gallant Scott 
at its head. He would tdlow the actual settlers of 
that tcrritorj? to settle its government for them- 



\i\- 



:?f 



C 

5 



54 



THE UNION OF THE STATES. 



selves ; and, by oxcrting the influence of the gov- 
ernment for the safety of that people, all strife 
would cease, and a full sweep be given to the 
energy and enterprise of settlers in all their free 
pursuits. 

Americans, with Fillmore at the helm of state, 
no more legislation, no more interference from any 
sjurce, is needed to terminate civ:l war, and give 
freedom and peace to Kansas, and lift the pall of 
human wrong from this rising jountry ; so that 
Anglo-Saxon blood may go on to populate, civilize, 
enrich, and aggrandize the heritage which God has 
opened for the welfare of our own people, and the 
good of the human race. 

It is time to end a censorship which the sixteen 
Northern states and the fifteen Southern states are 
each attempting, through fanatical spirits, to exert 
over the other. It is more baneful to our liberties 
than that now existing in France, Austria, Russia, 
or Italy. It is more odious to freemen than the 
Council of Ten in ancient Venice. We must not 
forget that conciliation has ever been the bond of 
^-his Union, and that it has saved more than once 
our streets from growing with grass, our ri^'ers from 
being red with blood, and thousands now in man^ 



4t 



THE UNION OP THE STATES. 



55 



le gov- 
strife 

I to the 
(ir free 

state, 
ni any 

II give 
pall of 
that 
vilize, 
od has 
nd the 

ixtoen * 
:es are 

exert 
)erties 
ussia, , 
n the 
st not 
nd of 

once 
from ■' 



hood from untimely graves. Let us not forget how 
the Missouri dilfieulty in 1820 was settled ; how 
the tariff question, under General Jackson's admin- 
istration, was adjusted ; how the compromise of 
1850 made the North and the South sing aloud 
with joy ! It was a national arrangement, to ivhich 
all sections at once consented, and on wdiich all 
parties harmonized, when a Northern man, with 
Northern sentiments, who had steadily stood to 
Northern principles, became a national man, and 
proved true to the constitution and the Union of all 
the thirty -one states, and signed that law ! 

Now, when the interests of the country arc all 
affected, and real estate depreciating in value every 
d[iy, is it not time to box up every other interest, 
as our fathers did in the American Revolution? 
Leave the workshop, the counting-house, the agri- 
cultural implements lying in the fields of your 
country, and prepare for the contest for the rnix- 
ciPLES of your government which is to be fouglit in 
November Avitliout cannon or bayonet. My coun- 
trymen, a thou^'and millions of money could not 
pay for the ill effects which may result from the 
difcat of Millard Fillmore at this crisis of our his- 
tory ; while his election will be the certain insur- 









66 



THE UNION OP THE STATES. 



11 i!iJjU''iir' ■' 



k 



ance upon your commerce, finance, trade, your 
shipping, inventions, discoveries, educational bless- 
ings, your Protestant liberty, and your unbroken 
union and national renown. 

In the light of all these reflections and causes of 
danger to our safety, and the fear of splitting on the 
rock of disunion, let us, my countrymen, take warn- 
ing from the history of all the republics of the past. 
"Where are the cofhmunities which have been exalted 
by prosperity, arts, commerce, and military might ? 
Where are the treasures of Nineveh, the walls of 
Babylon, the sceptres of the Caesars ? A thousand 
warnings come across the ocean from the monarchies 
and republics of the Old World: — Athens, Thebes, 
Rome, and Byzantium ; the flourishing states of 
Holland, of Geneva, of Venice, — of Avhich noth- 
ing is left but the living monument of history. 
This republic has risen, as it were, from the despot- 
ism and ashes of the Old World ; and w-onderful is 
our story, mighty our prowess, our progress, our 
elevation, and we have been saved +hus far. For 
this let us send forth piXjans of united praise, and 
give glory to the Author of our being, and of our 
national preservation ! 

And now, we ask, who will not join in prolong- 



ing thi 

Speak, 

West, I 

depth 

oinotioi 

States 

passes 

powers 

to port 

asscnil 

eloriue 

you ai 

logic, 

sublin 

of his 

and 1 

Bunk 

gcniu 

Worl 

COUK 

and 
^ Bavi 

and 
■ brok 
C 



t a 



niE UNIoN OP THE STATES. 



your 
bless- 
)roken 

[iscs of 
on the 
warn- 
past. 

xalted 
light ? 
lis of 

)usand 

-rchies 

lebes, 

tes of 

noth- 

story. 

?spot- 

fiil is 

, our 
For 

, and 

' our 

ong- 



ing this Union ? Who will prove recreant here ? 
Speak, ye patriots, ye sons of the soil. East and 
West, North and South ! Who is able to prol)e the 
depth of this subject ? It swells tlie heart with 
emotions too big for utterance. The Union of the 
States ! What a theme ! — a theme wliich sur- 
passes in importance and magnificence tlie highest 
powers of our imagination to conceive, or our pen 
to portray. How feebly have we spoken ! Come, 
assemble, ye American men ! Let your glowing 
clorpience fill with rapture the listening throng, as 
you arouse with patriotism, and startle with magic 
logic, the sons of your soil to the greatness and 
sublimity of their patrimony ! Come, ye proudest 
of historians, — Bancroft, Hume, and Ililliard, — 
and reveal the mnjesty of Plymouth Rock, of 
Bunker Ilill, of Yorktown ; the rising enterprise, 
genius, glory, and boundless prosp-Jcts of this New 
World, in the indissoluble charm of this Union ! 
Come, ye muses, — Apollo, Calliope, Calypso, — 
and celebrate, in strains as sweet as the harp of 
David, or an angel's lyre, the ineffable grandeur 
and loveliness of this western empire, in one un- 
broken unity of brilliant stars ! 

Came, assemble, ye patriots, natives of this soil, 
6 



f! 



i 

5 



58 



THE UNION OP THE STATES. 






li 



ye who best kno^\ how to feel the inspiration 
whieh calls you to icieud it, if invaded, with mil- 
lions of bayonets, or to repose, when in peace and 1 1 
prosperity, under the shadow of its outspread and [ | 
majestic wings ! Come, weigh, ponder, stand on 
Capitol Hill and survey the whole horizon in the 
immense field of your vision, and see if you can 
estimate its value ^ or reach in debate the height 
and dignity of this immortal theme ! 

Then, in this view, to change the tenor of our 
remarks, what shall we say of the traitor who 
dares to stand forth, and, with polluted and mur- 
derous hands, with the associates of Catiline at 
his back, to strike a fatal blow at this Union, and 
to pull down its pillars ? Erostratus fired the temple 
of Ephesus, and then disappeared by the light of 
the blaze. So will those. South and North, who 
are piling up fagots to set this Union in a glitter- 
ing flame, cease their madness, and be swept to the 
insignificance from whence they were taken, while 
the Union, on the proud pillars of the constitution, 
wi]l be found standing as on a rock of adamant ! 



great 



THE UNION OF TILE STATES. 



59 



ration 
1 mil- 
e and 
ul and 
nd on 
n the 
u can 
leight 

)f our 
L" who 
mur- 
ine at 
1, and 
emple 
^ht of 
, who 
itter- 
;o the 
while 
ition, 
it! 



EXPLANATION OF MR. FILLMORE'S 
ALBANY SPEECH. 

MAYOR rEIUlY'S ADDRESS. 

** Mr. Fillmore : Words cannot express the 
emotions of our hearts to-day, as we receive you 
back, the distinguished and honored son of this 
great state ; one who has worthily possessed the 
highest testimonial which a free people can offer 
to patriotism and exalted worth, and who is now, 
by the voluntary action of that people, again selected 
as their first choice to preside over the destinies 
of this great republic. The waters of the vast 
Atlantic could not wash you from our remembrance ; 
and while separated from us by time >nd by dis- 
tance, you have lived, sir, as you must ever live, 
in our warmest remembrance. During your ab- 
sence, it has been at once the pride and the pleasure 
of the American people to present your name again 
as their choice for the high and glorious position 
of President of these United States, knowing that 
you sought not office for office's sake. Knowing that 
no mean ambition could tempt you from the path 
of duty, yet fearing that your disposition might 
incline you to retreat from the cares of public into 



i 



(I 



^ii 



60 



THE UNION OF THE STATES. 



Ii ^ 



■M< 



■''Jlfiinir'flilil'ft! 




the pleasures of private life, wc have stood in 
anxious suspense, until we have received the wel- 
come announcement of your acceptance of that 
honor which it is our wish and design to confer 
upon you. And if anything could add to the pride 
and pleasure with which w^e now welcome you, it 
Is Knowledge of the fact, Uhat if there he those, 
either North or South, who desire an administration 
for tin. North as against the South, or for the 
South as against the North, they are not the men 
who should give their suffrages to you.' And, sir, 
ve glory in the patriotic announcement, that you, 
as the chief magistrate of our united and beloved 
land, will ' know only your country, your zohole 
country, and nothing but your country.' It is such 
a statement as th'is which will restore peace to our 
agitated land ; will allay the angry passions ex- 
cited by bad and designing men ; Avill roll back 
the dark and portentous cloud which threatens to 
arise, and will stay the further progress of fraternal 
discord and angry strife. Sir, we welcome you, 
as a man, with warm hearts, because we love you ; 
but, chiefly, and more than all, we welcome you, 
because of the proof we derive, both from your 
past and present course, that the same pure spirit 



of patr 
tinue t( 
' our b 
notliin.ii 
llio dai 
luitted 
any act 
"M 
Albany 
you a I 

Mr. 

"AM 

for the 

the firs 

avowee 

suflVag 

over t' 

that tl 

liavc 

which 

(Chee 

to bel 

to be 

(Chee 






THE UNION OF THE STATES. 



Gl 



of patriotism you liave ever man i Tested will con- 
tinue to influence you in the future ; and that thus 
' our beloved country, our Avhole country, and 
notliiuf^ l)ut our country,' may 1)0 ]»r(^Herv(Ml from 
tlie daUjT^ers which threaten it, and may be trans- 
mitted with renewed glory, and unimpaired by 
any act of ours, to remotest posterity. 

" Mr. Fillmore : In the name of the citizens of 
Albany, and on their ])ehalf, I a'n proud to bid 
you a most hearty welcome." 

Mr. Fillmore, in response, said ' 

"We sec a political party pi..: anting candidates 
for the presidency and vice presidency, selected for 
the first time from the free states alone, with the 
avowed purpose of electing these candidates by 
sufirages of one part of the Union only, to rule 
over the whole United States. Can it be possible 
th.'it those who are engaged in such a measure can 
liave seriously reflected upon the consefpiences 
which must inevitably foUoAV in case of success ? 
(Cheers.) Can they have the madness or the folly 
to believe that our Southern brethren would submit 
to be governed by such a chief magistrate ? 
Would he be required to follow the 



.) 



1 f 



i 



c* 



62 



Tilt) UNION OF THE STATES. 




saiiio rule prescrihod by i]\o^v. who elected luni in 
niakin;;" his apitoiiitiiieuts y If a man living soiilli 
of Ma.soii and Dixon's line he not worlhy to he 
presulent or viee [(resident, would it he i)ro[)er hi 
select inn) IVoni the same (juarter as one ol' his 
cahinet counsel, or to represent the uathwi in a 
foreign eounlry ? or, indeed, to eoUect the revenue 
or administer the laws of the United States? ]!' 
not, Aviiat new rule is the presideut to adopt in 
selecting men for odiee, that the people themselves 
discard in selecting him ? These are serious hut 
practical questions ; and in order to appreciate 
them fully, it is only necessary to turn the tables 
upon ourselves. Suppose that the South, having 
a majority of the electoral votes, should deeltirc 
that they ^vould oidy have slaveholders for presi- 
dent and vice president, and should olect such by 
their exclusive sullrages to rule over us at the 
North. Do you think we would submit to it '! 
Ko, not for a moment ! (Applause.) And do you 
believe that your Southern brethren are less sensi- 
tive on this subject than you are, or less zealous 
of their rights ? (Tremendous cheering.) If you 
do, let me tell you that you are mistaken. And, 
therefore, you must see that if this sectional party 



] 



T/IK UNION 01' TflK ^TATKS. 



03 



mil III 
soiilh 

to lt(> 
XT Id 

i>r his 
in a 

'VCllUC 

? ir 

pt in 
sches 
us but 
'ociale 
tables 
!mviii<^' 
leclare 
prosi- 
ich by 
it tlie 
:o it'! 
you 
scnsl- 
.'alous 
f you 
And, 
party 



! 



f. 



succeeds, it b'ads incvilably lo \hv destruction of 
tills bcauliliil I'abiv.; reared by our fbrefathors, 
(•eiuented by their l)lood, and beiiucjithed to us as a 
priceless inheri(aii(;e." 

Hero >vc discover the true si)irit oC submission to 
the popular will, and (h^volion to the entire Union, 
as it exists under our national constitution. Ih 
docs not nay that tlu; election ot* the nominee of 
the republican party would not and ou;i,ht not to 
be submitt(Ml to l)y the South. But that, if tlio 
principle wiia carried out, of exdudimj every South- 
em man from participation in (jovernment I)i/ that 
party, and the cabinet qlfices, foreign appoint- 
ments, judges of the courts, and administrative 
offices of the yovernment, were placed luholly in the 
hands of I he North, that the South oiiyht no more 
to submit, than would he and his Northern friends 
submit, if the South, as the South, should attempt 
to control and act for the whole country. 

Americans, this speech was not made to the 
South, but ^Yas delivered at Al])any, the head-quar- 
ters of sectionalism, and addressed to Northern men, 
warning them of probable danger, and depicting its 
consequences Mr Fillinore, true to the spirit of 



: 

1 










iii'^ 




64 



THE UNION OP THE STATES. 



Washington's '' Farewell Address," " indignantly frowned 
upon the first ddiviiing of the attitupt to alienate one 
portion of onr conn try from the ?y'.s7;" wliilc liedecd.ircs 
to all the world that Jtv hinisrlf iri/l aland ttt the Uninn^ 
710 inatttr irhnh of the presidential candidafes shall It 
elected by the free snffrajes of the American people. 

"Will not submit" were very harndess words when used 
years ago by Gen. Washington, and, later still, by Henry 
Clay. Whru it was proposed by Congress, in the Revolu- 
tionary struggle, to elevate foreigners in the American 
army. Gen. Washington objected, and eaid, " American 
officers would not submit to it;" and when lion. Edward 
Everett, in vhom every American has infinite cause for 
pride, was nominated to the United States Senate as Minis- 
ter to England, there were certain Southern members who 
objected ; when Mr. Clay, perceiving this sectional feeling, 
arose in his place, and rebuked it. remarking that such a 
manifestation of sectionalism would not be tolerated, — 
that ''the North would not sulniit." 

Here the language in both eases was identical with that 
employed on the recent occasion by Mr. Fillmore at Albany; 
yet it was then deemed very harmless, and excited no preju- 
diced remark in any quarter. Wbiit now constitutes the 
crime of the same expression by Mr. Fillmore, whose whole 
character and conduct exhibit patriotism and devotion to 
the Union worthy in all respects of his distinguished pre- 
decessors ? Why, simply that he stands in the way of those 
whose interest it is to misrepresent and calumniate him. 









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THE PACIFIC RAILROAD. 



CHAPTER I. 

The invention of printing, in ]430, prepared tho 
■way for the discovery of America in the same age, 
and made it a necessity. Why ? Becanse it civ- 
ilized and enlightened men ; and when this was 
done they wanted more room ; their commerce 
wanted more field ; their kingdoms wanted more 
latitude ; their navigation more scope ; in fine, 
every faculty of man expanded, and with a double 
energy the great work of revolution had begun. 

To obtain control over the commerce of the East 
has been the prize for which the ambition of na- 
tions had contended for ages ; and to find an easier 
and more direct route to India was the cause which 
moA'ed Columbus to set out on the discovery of a 
western continent. The commerce of the East 






66 



THE PACIFIC RAILROAD. 




controlled the world. Its riches, transported orer 
deserts by the Arab, furnished London, List on, 
Amsterdam, &c., with tiieir opulence and grandeur. 
When th(; Tuiks lield power on tlie IJosphorus, tlii.s 
wealth went to Europe and Asia through the Black 
Sea. When the Venetians wrested that power 
from the Turks, the Mediterranean became the 
channel of this Eastern connnerce. The attractions 
of the gold mines of Peru and Mexico, the wars of 
the Dutch, French, and Danes, did not divert 
public desire for a direct route from Europe to 
Asia, until England conquered ami established her 
empire in India over one hundred and fifty millions 
of people. Tlie Frencli explorers sought this lino 
in vain ; and Lewis and Clark, under President 
Jefferson, of our own country, met with no better 
success. At Li'^^ however, the difficulty is solved ! 
A raiLoad ti«r(t; gh this continent is the power 
which is to control the commerce of the world ; 
and the United States alone affords such a route. 
The Pacific Ocean is then to be the centre of com- 
merce for the world, and our country thus becomes 
the centre of civilization. 

The moment this road is built, Asia, with its 
five hundred millions ; Europe, with its two hun- 



dred and 
of the o( 
for their 
rnitcd 
the risk 
months, 
the ra ill- 
time for 
elty of 
change 
riches 

The 
nually i 
thousan 
time w( 

tills CO 

eight 1 

Amerit 

Japan, 

the pr( 

Wit 

and 

there 

tlon e 

Th 



THE PACIFIC RAILROAD. 



G7 



its 
lun- 



ilrecl and fifty millions; Africa, and all the islands 
of the ocean on either side, will seek this transit 
for their commerce. To go to India now, from the 
United States, is an undertaking which involves 
the risk of health and life, a voyage of five 
months, and of twice crossing the equator. With 
the railroad, twenty days would be the maximum 
thne for penetrating the heart of India from the 
city of New York. There, we then shall ex- 
change our. products and spend our surplus in the 
riches of the East. 

The trade of the East with Europe now h an- 
nually near four hundred millions, requiring three 
tliousand vessels. With our railroad, the coot and 
time would be so reduced that it is fair to believe 
this commerce would be increased to seven or 
cliiht hundred millions. American vessels a^ d 
American seamen will thou go into tlie pov; , of 
Japan, now opened to us, and retu' i freighted s', itli 
the products of China and India. 

With Asia on one side and Eirope on* the other, 
and our steam and sailing vssels at command, 
there can never be any competition while the na- 
tion endures. 

The energy of the Anglo-Saxon has already 







68 



THE PACIFIC RAILROAD. 




demonstrated a power which challenc^es the admi- 
ration of mankind. It has been by the Anglo- 
American that the oceanic currents have been 
defined, and tlie Gidf-Strcam pointed out to navi- 
gators all over the worhl. It was by the Anglo- 
American that the Dead Sea was explored. The 
Anglo-American opened by treaty the ports of 
Japan, after being so long closed to all but tlie 
Dutch and Chinese. Americans have proved the 
existence of an open Polar Sea, and braved the 
perils of the Arctic Ocean for Sir John Franklin. 
What have they done within their own borders? 
They have taken the Mississippi valley, a wilder- 
ness thirty-five years ago, and settled it with up- 
wards of twelve millions of souls. Twenty years 
ago, where not seven thousan i people dwelt, north 
and north-west of Chicago, they have put upwards 
of a million The queen city of the West, Cin- 
cinnati, which contains one hundred and sixty thou- 
sand people, only dug its cellars a few years ago. 
In 1820L, the first line of packet-ships sailed 
f om the United States to LiA^erpool, and prudent 
mcii predicted them a failure. In 1835, the 
learned Dr. Lardner declared the navigation of the 
ocean by steam to to be impracticable. Three 



years a 
steamei 
The 
lUulson 
an absi 
sa?id m 
States, 
(Ircd n 
o-overn 
Erie C 
liundre 
preside 
years t 
The 
ccived 
Evani, 
in 178 
stituti 
Joe 
1787, 
thirty 
Clintc 
took \ 
Clinb 
had \ 



THE PACIFIC UAILROAD. 



69 



years after which, the Great Western and Sirius 
steamers came into tlie port oC New York. 

The first proposal lor a railroad from Boston to 
Hudson was made thirty years ;igo, and pronounced 
an absurdity, Kow we have, at least, twenty thou- 
sand miles of railway constructed in the United 
States, involving a capital of more than five hun- 
dred millions of dollars. In 1808, the general 
government refused assistance to the Hudson and 
Erie Canal, after New York had appropriated six 
hundred dollars for a survey. Mr. Jefferson, then 
president, said, it ** might be feasible one hundred 
years to come " ! 

The first American who is known to have con- 
ceived the idea of railroads by steam was Oliver 
Evani, of Pennsylvania, who made known his plan 
in 1781 and 1789, after the adoption of the con- 

> 

stitution. 

Joel Barlow, in his "Visions of Columbus," in 
1787, predicted the Erie Canal in New York, 
thirty years before it was begun, under De Witt 
Clinton, in 1817. At that time, political parties 
took ground against it ; but the energies of Gov. 
Clinton prosecuted it to success. In ten years it 

had paid the cost of completion, while its present 

7 






i ,1 




70 



THE PACIFIC RAILROAD. 



annual receipts are half its original cost. Towns 
and yillagcB immediately rose up by the Wabash 
and Erie Canal in like manner, and as railroads got 
on the line the banks of every navigable stream 
were covered by a population devoted to commer- 
cial enterprise. 

The inhn1)itants of Portland, IMaine, have em- 
barked in the enterprise of building a raih'oad from 
there to Nova Scotia, which is now completed, and 
reduces the voyage of Europe to America two 
thousand miles. It is three thousand from New 
York to Liverpool. This effort found favor with 
European as well as American capitalists, and will 
tend rapidly to commercial prosperity 

"When we consider that England, to save a dis- 
tance of only twelve miles between London and 
Dublin, built a bridge across the Straits of Menai 
at a cost of twelve millions of money, we can 
better understand the economy of expending money 
to shorten our route eleven thousand miles to 
Europe. 

Everything, therefore, demands, on the same 
principle, that the Pacific Railroad sliould be made 
to shorten and cheapen the transit route for the 
commerce of Europe and Asia, which we shall 






certainl; 
a few y 
continei 
tory th 
togethe: 
Ih'itain 
larger 
Atlanti 
railroad 
how grj 
In a 

any wa 

our bel 

cured I 

will at 

the cou 

its defc 

of the 

can er 

flows i 

canizei 

brain t 

the Ai 

Gssenti 

Lib( 



THE PACIFIC RAILROAD. 



71 



certainly coinniand. Consider, Americans, how in 
a few years we have spread iVoni a fragment to a 
continent ! We liave only one sixth less of terri- 
tory than the fifty-nino states of Europe put 
together. AVo are ten times hirger than Great 
Britain and France, We are one and a half times 
larger than Russia In Europe, And, when the 
Atlantic and Pacific states shall bo united by the 
railroad, it Is Impossilde to realize how vast and 
how grand the results will be to us. 

In a philanthropic view. It is incomparable with 
any Avar, or revolution, or discovery, save that of 
our beloved country, and the national freedom se- 
cured by our Republican institutions. The railroad 
will at once become the strongest fortification for 
the country, and moving batter' os of men would be 
its defence in time of war. The passive intellects 
of the East will soon feel tbe attrition of Ameri- 
can energy and enterprise ; the population that 
• flows in from the Old World will thus be Ameri- 
canized ; and Protestant education, which is as the 
brain to the body of our institutions, will build up 
the American systems of free schools, which are the 
essential element of our liberties. 
Liberty has expanded our resources on the 



i 

C 



01 




72 



THE PACIFIC RAILROAD. 



Atlantic, and will, in the same way, advance thcni 
on the Pacific, until ll>c islands of tlic ocean, and 
the shores of Asia, shall ievX the hcni;L;u Inllucncc 
of American commerce and American hiws. The 
West, then, demands the Pacific Pailroad, to add to 
the prosperity of the country, to open new outlets 
for the distrihution of connnerce, and new sourccF^ 
for our naticmal wealth and enterprise. Americans, 
it is the navlgahle rivers on the Atlantic which 
have populated your states. This made it easy to 
receive and send olf the products of the land, and 
sent settlers first upon the water-courses. As these 
became populous, the settlers on tliem drove back 
into the interior the succeeding cnii,m*ants. The 
valley of the Mississippi was thus peopled. So the 
borders of the Hudson, Connecticut, and Penobscot 
Rivers, and Na.rragansett Bay. At the beginning 
there were no interior communications. to protect 
the settlements on the rivers, and lience they wcro 
not populated so rapidly as the Mississippi valley. 
Steamers were coi'^val with that settlement, and this 
has caused its rapid increase of population. 

During the early peopling of the country, and 
b<'fore the introduction of steam navigation, pack- 
horses were used to carry goods ; but the danger and 



III:: 



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ICIICC 

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TIIK r.VlIFIC RAILROAD. 



NO 



expense rendered tliis mode (•!' trade exceedingly 
limited. The nsual time, (Ihmi, was six montlis to 
make a joiinicy I'rom New Orleans to 8t. Ijouis ])y 
water, wliicli is now [K-rlunncd in ei«ilit or Iwrlve 
days. Tt was the strandjoat, and that aloiH>, wliich 
opened tlie eommerce oi' the Mississippi valley. 
Corn, wheat, iron, hemp, coal, wtudd all have ])een 
eomparatively nseless without this mode of trans- 
portation. 

You sec now, Amerieans, Tiow and why the 
valleys and rivers of the Mississip|»i were penetrated. 
On the coast of the Pacitic the case is altogether 
different. The states and territories we own there 
never can be settled as the Atlantic states have been. 
Why? Because neither steamers nor sail-boats 
can penetrate them. A land route is the only way 
this ever can be accomplished. But will an ordi- 



nary road do it? No, it could never be made to 
pay expenses of transportation. People would 
therefore refuse to dwell there, while tliey could 
seek the water-courses of the Atlantic and Pacific 
for settlement. The cause why Individual enter- 
prise entered into our favorite valleys, and occupied 

them, and grew wealthy, w'as owing to their access to 

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74 



TMK PACIFIC IlAILllOAD. 



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tlte son, nnd otlwr n!ivi;ral)lo waters, which pene- 
trated the interior country. 

Now, wliat lias hecii (hnic for the Atlantic states 
hy stcani])oats must he done lor the Paeific states hy 
railroa<l. And lot us l)c assured of one thin<i", that, 
with a railroad across the continent, the vahie of 
the whole country wouhl he increased incalcuLd)ly 
beyond what all our rivers liave done, or possibly 
can do. No other inducement ever Avill carry set- 
tlers to the interior countries of the Pacific states. 
But, with a railroad, they would soon convert that 
whoio country to a flower-garden. The entire year, 
at all seasons, would be open to the markets. The 
energy and enterprise of the settlers would increase 
v/ith the means of transit at hand. The ice in the 
Atlantic states, in the cold season, has always been 
a bar to industry ; but this w(. ild no longer inter- 
fere with progress. 

The Pacific Railroad will, of necessity, do all the 
business of the waters in those territories ; the 
Hudson, the Ohio, and Mississippi, would pour their 
commerce into that railroad passage. Thus this 
thoroughfare will extend our commerce and spread 
our popilation on the Pacific, as the steamboat 



THE I'ACIFIO IIAILIIOAD. 



76 



pene- 

st.'itcs 

cs by 

ih'At, 

lie of 

lablv 
•ssiblv 



The 



navi<;'{ition lias spread the plains of the Mississippi 
aii<l Missouri Rivers. 

Look at California and Oregon, bow wiibin three 
years and a half they have gathered *. population 
of at least a half a nullion ! AVhat has done this? 
The gohl mines alone. If, then, with a land journey 
of three or four months, and a eostly se^i voyage of 
thirty or forty days, population has thus aceunm- 
lated, what may be expeeted when the railroad shall 
have reduced the distance from San Francisco to 
Washington city to seven days, and the telegraph 
has brought us into communication in one single 
day? For such will actually \^e the case. 



^ 






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nwimi 




mm 



C II A P T E K II. 

A^iERiCANS, Avhat lias been the consequonco of 
legislating for the states of the Paeific already, 
which cannot be reached under a six weeks' travel? 
Let the Indian massacres, and those of Panama, 
the dangers and sufierings of inniiigrants, the black 
catalogue of crime which has made almost a Sodom 
of California, the utter perversion of the rights of 
sutfrage by the ballot-box, answer. The disorders 
Avliich have been created there, the villanous prac- 
tices of stufling the ballot-box, the elevation of the 
scum of society and traitors to office, — all these, 
find other shocking spectacles, which, as a necessity, 
caused the Vigilance Conunittee to be appointed l)y 
the people for their own protection and safely 
against these rufTiaiis and murderers, are greatly 
owing to their isolated condition. 

For these causes, a separate republic on the 
Pacific must ever suffer the most serious dangers, 
and especially if there should be cause for fiu'- 
eign invasion. N)thing will remedy these evils in 



due 

the 

prese 

the p 
Til 
seem 
Low 
part 



Tin-: I'.U'II'IC UAILIIOAI), 



i / 



the 



due season but tlic cstablisliinent of a railroad to 
the Pacific. This would at once loetifV all the 
present ditliculties, and regenerate the condition of 
the [K'ople. 

The idea of a Southern re[)uhlic may at first 
seem absurd. l>ut would the united interest of 
Lower California, the we;;tern coast of jMexieo, a 
part of the British possessions opposite Vaneouver's 
and Charlotte's Island, and removcMl from the evils 
of a French population, b(^ of no account, joined 
to California ? Would not the commerce and the 
gold, and its free soil, interfere with the harmony 
of the Southern Slates of this L^nion ? ^lost un- 
doubtedly. AVhy not, then, settle the question, not 
for a time, but forever, by putting a railway, that 
shall bind with a cord of iron the states of the 
Pacific and Atlantic ? 

Independent of the trade of the United States 
Mud Canada, this road wouhl be tlie great forwarder 
of the staples ol' China and t1ie Hast Indies. The 
reason is, tliat it would be tb.e shortest, (piickest, 
and least ex[)eiisive route. The passage by this 
land route can be ell'ected from three to five miles 
per hour ([uicker than by any sea or water route 
that could possibly be devised. 



r I 






78 



THK I'ACIFIC IlAir.UOAD. 



||: ' 



i < 
t 
I 
j 



No Olio ciiu coiiii)utc llic extoiifc of iriide from a 
railroad across the oouthient, counocting the Colum- 
bia and Hail Francisco Rivers with New York, 
China, »liipjin, ()rc<i;()n, Australia, the Sandwich 
Ishinds, California, the seaports of Europe, United 
States, and Canada. Americans, these would all 
coinnicrcially centre on this road. The distance 
from New York to California is thirty-two hundred 
miles. Allowing the usual rates of raih'oad travel, 
with time to eat and to rest on the journey, it will 
require seven days. If in an emergency, and the 
usual delays were abandoned, the travel could be 
made with ease in four and a half days, at thirty 
miles an hour ! 

Until gold settled California, the merchants of 
our country had but a limited knowledge of the 
trade on the western coast of the Pacific, to China, 
Japan, and India. Consequently, it was the local 
traffic of Californiji, Oregon, and Australia, that 
opened to view the fact that the commercial capa- 
bilities of the Pacific are really greater than the 
Atlantic. The tea trade and sperm whale are 
confined to the Pacific ; while the great staples, 
sugar, tobacco, wheat, and corn, grow as well on 
the Pacific as on the Atlantic. 



i 



l!il;i'» 



THE PACIFIC RAILROAD. 



79 



'ork, 



id tlio 
M bo 
thirty 

its of 

)f the 

>hina, 

local 

that 

i the 
are 
[)les, 
I on 



The Siindwic'h, Society, New Ilubrides, Friendly, 
New Britain, Philippine, and Ladrone Islands, arc 
all accessible, by steamboats, from Calilornia ; and 
all their products, thereibre, would Ixj turned to 
use, if the railroad were there. China will unlock 
her doors as never ])eibrc when this temptation to 
extend her connnerce is ]a*esented. Australia will 
reap the benefit ; while California, the <i'reat out- 
post of the Pacific, will not pause in the oi)portu- 
nity to show the world, and es^xvially this beloved 
people, what industry will accom[»lish, in connection 
with gold, in which resource she is now only second 
to Great Britain. 

How has England obtained ascendency over the 
commerce of the world ? By making it free. 
England, Holland, and the United States, which 
compose three fourths of the foreign commerce, 
acknowledge entire freedom in every commercial 
pursuit ; and, now that we have entered the l*acific 
by right and title, with our steamships and our 
experience, what shall prevent us from acquiring ;i 
commercial ascendency over England, Holland, and 
the world ? . We ask you, Americans, if anything 
shall do it ? You say. No. Then get about your 
raih'oad, and you may say this in earnest. 






I ( 



80 



TIIF, PACIFIC UAILHOAI). 




n • 




By the improvciiiont in stenm mikI s1iii>-1mil(lin.i:-, 
our ninr'mers porlonn tVo Siuiic vovmi^o to-dny in 
half the time they did fifty years ji^^o. AVe hiwo 
ah'Oiidy made r.iih'oads on tlje two conlinents, ami 
"sve arc alto^iretlier a chan;red ])(M»[de since ISOO. 
For iwentv-five vears after tliat, onr eonnncree liad 
no facility from steand)oats (U' railways ; and it has 
been 1)at t>yenty years since Aye l)egan to realize 
their IViU yalue. All the sources of commerce then 
"vvere those tributary to the seaboard, Ayhilc th(; 
Ayealth of the country >yas kept, from Ayant of com- 
munication, beyond their reach. AVe had not then, 
either, the men of method and mind equal to the 
emergencies of trade, as vye hayc now. We had 
not a monicd capital then, as now, opened to all. 
When we compare ourselyes with the past, and see 
what new facilities of greatness the nation has 
found out, we should be grateful, elated with our 
destiny, and ready for action. 

And if, with our small means, we hayc attained 
such deyelopment on our Atlantic borders, what, 
with our ships, our steamboats, our capital, our 
experience, and our railroad, are we not destined 
to accomplish on the Paclfi shores ? The railroad 
will open new strength, and new^ channels of 



thought 
try tiie 
world ; 
— all n| 

benefit 
dreu — 
of our 
Whi 
the be^ 
railroa 
^vould 
Kyery 
i'omuK 
which 
by the 
Th( 
plorer 
the Qi 
West 
much 
ou 
ac(pi 
pure 
men 
men 



THE PACIFIC UAILUOAL). 



81 



liMiii.ij-, 

ll'jy in 
|<' li;iv«^ 

■<, jukI 
ISOO. 
•c liad 
it has 
'ealizij 

a tlicn 

C the 

com- 

thcn, 

to the 

e had 

to all. 

id see 

I lias 

1 our 

lined 
v'hat, 
our 
ined 
road 
1 of 



thought, as well as action. It will make our coun- 
try the a«i'eiit and carrier of the coniniercc) of the 
world ; and it heconics all classes of our countrv 
— all who ro<iard its [)ros[K'rit y, all who regard tiie; 
benefit to their children and their children's chil- 
dren — to rally to the railroad as the great highway 
of our national prosixrily and greatness. 

AVhilc men are ({nibbling and blundering about 
the best route, Nicaragua might make a canal or 
railroad, and establish trading settlements, which 
would materially interfere with our prospects. 
Every day gives greater im[)i»rtance to the political, 
connnercial, geogra[)hical, moral, and social reasons 
which show that we are risking much, losing much, 
by the delay. 

The Atlantic was always more fornuda])lo to ex- 
plorers than the Pacific ; conse(|uently the East, in 
the early ages, was more rapidly populated than the 
West. The oceans, we must remember, were as 
much ours by right, before we had a sjiil or harbor 
on our coast, as now. The Pjicific territory was 
acquired by us through the ^lexican Avar It was 
purchased then by the sweat and blood of American 
men. It has been the means of increasing our com- 
mercial wealth and greatness. To occupy and enjoy 

8 










82 



THE PACIFIC RAILROAD. 



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It 



Kf 

k 

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this, the raih'oad has beni projcctcMl ])y the wisdom 
of lueii who, IVoiii the beginnings have .seen that 
this terrilorv, obtained at so (h'ar a eost to the 
United Stales, nnist either be made snbservient to 
th(» intcivsts oi' tlu; \vhole eonntry, or be ^vrested 
IVoni us ibr a new rcpublie. 

It eost just twenty thousand dollars to diseover 
America ; and for this small sum the Queen of Spain 
liad to pledge Iku* jewels, so great were the financial 
cmbarrassjiients of the government from the Moorish 
■wars. It is true, Cohnnbus never saw the United 
States in its presiMit limits ; but he was at Cuba, 
five degrees from Florida. Henry of England took 
six years to determine the proposal which Columbus 
made him for aid in this same discovery. 

How incapable was the human mind at that period 
to eomprehend the advantage of spemling twenty 
thousand dollars, to sec if there was any such place 
at all as this New World of ours ! Just as incredu- 
lous are many to the prospcjctive results of the 
Pacific Rjiilroad. Yes, with all the light and knowl- 
edge, and the mathematical demonstrations of its 
effects upon our national destiny, the timid and 
circumscribed intellect is as hard to convince as the 
child is that there is not a man in the moon. 



WhcT 

u greate 

indei^Mi 

years ii 

spoken 

ship^ h( 

posed t' 

l)efore 

were a 

ccntur) 

land bi 

And 

tinent, 

and wi 

propiti 

land tl 

centre 

contin 

has n( 

by op 

Ce: 

contii 

two ^ 

a big 

and : 



THE PACIFIC RAILROAD. 



83 



that 
|) tho 
lit to 
festt'd 



When America was discovered, Kn;;laiid had not 
;i greater poi)ulali<m tliaii wc liad when we declared 
independence. riintin<^ had been but twcntv-onu 
years in use ; the Kii<^lish lan^iia<i'c liad not biM'n 
spoken a century ; there were but four niercliant 
ships beh)ngin<( to Jjon(h)n, and the pc()[)U» were o[)- 
posed to trade. Two centuries ehipscd, alter (hat, 
before Enghnid liad dug a cannl. Manufactures 
were ahnost unknown ; and it was upwards of a 
century after the discovery of America before Eng- 
land built her first stage-coach. 

And now, with a railroad access to the entire con- 
tinent, the blessing of our unequalled government 
and wise and wholesome laws will make us felt and 
propitiated by the entire world. What makes Eng- 
land the first commercial power in the world, but the 
control she has over the markets of Asia and the 
continent of Europe ? The possession of California 
has now added to the national wealth of America, 
by opening to us the same commerce of Asia. 

Central as the United States are between the two 
continents of Europe and Asia, and producing the 
two great staples of tobacco and cotton, we need but 
a highway of steam from the Atlantic to the Pacific, 
and mail steamers from California to China, to over- 



I i 







84 



THE rACIl'lO KAILUUAD. 



stop Kn^i.intl, jiikI claim siipromfiry in conuiioroo to 
licr. Why lias Kii.Lilainl, thus far, matlo its tlcpcnd- 
eiit 14XH1 hi'i' lor (oimiii'rcial iiuw.sy IJiu-ausL; sIk; 
liJLS iia ovcrlaml nmto, wlihh sccuri'.s her mail lacili- 
tics. The mails ar(; taken IVom liomhm lo Cautuii, 
and vice versa, in sixty-five days ; to us, in sevoiity- 
soven days. 11" wo constrnet jl railroad, now, to 
the Paeilic, and (unmeet Calilornia with China l»y 
mail steamers, the whole distance I'nmi New Vurk 
to China will he aceum[»lishe(l in the ineredihly short 
time of twenty-lour days. En<;lan(l then would be- 
come de[)endent u[)ou the United States, not only 
for mail facilities, l)ut for the products of Asia, 
•whieli would he made available throufib us. 

England, by lier Cape of Good Hope and overland 
routes, bas obtained a monopoly over the East India 
trade and that of China. The government of the 
East Indies forces opium to be introduced, which is 
the important drug for the Chinese markets. The 
sale of opium amounts to thirty millions annually. 
Besides, the cotton and other fabrics which England 
sends to China bring back to Great Britain annu- 
ally twenty nuUions of dollars. Nothing but the 
American trad-j has saved China from being ex- 
hausted in money. We deal with China to about 



spec 

Lon 

rapii 

Knu 

this 



TITK PACIFIC RAIMIOAD. 



80 



2 



half the ninoimt ol' Kn;:l;ni(l ; lor wliii h \V0 soiul 
s|)(H;i<% or hills drawn lo (uir accoiuH, payahle in 
liondou. iSoNV, it needs hiil I'or 11- (o estal)II-li iiion^ 
ra[)id e(»iinnuirn'alioiis, to enjoy all the ad\anla,Li'e.s 
lai.uland now j)ossesse.-5. Onr central position 'f!:'\\v< 
this natural I'aeility. AVe have* hut to use the appli- 
aneos of science and art which (lod has ^^iven us the 
intcdligenco to a|t|)reciate, to take the commercial 
halance inti) our own hand."^. 

It is now reduced to a moral certainty that cotton 
cannot ho ^^-rown to any extent in any s(/il yet found 
out hut that of the United Stales. It i^, therefore, 
the first staph; of our tra(h\ Tohacco is next in im- 
portance, as such. Its use is now hecomin^u- .li'eneral 
throu^^hout Kuro'pe and in som(> parts of Asia. It 
is only kept from China ]>y Knuland, who forces 
opium upon her peo[)le, and makes the diiliculty ol' 
ojjtainin'i" tohacco from us. AVe alone miirht sid>sti- 
tute tohacco for opium, and thus rescue a people 
porishin<j^ so rapidly from the use of that poisonous 
drug ; the Chiiu\so greatly preferring tohacco, hut 
the Enii'lish, iealous of our staiil(\ take care to 



y 



throw every ohsta(dc in the way of its intro(hiction, 
well knowing that it would entirely su[)ersede the 
use of the d?adly narcotic in which they are so 






8 



* 



l: 



8G 



THE PACIFIC RAILROAD. 




deeply interested. We miglit receive, in return for 
cur tobacco and cotton, the junonnt in tea and silk, 
for which we now pay twcniy-five millions annually. 

Look at the true state of the case. I'Jigland has 
to buy of us the raw material, out of which ahc' 
fabricates the basis of her foreign trade. She gets 
our wool and cotton, and makes muslins, cottons, 
calicoes, handkerchiefs, and cotton ynrn, of owr cot- 
ton^ and broadcloth, cassimeres, blankets, camlets, 
of our ivool. We also nvdkc the same articles. 
Both export to China ; yet we find, by a compari- 
son of one year, that ours reach scarcely one fwcn- 
tidh part of England's, for the reason given, — that 
she commands the market by her mail facilities of 
communication. 

Take the trade in tea, and compare our commerce 
and England's with China, in the sixty years from 
the time we began to trade with China in tliat arti- 
cle, and look at it. The first voyage of commerce 
from the United States to China was in 1785 ; but 
the trad^ was not really opened until 1702. It has 
so increased that now our importation of tea amounts 
to sixteen millions .of dollars annually. From the 
beginning of our trade with China, w^e have im- 
ported from that country to the value of upwards 



THE PACIFIC KAILROAD. 



87 



of two hundred and fifty-oi^ilit millions of dollars, 
while our exports have amounted to only a little over 
eighty-L>ix millions. Thus we have paid China in 
precious metals upwards of one hundred and 
seventy- two millions of dollars ! 

From 1792, when our trade began with China, 
to 1827, silver to the amount of eighty-eight mil- 
lions and upwards had been shipped direct from 
the United Slates to China. In 1827, China, 
owing to the opium trade, had become indebted to 
England very largely, and American bills, payable 
in England, began to be used in lieu of coin ; and 
from 1834, these American bills on Chinese accounts 
amounted to about sixteen and a half millions, 
w^hile the specie in that time sent from England 
was only between seven and eight millions I 

So, since 1834, England has been steadily drain- 
ing our coin to the amount of seventy-five millions 
seven hundred and fifty-seven thousand seven hun- 
dred and ninety-seven dollars, and settling with 
China by bills of credit, for which we have to pay 
specie to her. 



1 



t 



C 11 A P T E R III. 



Now, this drain of England upon ns is prepos- 
terous. Our own products arc sufliticnt to pay for 
all "we get from China ; and it is otir products 
■which pay a premium to the lahor of England, and 
cause a. loss to our manufacturers and mechanics. 
It is the increase of our products by the art and value 
of British labor wdiich actually pays for nearly the 
whole of the teas and raw silk England imports 
from China. 

There are other advantasiTs coiinectod Avith the 
steamers to transpose the mart from China to the 
Pacific, meeting the railroral at that terminus. 
These steamers can be so constructed rs to superi;ede 
the goyernment force needed there, and save the 
treasury annually one million and a quarter of 
dollars. The extensive and unprotected coasts of 
California and Oregon render them liable to foreign 
aggression, and demand, in this point of view, the 
serious consideration of the people. Before the 



THE PACIFir IIAILROAD. 



89 



fopos- 



^oae 



of 



acquisition of California we had two hundred ves- 
sels employed in trade in the Paeific. Since then, 
tliere are, at least, six hundred and iiity Ameri -an 
trading vessels. The amount of our [)roperty ex- 
posed tliere on the coast is nearly seventy millions. 
The whaling Imsiness alone is valued at thirty 
millions, with an employed force of eighteen thou- 
sand men in the North Pacific ; and our annual 
revenue is estimated at ten millions. 

Our acquisition on the Pacific at once inaugu- 
rated a new era in the industry, energy, and enter- 
prise, of the American people. It was their volun- 
tary labor which levelled mountains, felled forests, 
and swept the plains with a torrent of emigration, 
in the valley of the St. Lawrence, and the basin of 
our lakes. And when the facilities of moving 
whole bodies of men are given to the people by 
the railroad, and time and space at once annihilated, 
the pulpit, the press, and institutions for education, 
will multiply, and thus expand and strengthen the 
bonds of our liberties. 

The geogrnphical, physical, and moral power of 
the United States constitute the basis of their 
greatness. Great Britain has thirty-four thousand 
square miles ; Austria, Hungary, and Italy, three 






!#■ ' 



90 



THE PACIFIC RAILROAD. 



hundred thousand ; France, less than two hundred 
thousand ; we, Americans, over three and a h;df 
millions ! Gen<:ra[)hically, Kussia compares as 
one to one hundred and twenty ; Austria, as one to 
nine ; France, as one to five and a half ; United 
States, as one to ninety-six ! AVhile we have there- 
fore a field to display our enterprise, all wo want 
is avenues to exert it in its full vigor. 

This railway will save ten or twelve days over 
the Panama route. It will transfer the capital of 
Europe to us, which is now used in monopolizing 
the trade of Asia. It will give to Americans the 
key of the West, and fix forever the channel of 
Asiatic commerce (which for centuries has been 
oscillating) upon the best, safest, and quickest 
route of transit through the heart of this nation. 
Safety, security, protection, advancement, all require 
the construction of ^^lis Pacific Eailroad. The gold 
of Californiji has now become the essential stimu- 
lant to all the industrial pursuits of +he country. 
The destruction of the monthly shipment to New 
York would send a shiver through all the commerce, 
finance, and industry, of this country, that would 
be mcredibly severe, in a single w^eek. 

Now, consider how easy foreign cruisers and 



prlvatce 
essentia 
rrold no 

r' 

foreign 

miles. 

intcrpos 

Ships, 

to proi 

cominci 

protect 

fi-oin f« 

Thrt 

been c 

lost CO 

staid ^ 

([UCStl 

trade. 
tli(^ st 
taut 
conse 
have 
rest 
and 
who! 
T 



THE PACIFIC UAILROAD. 



91 



indred 



l^'-^ as 
me to 



^vaiit 
ovTr 

till of 

izing 
s tlie 
el of 
been 
c'kest 
tion. 
luiro 
gold 
mu- 
hy. 
^"ew 
rce, 
uld 

md 



privateers could cut us off from tliis receipt of the 
essential element of our national vitality ! The 
jTold now comes to us over I'orei^iU seas, throuuli 
foreign territory, and over a circuit of six thousand 
miles. In the event of war, Avhole fleets would 
interpose to take from us this arm of our strength. 
Ships, and troops, and missions, are now necessary 
to protect our national interest, and protect our 
commerce on the Pacific ; the railway would then 
protect us, and save all our commerce and territory 
from foreign aggression. 

Throughout the world's history, nations have 
been elevated or depressed as they advanced or 
lost commerce ; and the changes for three thou- 
sand years in Asiatic commerce have settled the 
question, that the ocean is the obstacle to foreign 
trade. Land now has been found the facilitv, and 
the ste;un-car the only sure means to keep up dis- 



tant comnuinication^ 



The Uuited States have 



conserpicntly the advantage over Europe. AVe 
have half the road to India on our own land, the 
rest on a peaceable sea which washes our shores, 
and Avith an impcnctraljle bar to Europe of the 
whole diameter of the earth. 

This railroad, then, will exalt us to be mistress 






92 



THE PACIFIC RAILROAD. 



l^- 





of the commerce of the wide wovhl. It will he at 
the same time the impregnal)le fortification to save 
us from the assault of vast armies, or from fierce 
and ])l(>0(ly ])attlcs within our 0'»vn hordcrs. AVho 
would stop to count the cost of the mere construc- 
tion, when every interest dear to the hope of citizen 
and Christian is staked upon the result? 

Aside from the commercial and political necessity, 
the economy and convenience of the nation, the 
interests of {ill the people, demand this road now. 
Americans, take the whole history of tlie roads in 
this country in the past twenty-five years, and you 
will find every dollar invested in them has hccn 
worth ten to you. 

The vast increase of the West in population and 
lands is only to be ascribed to its roads. In five 
years Illinois has doubled her population, and in- 
creased her lands five-fold. In these five years 
ten or twelve hundred miles of railway have been 
built. 

In a moral and educational view, this road must 
have an immense value. The tendciicy of popula- 
tion is all west ; the field for the growth and 
prosperity of the people is there. In a few years 
it will decide all ournational measures in Congress; 



it will 
agent ft 
and all 
strcngt 
the val 
loi-s to 
has be 
the ent 
The 
deman 
times, 
latituc 
mo^e 
tious i 
millio 
and ti 
Th 
ernm 
the i 
Thes 
ern 1 
cisc( 
of t 
all( 
tier 



THE PACIFIC RAILROAD. 



|11 be at 
'0 save 
|i fierce 
M'h., 
Iiistruc- 
'cidzcn 

'cssifv, 
>ii, the 
1 now. 
xids ill 
ti<l joii 
been 

m and 
n five 
1(1 ill- 
years 
been 

must 

)ula- 

aiid 

ears 

ess; 



it will control our national revenues ; and, as tbj 
agent for transportation of newspapers, cheap book.i, 
and all those methods wliiidi tend to enlighten and 
strengthen the Protestant jxnver of our country, 
the value of the road cannot he computed. The 
loss to the country hy omitting to build this road 
lias been more already than would have supported 
the entire annufd expenses of the government. 

The American people now almost unanimously 
demand this railroad as the great necessity of our 
times, and they require it to be built in whatever 
latitude the great mass of the population mostly 
mo^ c ; — on whatever line is shortest, most expedi- 
tious in travel, and .nost convenient to the thirty 
millions of people who inhrbit our thirty-one states 
and territories. 

Three routes out of the eight surveyed at gov- 
ernment expense have been pronounced feasible by 
the Secretary of War in his report to Congress. 
These are the northern, the central, and the south- 
ern lines. By all of them the harbor of San Fran- 
cisco is acknowledged to be the essential terminus 
of the road on the wTst, as it is now the centre of 
all our commerce on the Pacific coast. The ques- 
tion, then, is, what point on the east as «a terminus 

9 






94 



THE PACIFIC RAILROAD. 




BfSSSri 



1^' 



will correspond with San Francisco, as the centre 
of the greatest amount of population and commer- 
cial enterprise on the west? 

The distance on the southern line from San Fran- 
cisco to New York is three thousand six hunih'od 
and forty-seven miles ; on the northern line, includ- 
ing distance yet unsurveyed, three thousand six 
hundred and thirty-four ; on the central line, three 
thousand two hundred and forty miles. This wouLl 
give a distance of four hundred miles shorter to the 
central route. Texas has granted to any company 
that constructs the railroad on the southern roi^tc 
ten thousand two hundred and forty acres of land 
for every mile of road built. Nov;, these lands 
of Texas are the only unimproved lands on this 
continent where cotton can be cultivated. Cotton 
is the staple of our commerce ; the rest of the 
world is depending on us for its growth, and we do 
not own now a single acre of government land 
favorable to its production. In this point of view, 
the grants of land Texas offers become incalculably 
valuable to our whole country. 

The charge for transporting goods across the 
Panama Railroad is a tenth less than before its con- 
struction. Four or five hours now serve to carry 



THE PACIFIC RAILROAD. 



95 



Icentre 
niner- 

Fran- 
ndrod 
clud- 
<1 six 
three 
would 
to the 
ipany 
rovio 
* land 
lands 
this 
otton 
^ the 
re do 
land 
iew, 
ably 

the 
jon- 



passcngers and freight across the isthmus, which 
formerly occupied three days of dangerous travel. 
Freight is now reduced to one hundred and twenty- 
five dollars the ton. But a railroad from the coast 
of Texas would not only save time, but reduce the 
tonnage to one half the amount it now costs from 
New York to C.-Hfornia. The saving of freight, 
the saving of time, would at once induce every pru- 
dent and sagacious merchant to adopt the railroad 
across the continent, and thus gain thirty or forty 
days. 

The central route starts from New York to the 
Pacific, and has already been completed to Iowa 
City. From New York city it followes the Hudson 
River, the Erie Canal, the great lakes, from Buft'alo 
to Chicago, to Rock Island. The easy passage for 
a bridge which is placed across the Alississippi at 
Rock Island seems to have been marked out by 
Providence as the means to facilitate commerce across 
the river, and renders the roiite to San Francisco 
the most direct and advantageous in the judgment 
of many eminent men. Next year the route will 
have reached Council Bluff. All this by individual 
enterprise, without government aid ; and which 



If 



irry 



m 



96 



THE PACIFIC BAILIIOAD. 



m 



I 




"will make the next census count in Iowa over a 
million of inhabitants. 

All that this route needs from the p)venunent to 
complete the road to San Francisco from Towa City 
or Council IJlulV is a p:rant (»f land, takin^Miothiii.i^ 
from the treasury, hut au^'ni('ntiii<i' its revenues hy 
brin<rinp: the lands into the market. This route is 
in the centre of alxait one half of the |)o[)ul;itiou 
of the whole country ; and it is fair to presume, from 
what has been achieved hy the industry and enter- 
prise of the West, that the road will be built on 
this route, whether favored by the general govern- 
ment or not. 

It was the Erie Canal of New York tliat made 
the first great revolution in the trade of the coun- 
try, and exalted that state in wealth and grandeur. 
Ohio succeeded with hvr canals between the lakes 
and the valley, and western trade at once went into 
New York. 

The canals of iNIaryland and Pennsylvania had 
no water communications from the Atlantic to the 
Ohio, and failed for that reason ; while New York 
had a monopoly for thirty years, or until the rail- 
road penetrated the entire West to the banks of the 
Mississippi. Steam conquers all other motors. The 



; 



incredi 

vania, 

presen 

It \A 



Why 



THK PACIFIC KAILUOAD. 



U7 



lit to 
iCifv 



hing 



incre(li])lorevoniu's fiom the central rojul of Pennsyl- 
vania, and the IJalliniure and Ohio road, tor the 
present year, sliow this result. 

It is steam wliich ^^as «iiven Kn;:lan«l lier power 
over tile continent, l>y tacilitatin^- the trans[»ortation 
of lier coal, iron, salt, and other l)ulky articles. 
^Vhy do the inhahitants of cities and towns enjoy 
greater advantages than those who are settled over a 
sparse country ? IJecause there is an ampler field 
for purchase, a greater variety of em[»loyments 
for industry to suit the ahility and capacity of the 
lahorer, and greater (piickness in tinishing work. 
Where population is collected the competition is 
greater. 

Now, the Pacific Railroad will do for the peo[)le 
of our vast country just what the city or town now 
does. It v.'ill concentrate nund)ers from small and 
distant places in an incredihly sliort time. This 
will at once lead to prosper! t}'. Greece arose to 
commercial ii:reatness in this way. Towns in Ilol- 
land, Zealand, and Flanders, for centuries prosp(n-ed 
hy these means. Switzerland thus holds intercourse 
hy the Rhine with Holland. While those countries 
without roads, or canals, or other water facilities, 
•have never risen intellectually or commercially. 

9* 



r 



98 



THK PACIFIC RAILROAD. 



■ ^1 


' H 



I 



We luivo already witiiesse«l the effect of the rail- 
road upon our vast AVest, wliich has couduecMl to ' 
indiviihial eoinfort and prosperity wh<'r(;ver it has 
penetrated. There is yet anoth(»r advanhifro to he 
attained hy the road across the coniinent, not to he 
overlooked hy Americans, and that is, its elFect upon 
the difliision of Protectant principles over our land. 



•.. kU 



Mil 






lit has 

to })(' 
to |)(! 

|t upon 
land. 



CHAPTER TV. 

The endless ludidnys of the Catholic church have 
always chcckeil industry ; and it is a fact to be 
ronienibered, timt, allhou^li the nominal Roman 
Catholics (hut greater proportion infidel:-) are more 
numerous than Protestants in Europe, a much 
larger share of Europe's exports comes from the 
skill and ingenuity of Protestants than Catholics. 
In Ireland, linen- weaving, the only great branch 
of manufacture, is almost wholly in the hands of 
Protestants. In the vast margin of the West yet 
to be filled, it becomes a (juestion of the first 
moment to the nation that it be occupied hy Prot- 
estants, -whose (Education tends to strengthen our 
liberties, while that of Romtmism is designed to 
subvert them. The West will soon hold the bal- 
ance in our national exchequer, and elect our chief 
ruler ; and it is impossible to be too vigilant in 
promoting and spreading Protestant education over 
all that portion of our people. The railroad, more 



■#f|it 






100 



THE PACIFIC RAILROAD. 



liH'i 



than soil, more tlian mines, will (end to this result, 
by briii<^iiig all seetions ol' the Uiiiuii together, and 
advaneing knowledge to the remotest linuts. 

The revenue of our eountry arises chiefly hy 
eonsumptiou ; and the wealth and power of our 
whole country would he increased and secured by 
the increase of a Protestant American population. 
The individual income of such a people would 
also be increased. Why? Because the reward of 
labor in all the manufacturing and mechanic arts 
w^ould induce the iudividuiil to adopt a uniform 
pursuit ; wdiile the father of a family would not be 
compelled, as now, often to sacrifice education and 
personal comfort for the mere sake of living. 

Thus, Americans, as the commerce of the country 
expanded, so would all the arts and pursuits of 
industry expand, as it grew great and powerful. 
Th<) Pacific Railroad must increase the medium 
which circulates and regulates commerce ; it nmst 
enlighten and expand the energies of men ; it 
must spread the influence of American institu- 
tions over maidvind, and dissipate that very dark- 
ness, under which men have been deluded, and 
their means squandered, to grow rich without labor, 
or wise without learnin";. Foreign force and do 



nl 





tl 



01 



THE PACIFIC RAILROAD. 



101 



3 rc'snlt, 
lier, and 



>■:». 



I it' fly by 
of our 
ired by 
Illation, 
^vould 
vurd of 
lie arts 
Liniforni 
. not bo 
ion and 

I* 
;ountry 

uits of 

Ycrfiil. 

cdiiiin 

must 

1 ; it 

slitu- 

dark- 

, and 

abor, 

do 



mestic treriohery have struck at the foundation of 
our political edifice. Wo need at once to balance 
tlie public mind by IVcc J'l-otcstant culture, so that 
our people shall reason before they act. 

lielbre the discovery of the mines of California 
and Australia, the coin came from Mexico and 
South America. Since the discovery of these, a 
new era has been inaugurated in our commerce 
with the world. In 1849 and '00, the first flood 
of gold came into the ct)untry ; and in the three 
following years, '01, '52, and 'oo, the enormous 
sum of one hundred and sixty-six millions had been 
added to the circulation, including about thirty 
millions in the hands of individuals. This caused 
a change in the condition of the people, who, see- 
ing the steady increase in three years, predicted a 
rise wdiich would, at last, amount to one hundred 
millions annually. Then everything in specula- 
tion, expense, and importation, increased. Banks 
sprang up, and })aper was used as gold ; wages 
and work increased ; railroad bonds v;ere issued 
by the million ; life and fire insurance companies 
uuiltiplied. But on what was all this based ? 
Was it upon the gold and silver in the bank vaults 
of the country ? Not at all ; but upon the fid ion 



5 

If 




102 



Tllii PACIFIC RAILROAD. 



which men ^vithout reasoning adopted, and the 
delusion under wliich they acied. 

By the returns of the first six year? subsequent 
to the discovery of gold in Calilbrnia, two hundred 
millions of tliat metal had been added to the cir- 
culation of the world. Australia, though not so 
long known, l)rought fifty millions more ; making 
two hundred and fifty millions more money in use 
than before the discovery of these mines. 

By the oflicial banking returns of the United 
States and Europe for that period^ Ave find that 
there was no more money on hand then than before 
the discovery. Where, then, did this metallic cur- 
rency go ? AVhy, it went directly into the hands 
of the people. It, therefore, was not the instru- 
ment of the credit structure, which is the proper 
and only means for making paper the representa- 
tive of gold and silver ; so that, while this in- 
crease of gold gave fancied security to the credit 
it induced, it had not really anything to do with it. 

The mining districts, including all the valuable 
motals found on the Pacific, will, in themselv^es, 
make the railroad eminently desirable for the trans- 
portation of these metals. Consider, Americans, 
that, after eigllt years of constant mining, and ybwr 






THE PACIFIC RAILROAD. 



103 



ind the 

sequent 
mndrcd 
the cir- 
not so 
uakino- 

in use 

United 
d that 
before 
\G cur- 
hands 
nstru- 
oroper 
senta- 
is in- 
credit 
ith it. 
uable 
dves, 
rans- 
3ans, 
four 



hundred millions of dollars obtaijicd, they are still 
as hixurious as ever. Gohl is seen embedded in 
every stream, mountain, and vale. The copper 
mines of Lake Superior and Eastern Tennessee 
have not made even the demand for this metal less 
profitable. Ivow, that obtained from the new 
copper mines of Ajo is wagoned all the way to 
San Diego, and thence to San Francisco ; and 
still, with all that cost, a large profit is left to the 
transporter. The richest silver mines ever dis- 
covered are in Sonora, in ^lexico, which now 
belong to us. Silver, perfectly pure, has been 
clipped by the sword of an officer, as a specimen. 
The Indians have deterred explorers, hitherto, from 
penetrating these mines ; but, now that they have 
become American property, we shall find American 
enterprise entering tlicm. 

Americans, you perceive these rich mines of 
gold, iron, silver, and copper, will at once be 
made accessible by the railroad. Thus it will add 
to the capital of our country vastly more than it 
can possibly cost. This Pacific railway will be 
the harbinger of the future glory and aggrandize- 
ment of American institutions. In twenty days 
we shall be in the most populous cities of Europe 



c 



104 



THE PACIFIC llAII^.OAD. 








and Asia Wc luivc already consummated treaties 
'svhicli secure commerce and trade to Americans, 
and protect their lives, property, and religious 
liberty, in Siam and Japan, so long closed against 
tlie trade oi' the Avorld ; and then we will com- 
mand the accunmlated wealth of seven hundred 
millions of people, and which has enriched every 
nation that has had any kind of control over it. 

England, to maintain her ascendency over this 
trade, has already three over-land mail routes, and 
is now engaged in devising three more, to carry 
this Eastern commerce to the British empire. But 
a railroad, to do this for England, would have to 
extend six thousand five hundred miles, and would 
take fourteen years to build it. Now% by the com- 
promise of 1850, which Millard Fillmore signed, 
as President of the United States, wx secured the 
ten leagues of country on the Pacific roast, wdiich 
included California, and planted our flag there. 
And, by this means, — made our blessing, under 
God, — we can make our na^ion}d road, which will 
convey us across the continent to the Bay of San 
Francisco in seven days ; and ten or twelve days 
from there, by steam, will land Americans in the 
populous counlries of Eastern and Western Asia 



and W| 

the w( 
for six I 
with h| 
twent; 
Thijj 
ainongl 
new cl 
now C( 
the cei 
vjool. 
Aunt e 
iient ; 
trol th 
too, w 
tiviliz 
of oui 
then \ 
fornia 
Th 
metal 
laten 
nesse 
the 1 
of tl 







im 



THE PACIFIC RAILROAD. 



105 



and Western Europe. It ^vill give them a hold on 
the wealth oC China, which has l)ecn increasin<2^ 
for six thousand years, and hrinu* thoni in contact 
with her seven hundred millions of inhahitants in 
twenty days from the day they leave New York. 

This raih'oad, then, will put sectional a,<>*itation 
among our people at rest, and set them jdjout these 
new channels of trade and commerce. We have 
now contr)l ol' the cotton market of the world, and 
the certjiin prospect of liaving the same power over 
vjool. Iron, also, in every state but one, is abun- 
dant enough to supply the whole American conti- 
nent ; and, in a few years, we shall likewise con- 
trol the market of this great item in trade. Gold, 
too, Avill then be more rapidly diilused over the 
civilized worhl, and tliis will facilitate the activity 
of our connnerce. A ii^reater amount of labor will 
then be made available, to work the mines of Cali- 
lurnia and Australia, than ever before. 

Tlie eifect of the discovery of tlie precious 
metals in Calif)rnia has been to stimulate the 
latent energies of men to an extent never wit- 
nessed before, and has been the means of forcing 
the necessity of a railway upon the common sense 
of the American people. The poor man will be 

10 



H 



■■■< 






106 



THE PACIFIC RAILROAD. 



^ 





more benefited than the rich by this road ; and the 
labor employed in the development of our new 
territory, and the exploration of its mines, will 
prevent any superabundance of laborers in the 
most thickly-settled parts of the country, and stop 
the poor man from working for the pittance he now 
does. 

The manufacturer, also, by the increased free- 
dom to commerce which the constant and rapid 
transportation of gold from California and Austra- 
lia will then command, Avill find himself better able 
to cope with the manufacturers of Europe. 

According to Professor Blake, the great gold 
field in California, notwithstanding the large in- 
crease to the circulation of the precious metals, has 
not yet been fully explored. There is a field seven 
hundred miles in length, and about fifty in breadth, 
containing thirty-five thousand square miles, eleven 
thousand of which are rich in gold, sometimes 
extending to the depth of six feet in the sands of 
the coast. This is repeatedly washed out of the 
black sand by the tides. The number of square 
miles worked, but imperfectly, we are assured by 
Dr. Trask, in his work on geology, never exceeds 
four hundred at a time ; and fewer persons were 



THE PACIFIC RAILROAD. 



107 



engaged in mining in 1854 than in 1852, although 
the product of gold was in '52 forty-five millions 
of dollars, and in '54 sixty-one millions. This 
was owing to the increased advantages of working 
the mines by proper machinery. 

Now, by the highest authorities we find ^hat the 
amount of gold in the whole world, in 1848, was 
two billions nine hundred millions of dollars, or six 
hundred millions of pounds ; while, by the increase 
from the mines of California and Australia since 
that time, at least four billions of dollars have been 
added to that amount, which would make now,, in 
the whole world, six billions nine hundred millions 
of dollars of gold, beside what ii ^vorked into jewelry 
and plate. And, Americans, does it not cause a 
thrill of triumph in your hearts to know that, of 
this increase to the precious metals, your own State 
of California has contributed three hundred and 
thirteen millions two hundred and eighty-five thou- 
sand five hundred and two dollars and seventy- 
seven cents ; and other parts of America, seventeen 
million seven hundred and sixty-six thousand seven 
hundred and sixty-eight dollars and fifty-seven 
cents ? 



W^ i-WH iiuilliMI HllMHlW mi J U^ W i 



I 




CHAPTER V. 

M. Tegoborski, Counsel of the Empire of Russia, 
in writing of the influence of the gold fields of 
California and Austnilia, estimates that by them 
the amount of gold and silver in use in Europe will 
be doubled in thirteen years, and throughout the 
whole world in twenty-four years. 

Beside, what is the effect of the discovery of the 
mines of California in Europe ? Why, it has 
raised real estate four per cent, per annum, and 
advanced all kinds of produce in like manner. It 
has also advanced the wages of labor in like ratio. 
IIow ? Because the poor Avorking-man, before 
dependent on the employer for the mere sustenance 
of life, is now driven to another field of operation, 
and incited by the desire to accumulate, and thus 
changing often the state of things by making the 
rich man dependent on the laborer. 

So those who remained as well as those who 
went to California were benefited. If that was so 



iuE 

the 

com 



m\ 



THE PACIFIC RAILROAD. 



109 



in Europe, let us turn to our own country, — wo, 
tlie possessors of Calilornia. Wo see liow^ our 
commerce is extended ; wo see, day )>y day, how 
eagerly the accumuhitions of gohl .au\ silver in our 
bank-vaults are takcMi and transporlcd into otiier 
countries, to ])r!ng back their nierchandiso to us. 
Why? Because its shipment to England, Erance, 
and Germany, equalizes the Aalue of gold, and 
prcATnts the dangers to trade which result from 
keeping it under bars and Ixdts. The railroad to 
the Pacific has now become a necessity to the 
American people, that they may enjoy the free 
heritage God has given them, op(Mung all the ave- 
nues to wealth and industry, and making their 
voice heard on the hills, in the valleys, the cities, 
and the plains, of the whole earth. This, Ameri- 
cans, will be the great triumph of the American 
States over commerce, mechanics, and manufac- 
tures, which nothing can impede beneath the stars. 
The railway and the canal will be the true con- 
fjuerors of the world. Around them will centre 
the industry and energy of the Anglo-Saxon race. 
There the Protestant emigrant will seek his new 
home. They will become the majority of the 



They 
10 



^ 



^^ 



110 



THE PACIFIC RAILROAD. 




population, and the consequont posscssoi's of most 
of tho property of the country. 

The telogrji[)h ^\\\\ then become the electric 
medium of exchange, which, without a visible 
chain, will link the American Union to the world. 
** Lo, what hath God wn^'ight ! " were the memo- 
rable words which passed over the wires of the 
first telegraph ever made in the United States, 
a few years since, between Baltimore and Washing- 
ton, a distance of but forly miles. Now, Ameri- 
cans, we not only find it in the full exercise of its 
magic power in all the states of this mighty Union, 
but actually preparing to bring us in speaking dis- 
tance of the other continent. 

You all know that the Island of St. John's, 
Newfoundland, is the most eastern point of North 
America, and Valencia is the most western harbor 
of the British Isles. The waters of the St. Law- 
rence have long since cut Newfoundland from the 
continent. Now a submarine telegraph has been 
laid, which brings Newfoundland and the main land 
again in contact ; and the distance from St. John's 
to New York, of one thousand seven hundred and 
eighty miles, can be reached by direct communi- 
cation. But still the orean was to be crossed to 



reach 

best 1 

to Li 

Islan« 

object 

tific 

start 

ninet 



THE PACIFIC RAILROAD. 



Ill 



most 



reach Europe, and the question arose how this could 
best be done. Some proposed extending the lino 
lo Labrador, rireonland, Ireland, jind the Faroe 
Islands ; but to this there were insurmountable 
objections, and, after the investigation of scien- 
tific men, it was decided that the line must also 
start from Newfoundland to Europe, a distance of 
nineteen hundred miles, on account of the depth of 
the water, essential to the success of the enterprise. 

The plan devised, and about to be executed, is 
this : A line of ^vire three thousand miles long will 
be placed on two war-ships in mid-ocean, one 
belonging to the United States, the other to Eng- 
land. These will each take half the wire. The 
wire will be covered with gutta percha coatings, 
and will be made of the best conducting material, 
accompanied by a machine, invented for the express 
purpose, by Dr. Whitehouse, of England, in order 
to ascertain when the wire is broken or damaged, 
and the exact point of interruption. 

Thus, Americans, by your inventive genius, you 
are with one grapple about to join Europe to this 
country by a telegraph, which will start at New- 
foundland, and end at Valencia, in Ireland, with 
one thousand nine hundred miles of cable resting 



i 



112 



THE PACIFIC KAILR0A1>. 



in the Atlantic Ocean ! This is not an nhul 
akotcli, Init a livin*:,* reality, that in 1857, next 
year, the Ijritish Lsles find the Unite. 1 States, 
tliuugh divided hy a stormy ocean of three thousand 
miles, will l)y science an«l machinery hold conversa- 
iionul ifilcrcoursc with each other ; and, at the 
same time, the distance l)y railway between Nova 
Scotia and Portland, Maine, will have diminished 
our travelling distance from Euro[)e eleven hundred 
miles ! 

These nii<2,'hty works show the nnitual ]>enent 
England and the United States arc cacli to the 
other, while they continue as tlioy are. While the 
energy of this great American pe(Ji)le, too rai)id for 
carrier pigeons, and even steam, and eager to extend 
and profit by every adva-Ungo in coinmerce, inven- 
tion, finance, science, and arts, and to move in the 
rapid march of civilization over the whole globe, 
has already forged the chain which is to bind us 
to the three ancient continents of the Eastern 
worhl. • . .r v 

Well might Mr. Dallas, the American minister, 
declare that the great telegraph, now making, 
would aCord Americans the opportunity soon to 
respond to the toast given to Americans in London 



before t1 
other lai 
St) withl 
its soil i| 
will so i 
<advance| 
cully im 
people i 
Now 
make tl 
the gen 
We^ 
lion of 
hiuidrei 
over wl 
The CO 
rcgulat 
to bull 
a mail 
or sell 
appro] 
roads 
for m 
do nc 
three 



THE PACIFIC RAILROAD. 



113 



before the dinner ended. *' AVhen Ijiniine distressed 
other lands, in (he land of Kuyi)t there was bread." 
So with our beloved country : Ironi tbc diversity of 
its soil and eliniate, its power in raisin;;' subsist jnec 
will so increase as the hund)lcr condition of society 
advances by inteUi;;ence, tliat it would be pbysi- 
cally impossible to arrest the march id' the American 
people in commerce, wealth, or mental activity. 

Now wo come to tlie ^reat (piestion, who is to 
make the road to the Pacific, — Con^iTcss, that is, 
the <»'eneral governnuMit, or the people ? 

We say it cannot Ijc luiilt witliout the coopera- 
tion of the government, ])ecause there are fifteen 
lu:mlred miles between ^Missouri and California, 
over which Congress alone has power to legisiato. 
The constitution, which gives Congress the right to 
regulate conmicrce, allows the general government 
to build the road to California from New York', for 
a mail route, if it so decided. Congress can give 
or sell the public lands, as it pleases. Congress can 
appropriate money, if it pleases, to build a road or 
roads through the landed estate of the government 
for mail transportation, or nulitary purposes. Wo 
do not advocate the especial claims of either of the 
three routes surveyed. Each has its advantages ; 



fl 



I.illi 



.IF 

ir. 



114 



THE PACIFIC RAILIOAD. 



'■'' ., 





and all may be laterally connected, or ultimately 
and separately constructed. But, we say, had the 
present administration done its duty, and favored 
the building of tlie road to the Pacific three years 
ago, — instead of burning Grey town, making Ostend 
conferences to seize Cuba by " divine " right, and 
repealing the Missouri CompromiLo, which has 
brought upon us intestine war, — our country, 
instead of being divided, distracted, and agitated, 
would have been running a new race in dignity, 
and political and commercial greatness. 

The administration, on the contrary, early 
receded from this national measure. The leading 
presses, which sustained it, followed in elaborate 
articles against the road. Senators of the same 
political school declared the measure would be 
worse than the alien and sedition laws of John 
Adams. They saw no power in i;he constitution, 
while grant after grant, in the last seven years, has 
been made by Congress to the Southern and Western 
States. The people saw nothing to prevent it, and 
with more energy than ever before renewed that 
demand. 

When, therefore, the Democratic Convention met 
at Cincinnati, it was necessary to appease popular 



indigna 
Pacific 
minds 
terniinj 
proven 
Pacific 
i.f thji,t 
stood, 
the con 
iiiembe 
the pe 
simply 
Thei 
the Ar 
sider i 
Pcnns^ 

•i 

oi' Mr 

ng'tiins 
And ^^ 
fact i 
Paeifii 
rates 
until I 
jiusin 
passe( 



THE PACIFIC RAILROAD. 



115 



imately 
lad the 
favored 
e years 
Ostend 
hi, and 
eh has 
ounhy, 
;itated, 
ignity, 

early 
eading 
iborate 
> same 
lid be 
* John 
ution, 
rs, has 
estern 
t, and 
[ that 

1 met 
pular 



indignation on the administration's course upon the 
Pacific Railroad ; and while there existed in the 
minds of the leaders of the party the same de- 
termination to persevere in their old policy, and 
prevent the building of a national road to the 
Pacific, they introduced a sham resolution in favor 
of that measure, which ruse not being fully under- 
stood, the resolution was three times voted down in 
the convention, and only passed finally after the 
members became initiated in the scheme to cheat 
the people, and understood its introduction was 
simply to secure their votes. 

There is one fact about that proceeding which 
the American people should remember and con- 
sider in this connection, and that is, that the 
Pennsylvania delegation, the friends and neighbors 
ul' Mr. Buchanan, to the last, gave their Aote 
n;^ainst the sham pretence to favor the railroad. 
And what is still further to be borne in mind is the 
fact that the resolution pretending to favor the 
Pacific Railroad, which was intended to secure the 
votes of the North and West, wjis not introduced 
until after the platform containing a resolution op- 
posimj internal improvements of all kinds had been 
passed, and after James Buchanan had been nomi- 



H 

S 



li 

i 

■Bi- 



116 



THE PACIFIC RAILROAD. 




nated on it. So avo find that not a single demo- 
cratic paper at the South publishes that niilruud 
resolution at all, as embodied in the platform. 

The American party is fully committed to the 
fortunes of the Pacific Railroad, in its advocacy of 
internal improvements to promote the common inter- 
est and welfare of all the states ; and, should it 
attain to power, it will as certainly secure cooperation 
from the executive of Millard Filhnore, as that 
water finds its level.* And the people will imme- 
diately perceive how favorably his action will com- 
pare with the present administration, commanding, 
by its precious and beneficent results, the gratitude 
and favor of the whole country. They know very 
well that Mr. Buchanan would not sanction the meas- 
ure if elected to the presidency, as did the wiiole 
democratic party know it. But they knew the pli- 
ancy of their candidate, even better than his friends 
and neighbors ; and that he would appear to be the 
warm advocate of the Pacific Railroad, or anvthino' 
else, to secure the suffrages of enough of tlie Amer- 
ican people to elect him, with the aid of the foreign 
vote. And it is only done in other places, where 
it is necessary to aid the democrats in their pres- 
ent struggle for a continuance of power under Bu- 

* 8ec Mr. Fillmoro's Letter, in favor of the Pacific Railronfl, page 151, 



3hana 



.!l:; m 



THE PACIFIC RAILROAD. 



117 



' (lemo- 

to llie 
caey of 
n inter- 

oukl it 
aeration 
as that 

immo- 
11 coin- 
indlng'^ 

latitude 
w very 
3meas- 
' whole 
he pVi- 

rriends 
be the 
v^thinf,^ 
imer- 
)roign 
where 
prcs- 
r Bii- 



chanan. So that Americans can decid 3 how much 
his enterprise has to expect in that quarter. ^ 

In view of the absolute fact that the creed of thu 
lemocratic party, as embodied in the platform of 
the Cincinnati Convention, most explicitly opposes 
the railway to the Pacific, and that no sectional 
party can make this road, which needs the joint 
action of the whole thirty-one states, we can dis- 
cover no possible hope in the next four years for 
the continental intercourse and commerce, the con- 
venience and blessings which it Avill afford this 
whole people, but in the election of Millard Fill- 
more. 

Americans must remember thfit the only appro- 
priations for the improvements of our commercial 
channels, since the days of Gen. Jackson, 1837, 
have been made during the presidential term of 
Mr. Fillmore, w^ith the exception of a trifling 
amount expended under Mr. Tyler. This being 
so, it becomes now of infinite moment, when this 
road is needed to preserve the integrity of the 
Union, as Avell as to save our Pacific states from a 
separation from the Atlantic states, that we should 
have immediate legislative and executive action on 
the subject. California was brought into this 

11 



118 



THE PACIFIC RAILROAD, 



'mm 




Union by the compromise of 1850, and by the tried 
statesman, Millard Fillmore, who, in his first mes 
sage to Congress after he became President of the 
United States, expressed his executive recommend- 
ation in this strong and explicit language : 

*'The unprecedented growth of our territories 
on the Pacific in wealth and population, and the 
consequent increase of their social and commercial 
relations with the Atlantic states, seems to render 
it the duty of the government to use all its con- 
stitutional POWER to improve the means of inter- 
course with them. The importance of opening a 
line of communication, the best and most expedi- 
tious of which the nature of the country will admit, 
between the valley of the Mississippi and the 
Pacific, was brought to your notice by my prede- 
cessor, in his annual message ; and as the reasons 
which he presented in favor of the measure still 
exist in full force, I beg leave to call your atten- 
tion to them, and to repeat the recommendations 
then made by him/' 



t~- » 



IS 


■' u 






'*? 






I 




■£n^a"eai-,-."-'''«^ 




^ 'A >',r/:^-w/V,Vc- , '^^i-r ' ,*■ '>. >, ■ tvi' '^:/,v\y AMr-/.Ms !v '.'u- '^:r,'J .'■■I.'. 



MANI6M OUVmEh TO Ol K lAliiS^ 



V n A PT EE I. 



A, REOOGNITIOK t)!* tho ProleHtfitii tv utiion u?=^ Uh? 

;i)ort of thi>i i(i>¥enivnent hni been 0iJ}ft«' ii^ all 

' have aflmii.i^U'nMi it in. tho true ^nvit d' rrpiib- 

si froedou]. Washington, ^ladi^ou, ^Monroe^ 

ams, Jacksoii, aad ilarrisoii, oltered ?u}>plicuiion^ 

cod ^to make our country C0EitiTni^^ t-i. "\']cA 

'nt' priiu^ipics irC tl^v .A^^^^*^:t»-v^* \-:\:\\ 'i»^*"' Uioir 

't^i h oiadc j.uHrt3'r;? oi' ^,n.:/'^i^ -• ^i J.. 

-..iMtt liL02iie)i(>t;!5 oi Fifiriua, who ,vh-- ihi-n* miir- 



;•] 



^cKMsa: 



fi-^ 



oe- 



•i^'iU 10 wor>hip tun}/' Tlu'V altoFwurd^i passed 
over with the Mayilowern wheu \m PUgriins lapu^.4 



"^i^ 



.... .-ik 









■ I.'., f ■ 



















i" ':'./^;' 



!,■ '■■^■ ■■,■■■ ;, '-,. 






.-,?^:.- 



-«< 



/ 



^ / 



/?»^ 



/« t/ 



/. 



l'«S 



<»■ 



ROMANISM OPPOSED TO OUR LIBERTIES. 



CHAPTER I . 



A RECOGNITION of tho Piotcstant religion as the 
support of tliia goveriinieut has been made by all 
who have administered it in the true spirit of repub- 
lican freedom. AVashington, i\r?idison, Monroe, 
Adams, Jackson, and Harrison, offered slipplieations 
to God '' to make our country continue the object 
of his divine care and gracious benedictii-ii." So 
do the principles of the American party date their 
origin with Luther, and were witnessed in the fhimes 
which made martyrs of Cravmier and Latimer. 
These principles came to our shores with the Prot- 
estant Huguenots of Florida, wlio were there mur- 
dered by the Spanish Innuisition for " seeking free- 
dom to worship God." They vafterwards passed 
over with the Mayflower, when the Pilgrims landed 



, :l 



120 ROMANISM OPPOSED TO OUR LIBERTIES. 



. I 



on Plymouth Rock. Tlioy appcanMl prominently 
in Jill the Revolutionary hattles ; they were em- 
bodied in the DecLiration of Independenee, Avhidi 
our fathers si^nied, and then sealed with tlieir hlood. 

When it was resolved, in the seeond session of 
the Continental Congress, 1774, " to o[»en to-mono w 
with prayer at the Carpenters' Hall," Rev. Mr. 
Duehe, whom Mr. Adams called the most elo(|uent 
man in America, made the first prayer, in these 
precise words : 

** Lord, our Heavenly Father, high and mighty 
King of kings and Lord of lords, who dost from thy 
throne behold all the dwellers on earth, and veignest 
with power supreme and uncontrolled over ;dl king- 
doms, empires, and governments, look down in 
mercy, we beseech thee, on these American States, 
who have fled to thee from the rod of the o})pressor, 
and thrown themselves on thy gracious protection, 
desiring to be henceforth dependent only on thee. 
To thee have they appejded for the righteousness of 
their cause ; to thee do they now look up for that 
countenance and support which thou alone canst 
give. Take them, therefore, heavenly Father, un- 
der thy nurturing care ; give them wisdom in coun- 
cil, and valor in the field ; defeat the malicious 



inontly 
re I'lii- 
, "Nvliidi 

>i()n of 
moiTow 
V. .Mr. 

l(KlU('llt 

II those 

iniglily 
rom tliy 
iri guest 
11 king- 
own in 
Stjites, 
pressor, 
tection, 
)n thQQ. 
;ncss of 
for tluit 
c canst 
ler, nn- 
n coiin- 
alicious 



ROMANISM OPPOSED TO OUR LIBERTIES. 121 

designs of our cruel .Mclvcrsiiries ; convince them of 
the unrighteousness of tlu'ir cause ; and if they will 
still persist in their sanguinary [airpose, (), let the 
voice of tliine own unerring justice, sounding iu 
their hearts, (;onstraiu them to dro[) the \v<'apons of 
war from their unnerved hands in the dav of hattle. 
Be thou ])resent, God of wisdom, and direct the 
councils cf this lionorable assend)ly ; enable them 
to settle things on the best and surest foundation, 
that the scene of blood may be speedily closed, that 
order, harmony, and peace, may be eifectually re- 
stored, am\ truth and justice, religion and piety, 
prevail and flourish amongst thy people. Preserve 
the health of their bodies and the vigor of their 
minds ; shower down on them and the millions they 
here represent such temporal blessings as thou seest 
expedient for them in this world, and crown them 
with everlasting glory in the world to come. All 
this ^ve ask in the name and through the merits of 
Jesus Christ, thy Sol and our Saviour. Amen ! " 
At the close of the Revolution, 2Gth of August, 
1783, Washington's first words, when he appeared 
before Congress, were a grateful acknowledgment to 
God, wdio had guided the Americans to battle and 
victory. And so he subsequently expressed himstif, 
11* 



» '-A: 



I 





122 ROMANIPM OPPOSED TO OUR LinERTIES. 

wliiMi he rcsi^iiKMl as (MHimiJiMdcr in cljicf of tlio 
Jinny, 2.'>(1 of DccciuIk r, Hint same y<'ar. U[)()ii 
tlic niciMorahlc cvfMit of liis inau<^ural as President. 
of tlje nation, lie said : 

'* Tn (his first oHicial act, iny fervent supplication 
is to tliat AIniiiildv Uein^i', that liis beneiliction niav 
consecrate to the liberties and happiness (d' the [x'o- 
ple of the United States a govennnent instituted 
by theinseh'es. No people* can be bound to acknowl- 
edge and adore tho invisible hand which conducts 
the affairs of invn more than the peo[de of tho 
United States ; and tho destiny of the rei)ublican 
model of government is justly considered as deeply, 
perhjips Jinallij, staked on the experiment ii'trusted 
to the hands of the American people." 

When the convention sat to frame our constitu- 
tion, and when all the govenunents of modern Eu- 
rope had been examined without finding one suited 
to the condition of the Vmerican peo[)le. Dr. Frank- 
lin arose and addressed the president upon the im- 
portance of prayer ; that, as '* God governs the 
affairs of men," no blessing could be expected upon 
their deliberations without it ; and that the consti- 
tution was the result of the infinite wisdom of the 
Almighty, and beyond the powers of any mortal 



ROMANISM 01»l»0Si:i) TO OUU LIBKRTIES. 



123 



r of tiio 

■^H'sidciit 



►lirntioii 
ion iM.'iv 

ft 

IlO pCO- 

istidifcd 
(knowN 
'011(1 acts 
of tho 

)iil)lie{in 
(leoply, 

:• trusted 

onstitii- 
rn Eii- 
3 suited 
Frank- 
thc ini- 
ns tho 
d upon 
consti- 
of the 
mortal 



assembly of uieii, Is the iuduhif:ihle couvicliou of 
the AnicricnH pfojde. 

Thirteen years Itefore llie Di'claration of Tnde- 
pendiMU'<% Powjial, who had been (ntvernor of 
three of the eoh>uies, made this jjroplieey (►f 
America's destiny : 

*' A nation to whom all nations will come; 
a power whom all powers of Europe will court to 
civil and commercial alliances ; a pco[)lo to whom 
the remnants of all ruined peo[ile will lly ; whom 
the opi)resscd and injured of every nation will seek 
for refuge," he exchiims, *' actuate your yovE- 

RI5IGNTV, EXKUCISE THE POWEUS AND DUTIES OF YOUR 
THRONE." 

And, now, without a monarch, an army, or an 
aristocracy, it will defy every Judas and Cain, 
foreign or native, who interposes between the 
rights, the honor, and the religion, of the American 
branch of the Anglo-Saxon race. 

Our national interest and Christianity arc insep- 
arable ; and as the people of the land of Bunker 
Hill, who built and paid for their churches, resisted 
the right of a foreign Andros to ring their bells, so 
will Americans, wdio claim the Protestant as their 
religion, resist the further aggression upon their 






1! 



I 





124 ROMANISiM OPPOSED TO OUR LIBERTIES. 

schools, their property, and their institutions, by the 
political Romanism, of which they justly complain. 
At a recent meeting in Hope Chapel, New York 
city. Dr. 0. A. Brownson, editor of the Roman 
Catholic Review^ said : '* We Catholics are here a 
missionary people. We are here to Catholicize the 
country. It remains for us Catholics to make it 
morally, intellectually, spiritually great. We are 
here God's chosen instruments for that purpose." 
Mr. IVicMasters, another fierce Ronnsh editor, saitl : 
" Catholics were here not only to contribute to sup- 
port their religion, and thereby their priests, but to 
make the people understand it. If they did not do 
so, they w^nild bo wiped out from the land in a sea 
of blood." How are the poor papists to understand 
it, Americans, Avhon the priests keep them in igno- 
rance, by shutting out iha light of truth from their 
minds ? The leading French journfd of the 3rd of 
April, this year, speaking for the Romish church, 
says,: ** Railroads are not a progress; telegraphs are 
an analogous invention ; the freedom of industry is 
not progress ; machines derange a.11 agricultural 
labor; industfial discoveries are a sign of al^ase- 
ment, not of grandeur." The following is from 
the Univers, their most influential paper in all 



Eur( 
luml 
iiitei 
Stat 
expi 
papi 



ROMANISM OPPOSED TO OUR LIBERTIES. 125 



5, by the 
^mplain. 
w York 

Roman 
! here a 
^cize tlie 
make it 
We arc 
irpose." 
r, said : 

to snp- 
, but to 
i not do 
in a sea 
lerstand 
n igno- 
n their 
3rd of 
[ihurch, 
phs are 
IS try is 
nltiiral 
al^ase- 
s from 
in all 



Europe : — "To make Rome the District of Co- 
lumbia for the ^vhole world^ and the Pope the 
interpreter of the constitution of the United 
States." This declaration of the above journal 
expresses, of course, the avowed sentiments of the 
papists now in our repu]>lic. 

Is it not time, Americans, to expose tliis worn- 
out foolery, when the great aim of tliis foreign con- 
cern is to say mass over our nation's soul ? With 
papal ba])tism, papal matrimony, and papal rulers, 
what is to be the elfect on our countrv, unless Prot- 
estantisiU counteract such teacliing over the minds 
of the papal masses? 

We have shown, in another chapter, that their 
device of baptism is a most entangling scheme to 
proselyte and extort money, and make its votaries 
slaves. That confession to the priests, in order to 
salvation, is an invasion upon personal liberty, and 
all sorts of human liberty. That the Cluirch of 
iloine does interfere with liberty of thou(jht, by 
den} ing tlie right to read, buj/, or circulate books. 
And by its decrees in council it has taken the 
Word of God out of its sijstem, tmd made it a 
criminal oil'ence for any subject of their church to 
have anijthinc) to do with that holy book ! By 



1'^' 1» 



II 







1 1- 




12G ROMANISM OPPOSED TO OUR LIBERTIES. 

their Ctitechism of the Council of Trent, p. 313 
this lioniish system fjJiys, " Without the presence of 
the jjarish priest, or some other priest coriimissioned 
hy him, or bij the ordinarij, and tivo or three wit- 
nesses, there can he no marriage.'' They thereby 
declare that 7ione but Catholic priests can perform 
the marriage ceremonij. They have made this civil 
rite, then, a sacrament. They can dispense with 
prohihitions, or make them to suit all circumstances ; 
and have, for political purposes, removed the im- 
pediment, and married hrothers and sisters ! The 
Church of Rome, therefore, begins with a rite to 
make subjects, at birth ; to secure them through 
7narriayc ; to rule them through life ; and by indul- 
gences and absolution in the Confessional to license 
practices of all ini({uity ; and sends them to Para- 
dise, or denies it, in proportion to the amount of 
money paid. 

We contend, as a Protestant people, that no 
p(-\ver but the AVord of God, or argument, and 
human persuasion, can be lawfully used to influence 
the conscience of any man. The constitution 
regards the religion of men so far as to require 
men to believe in God, and in the existence of 
future punishment and reward, Without this 



ROMANISM OPPOSED TO OUR LIBERTIES. 127 



I? nil 



p. 313 

sence of 
lissioncd 
rcc wit- 
thereby 

perform 
lis civil 
se with 
taneos ; 
the iui- 

! The 
rite to 
throng]] 
Y indul- 
license 
) Para- 
quat of 

hat ]io 
t, and 
flueiico 
itution 
cqiiire 
ice of 
■ this 



belief there is no sanctity to oaths. Bat the Romish 
confessional can ab.^olve oaths, and render any kiw 
of our country a nullity which is opposed by the 
priest; and, consequently, the priest wields a secret 
power above our government jind the laws of the 
land. There is not a thief, there is not a nnirderer, 
or a perjurer, or an incendiary, or a traitor, if he is 
a papist, but can go the very next day, or within a 
week, after the committal of the criiye, and get* 
absolution of the priest. If a papist swears in a 
court of justice on our Protestant Bible, he regards 
it as having no binding force on his conscience. Is 
not, then, the confessional a most dangerous and 
anti-republican power ? The idea that religious 
opinions and secular trusts have no connection, and 
do not interfere with the discharge of public or offi- 
cial duty, has been a sad mistake with Protestants 
long enough ; and to tliis mistake or error the 
rapid advancement of Romanism may partly be 
ascribed. Take marriage as an illustration. Prot- 
estants hold it in the light of a civil contract, of 
divine institution, hut not peculiar to any church. 
Catholics make it a sacrament. Tlic people, at 
first, look at this papal rite and o])ligation as of 
very small consequence, and would not regard it in 
connection with a man's fitness for office, whether 





'i.'i 



128 ROMANISM OPPOSED TO OUR LIBERTIES. 

connection A\ith a man's fitness for ofTice, whether 
his opinion was fur or against it, as Ji sacrameiit. 
But, when it is understood that the desccn(hints 
from every Protestant marriage in this country are 
pronounced by that church illegitimate, it becomes 
a matter of hnmense consequence to look at the 
effect of the system in connection with liberty. 

By a treaty, or concordat, of the French gov- 
ernment and the Pope, Pius VII., under Napoleon 
Bonaparte, in 1802, it was agreed to reestablish the 
cures and sees, under certain conditions. The Pope 
declared himself very grateful, and publicly said 
he owed more to Napoleon than any other, next to 
God. But the laws of the French government in 
regar<l to marriage were distressing him, and in 
1807 he sent a cardinal from Rome to Paris to 
negotiate tlie difficulty. Afterwards the discussion 
opened at Rome, when the doctrine that no mar- 
riage was real or valid ivithout the intervention of 
a priest was decided. But, finding the French code 
was extending through Europe, he despatched in- 
structions to his cliurch to counteract the immoral 
doctrine of marriage as a civil right. The accom- 
panying are extracts of the Pope's letter to Poland, 
in 1808, where an attempt was made by law to con 



form 
the P 
prclat' 
cousii 



edge 




ROMANISM OPPOSED TO OUR LIBERTIES. 



129 



whether 
rameut. 

cndants 
ntry are 
becomes 
at the 

^h gov- 
apoleoii 
lish the 
le Pope 
'ly said 
next to 
aent in 
and in 
aris to 
cussion 
> 7nar- 
Hon of 
;h code 
ed in- 
imoral 
ccom- 
')land, 
) con 



form to this dogma. *' 8iii'h a transaction," says 
the Pope (in this letter), " proposed by a CathoUc 
prehite to a royal minister, upon a subject so sacred, 
considered in its consequences, in its wliole tenor 
leads directly to consequences which sectaries have 
proposed to themselves, name'y, to make Catholics 
and bishops, and even the Pope himself, confes.'t 
that the power of governing men is indivisible. 
For a Catholic bishop to acknowl- 
edge in Catholic marriages, civil publications, civil 
contracts, civil divorces, civil judgments, is to grant 
the prince power over the sacraments and discipline. 
It is to admit he can alter the forms and the rites ; 
can derogate from the canons ; can violate ecclesias- 
tical liberty ; can trouble conscience ; that he has, 
by consequence, power over things ecclesiastical, 
essentially privileged, and dependent on the power 
of the Keys ; whicli is as much as to say, he can 
put his hand in the censer, and make his laws pre- 
vail over the laws of the church. The bishop shc^ald 
either have dissembled, and tolerated a disorder 
imposed by irresistible force, or he should have 
informed the royal minister that the code, so far 
as respects marriage, cannot be applied to Catholic 
marriages in Catholic countries." 

12 



'I 



%■ 



i 




h 



if 



CHAPTER II. 

Then the Pope goes on to saj : *'If Ave 
examine the history of nations, we shall not find 
a Catholic prince snlFering to be imposed on his 
subjects the obligation to publish their marriage, 
or discuss its validity or nullity before a judge 
of the district. If j)astoral remonstrances proved 
useless, the bishop should still have continued to 
teach well the flock committed to his care, — 

'* 1st. That there is no marriage if it is not con- 
tracted in the form which the church has estab- 
lished to render it valid. 

"2d. That marriage once contracted according 
to its forms, no power on earth can sunder it. 

*' 3d. That it remains indissoluble under all acts 
and circumstances. 

''4th. In case of doubtful marriage, the church 
alone decides the validity or invalidity. 

" 5th. Marriage, without canonical impediment, 
is indissoluble, whatever impediment the lay power 



il 



ROMANISM OrrOSED TO OCR LIBERTIES. 131 

maij impose^ witliout the consent of the Universal 
Church, or of its Supreme head., the Roman Pon- 

tiff. 

**Gth. That every marriage contracted, iiotwitli- 
staiuUng a canonical impediment, though a1)ro- 
gated by the sovereign, ought to be hohlen null 
and of no effect ; a?id that every Catholic is hound 
in conscience to regard such a marrigge as void 
until made valid by a lauful dispensation of the 
church, if, indeed, the impediment which renders it 
null may be removed by a dispensation.'' 

Americans, you all allow that marriage consti- 
tutes and perpetuates society ; that it commends 
itself, as of the first importance, to the civil power. 
Are you willing, then, to surrender duties so 
momentous to the order and peace of families and 
our country, and enacted and sanctioned by our 
legislatures, to foreign priests, or to any priesthood 
whatever? The Romish system, by the Council 
of Trent, says : *' Marriage contracted without the 
solemn forms of the church is void, which this 
(iouncil could not have done if it depended on the 
nature of two contracts, which depend on two dis 
tinct powers, — the one, civil, and dependent on 
civil laws ; the other, religious, and dependent 



mmmm'mmmm' 



132 ROMANISM OPPOSED TO OUR LIBERTIES. 










■ ^^^ , %.'? 






on the laws of the church." The holief that it is 
necessary to (jo to the Pope of Rome to (jet a dispen- 
sation from a canonical impediment, because a man 
regards luarriMgo as a sjicranieut, and not a civil 
contract, and that his union by the civil law w^ould 
be void, and his children illegitimate, without it, 
is a sulTicient cause, we say, to dis(|ualily any 
Romanist from holding a civil trust under our 
Protestant government, and cannot exist without 
affecting his conduct as a public officer, no matter 
what may be said or affirmed to the contrary. The 
system that blesses horses and do(js for money, in 
the name of the Holy Trinity, may well afford to 
curse American Protestant liberty. This law of 
Romish marriage, therefore, is most pernicious and 

anti-republican. . 

In 1G54, after the final rising of the Council of 
Trent, Pius the Fourth issued a creed, which is 
received universally by the Roman Catholic Church, 
and is by a bull enforced upon the profession of 
everij doctor, teacher, and head of a nniversiti/. 
No election or promotion is valid without it. An- 
other papal law requires the same profession of the 
heads of cathedrals, monastic institutions, and the 
military order, which law directly interferes with 



ROMANISM OPPOSED TO OUR LIBERTIES. 133 



lat it is 
dispcn- 
D a iiiJiu 
'• a civil 
N would 
hunt it, 
ify any 
Jcr our 
without 
) matter 
y. The 
mey, in 
liTord to 
law of 
ous and 

moil of 
^hich is 
Church, 
sion of 
versltij. 
;. An- 
1 of the 
and the 
3s with 



liberty. Milnor, a popisli writer, in his ** End of 
Controversy," elm p. xiv., says : *' The same creed, 
namely, the Aposth's' Creed, the Nicene Creed, the 
Athanasiau Creed, and Tin-: Ciu:i:d of Poim: Pius 
IV., DUAWN UP IN CONFOUMITV li'ilh tlic Iloly Coun- 
cil of Trent, and eveiiywiikiie recited and pro- 
fessed TO THE STRICT LETTER," &c. In addition to 
a profession of faith, twdvc .\tav articles, as for- 
eign to the Christian creed as light from darkness, 
are subjoined. The following arc extracts from 
each of these articles : 

1. ''I admit and cmhracc apostolical and eccle- 
siastical traditions.'' ■ ' 

2. ''I admit the Sacred Scriptures according to 
the sense which the Holy Mother Church held and 
does hold, to whom it belongs to judge of the true 
sense and interpretation of the Iloly S^'riptures ; 
nor will I ever interpret them otherwise than accords 
ing to the unanimous consent of the fathers.'' 

The first binds the soul to pagan traditions ; the 
second, to the impossiljility of thinking or acting as 
a responsible being ! 

3. "I profess that they are truly seven sacra- 
ments, instituted by Jesus Christ, for salvation, 
namely, baptism, confirmation, eucharist, penance, 

12* 






.« 



m 



134 ROMANISM OPPOSED TO OUR LIBERTIES. 




i:! 




feli.' 



i'. 11 






extreme unction^ orders, and matrimony ; and that 
they confer (J t ace '' > = ■ 

4. '''-Without the sacrament of baptism, which is 
the sacrament (f faith, no one can ever obtain jus- 
tification.'' 

That is, without the priest blesses the soul ! 

5. ** That in the mass there is qfered to God a 
true, proper, propitiatory sacrifice for the living 
and the dead.'' 

Every priest by this act is made to offer up a 
sacrifice of our blessed Saviour, directly violating 
that passMge which says, " Christ was 07ice offered 
up/' If Christ was only 07ice offered up (not by 
the priest, but by himself), how can he be offered 
up again, and that, too, by a priest ? But this 
''sacrifice of the mass" is not Christianity : it is 
papal mystification and paganism, — an absurdity. 
None but a Catholic priest can offer up the sacrifice 
of the "mass," and turn a wafer into a God ! ! ! 
Who can think of such blasphemy without a shud- 
der? But this is not the worst of this turnins: 
a "wafer" into God. Rome compels physically 
all persons, whoever they bo, to bow to, and wor- 
ship, this wafer-God ! ! ! Is not this compulsory 
law anti-republican ? 



I ' 



ROMANISM OPPOSED TO OUll LIBERTIES. 135 



6. This article speiik.s of Punjatory, — t,hiil is, 
a tempomry punishment for th»' faith fnl on their 
way to heaven. *' Tho souls Ihoreiii are helped by 
the sulTrnges of the fiithful." Prayers, well paid 
for, arc one of tho most successful of Rome's 
deceptions to enrich her treasury. The father, for 
the soul <)f his child or wife, employs the officicd 
s^rvices of the priest^ to deliver that soul from the 
horrors of purgatorial torment ! It makes slaves 
of the poor laity, whose hard earnings and scanty 
wages are exacted and given to this end ; while 
the priests extort and secure endowments from the 
deceased wealthy, to save them from punishment ! ! 

We find a church in Venice, in 1743, was in 
arrears for sixteen thousand four hundred masses ; 
and Florentine tells of a Spanish priest who was 
paid for eleven thousand eight hundred masses 
which he never said ! Thus do the priesthood of 
Rome traffic in souls ; cheat the people of liberty ; 
cheat them of their money ; cheat them of their 
hopes ; cheat them of their salvation ! And this 
purgatorial lying, extortion, and compulsion, are 
anti-republican. 

7 and 8. These articles profess belief in the doc- 
trine of heathen worship of sairis^ and images, and 




ww'm 



ki\ 



130 ROMANISM OPPOSED TO OUR LIBEBTIES. 

relics — **the imafje of Christ, of I he Virfjin 
Mother of God," and of oilier saints. This belicl' 
is ])iii(Ung on all. 

This is anti-Christian, and tends to make the poo- 
j)le heathenish ; and this pagan ignorance is inimi- 
cal to the whole genius of our republican system. 

9. Professes faith in iho power of induhjences, 
which directly promotes and gives license for 
crimes. *' I also affirm that the power of induhjencc 
was left by Christ in the church, and that the use 
of them is most wholesome to a Christian people." 
They are very "wholesome" for the Pope and 
priests to fill their coffers with money, and to mul- 
tiply crimes all over the land. They are sometimes 
called " hills of exchanfjc on purfjalurij." 

These indulgences are dispensed by the Pope 
through the priests. They are a bundle of licenses 
to commit all manner of inifjuitics. There is 
always a great demand for these little packages ; 
and, depending on the foreign will of the Pope, 
they bring a fine price, and give the hierarchy an un- 
bounded power over their people of the whole earth. 

10. " I acknowledge the Holy Catholic, Apostolic 
Roman Church for the Mother and Mistress of all 
churches ; and I promise true obedience to the Bishop 



nOMANISM OlTOi^KI) TO OUll LFBKHTIEH. 137 



Vinj/n 

le poo- 
iiiiiiii- 
cm. 

se for 
uhjence 
lie nso 
ople." 
)C juul 
D mul- 
c times 

Pope 
censes 
ere is 
ages ; 
Pope, 
m un- 
earth. 
islulic 
of all 
Ushop 



of Rome, successor to St. Peter, prince of the Apos- 
tles, Vicar (f Christ," *' Tin-: mistkkss of all 

CIIUUCIIKS." s • 

Is thcro anytliini^^ to surpass tins arrogant 
jissumption ol' priestly power, — this direct allc- 
(fiance to the Pope? What is it but a slavery, 
which our free spirits should denounce, a'.d at 
which we should revolt ? Is our country safe with 
such a decree? 

11th. *'I likewise, undoubtedly, receive and 
profess all other things, delivered, defined, and 
declared, by the sacred canons of tlio General Coun- 
cil." This is adopting all tha persecutinrj, immoral 
legislation of the ** Council of Trent," the "worst 
of all." Yet, every priest and every papist in our 
land is bound ])y oath to receive " all thing i 
defined, delivered, and declared," by that Council. 
" jbid I condemn, reject, and anathematize, all 
tilings contrarij thereto, and all heresies wh'ich the 
church has condemned, rejected, and anathematized.'' 
Here at one sweep they curse all heretics, or Proi 
est ants, wherever tliey are found. 

12th. " This true Catholic faith, without which 
no man can he saved, which I at present freely profess, 
and truly hold, the sane I will take care of as far 





138 ROMANISM OPPOSED TO OUR LIBEVvTIES, 

» 

as in ?f,e lies, and shall be most constantUj held and 
confessed by me, Avhole and unviolated, with God's 
assistjuicc, to the last breath of my life ; and by all 
my subjects, or these, the care of whom, in my 
office, belongs to me, shall be held, taught, and 
preached." ''I the same, N, promise, vow, and 

SWEAR, so HELP ME GOD AND THESE HOLY GOSPELS." 

This is the priest's article especiaUij. lie is a slave 
to the Pope, and is himself a parish Pope to the 

PEOPLE. 

Mark this, Americans : the Romish priest swears 
by an oath that there is no salvation to those Avho 
do not believe this creed ; that is, who do not believe 
in the supremacy of the Pope, indulgences, transub- 
stantiation, purgatory, image worship, saint wor- 
ship, persecution against Protestants, traditions, &c. 
He swears also to spread tlies6 anti- Christian and 
persecuting doctrines among those under his care, 
and to'do all he can to enforce them, w ithout refer- 
ence to right or liberty, to his life's end ; to sup- 
press freedom of thought find speech, a u\ to make 
subjects for the Pope of Rome ! Now, Protestants, 
all this is subversive of our free institutions. If 
the priests and the papists do not oppose, denounce, 



and p< 
dare), 
We 

Pope c 
tyrann 
church 
diffuse 
elierisl 

dren ; 

cducat 

prccioi 

wliole 

is fas' 

hicrarc 

iuimic 



held and 
h God's 
^d by all 
in my 
:ht, and 

OW, AND 
)SP£LS." 

a slave 

TO THE 

swears 
ose who 
believe 
ransub- 
nt icor- 
ons, &c. 
an and 
's care, 
t refer- 
sup- 
) make 
slants, 
s. If 
ounce, 



ROMANISM OPPOSED TO OUR LIBERTIES. 139 

and persecute to deatli (whenever they can and 
dare), all Protestants, they swear to a lie. 

We repeat, they are hound, l)y tlieir oath to the 
Pope of Home, to receive {\\\ the persecuting and 
tyrannical decrees of the general councils of that 
iliurch. We say, they are bound to teach and 
iliiFiise principles utterly opposed to all the dear and 
clicrished rights of American liberty to your chil- 
dren ; and they ought not to be intrusted with the 
education of freemen, if you wish to preserve the 
precious and glorious privileges of our land. The 
whole body of papists, by the creed of Pius IV., 
is fastened and indissolubly hound up with the 
hierarchy of Rome ! And how^ dangeriu'"i and 
inimical is it to the liberties of this republic ! 



■'!■ ■ 


• ;:' 




r' 






m 



ill.- ..21 




CHAPTER III. 

We will now give you the precise oath which 
binds every Roman Catholic bishop In the United 
States of America, and in tlie wdiole world, to the 
Pope of Rome and his throne. To is taken from 
Barrow's unanswered " Treatise on Suprejnaci/,'' 
and is a complete ff.udal oath. Here it is : 

''I, N, elect of the church of N, will hencefor- 
ward be faithful a7id obedient to St. Peter, the 
Apostle, and to the Holy Roman Church, and to our 
Lord, the Lord N, Pope N, and to his successors 
canonically coming in. I will neither advise, con- 
sent, or do ani/thing, that they nmy lose life or inem- 
ber, or that their persons may be seized, or hands 
any wise laid upon them, under anij pretence whatever. 
The counsel which they shall intrust me withal, ])y 
themselves, their messengers, or Ictt'^'s, I will not 
knowingly reveal to any to tlieir prejudice. I icill 
keep them to defend and keep the lioly papacy, and 
the ROYALTIES OF St, Peter, Saving my order. 



ROMANISM OPPOSED TO OUR LIBERTIES. 141 



ith which 
ic United 
id, to the 
ken from 

is : 

henccfor- 
.^eter, the 
md to our 

iucccssors 
vise, con- 
) or iaem- 

or hcaids 
toll at ever. 
withal, hv 

will not 

/ ivi/l 

^ac/j, and 

y order, 



1 



against all men. The legate of the apostolical 
see, going and coming, I will honorably treat, and 
help in his necessities. Tin-: iughts, honors, 

I'lUVlLKGES, AND AUTHORITY, OF THE IIoLY RoMAN 

Church of our Loud the Pope, and his foresaid 
successors, I will endeavor to preserve, defend, in- 
crease, and advance. I will not be in any council, 
action, or treatjj, in which shall be plotted against 
our said Lord, and the Romish church, anything 
to the hurt or prejudice of their persons, right, honor, 
slate, or power ; and if I shall know any such thing 
to be treated or agitated by any whatsoever, I will 
hinder it to my power, and as soon as I can will 
signify it to our said lord, or to some other, by whom, 
it may come to his knowledge. 

" The rules of the holy fathers, the apostolic 
decrees, ordinances, or disposals, reservations, provi- 
sions, and mandates, I will observe with all my 
might, and cause to be observed by others. Here- 
tics, SCHISxMATICS, AND REBELS TO OUR SAID LORD, 
OR HIS FORESAID SUCCESSORS, I WILL TO MY POWER 

PERSECUTE AND OPPOSE. I will couio to a council 
when I am called, unless I am hindered by a 
canonical impediment. I will by myself in person 

VISIT THE threshold OF THE ApOSTLES EVERY THREE 

13 





f 



re 




pi 

i 



m 



142 ROMANISM OPPOSED TO OUR LIBERTIES. 

YEARS, AND GIVI-: AN ACCOUNT TO OUR LoRD AND ITIS 
FORESAID SUCCI>i^OHS OF ALL MV PASTORAL OFFICE, 

and of all citings any ivise bdongimj to the state, of 
mij cJmrcJi, to the discipHne of mij ciergjj and peoplt, 
and, lastti/, of tlie salvation of souls committed to mg 
trust ; and will, in like manner, humhlg receive and 
diligentlg execute the apostolic commands. 

*' And if I he detained hg a lawful impediment, 1 
will perform all things aforesaid bg a certain messen- 
ger, hereto cspeciallg empovjered a member of mg chap- 
ter, or some other in ecclesiastical dignitg, or else 
having a parsonage ; or, in default of these, bg a 
priest of the diocese ; or, in default of one of the 
clergg {of the diocese), hg some other secular or regu- 
lar priest, of improved integritg and religion, fullg 
instructed in all things above mentioned. And such 
impediment I tvill make out bg lawful proofs, to be 
transi'iitted bg the aforesaid messenger to the Cardi- 
nal proponent of the Holg Roman Church, in the 
congregation of the sacred council. 

*' The possessions belonging to mg table I will nei- 
ther sell, nor give away, nor mortgage, nor grant anew 
in fee, nor any wise alienate, — no, not even with the 
consent of the chapter of mg church, — without con 
suiting the Roman Pontiff, And if I shall make an^ 




ROMANISM OPPOSED TO OUR LIBERTIES. 



143 



AND ins 

OFFICE, 

state of 
d pcopti, 
ed to m}j 
eive and 

'i?ncnt, 1 
\ mcsscn- 
ly chap- 
or else 
?c, hij a 
e of the 
or regu- 
m, fulli/ 
nd such 
fs, to he 
I Cardi- 
, in the 

will nei- 
mt aneiL 
with the 
\out con 
ake any 



alienation, I will thereby incur the penalties con- 
tained in a certain constitution put forth about this 
matter. So iieli* me God, and these Holy Gos- 



PELS. 



> y 



Such is that servile and persecuting oath. This 
doctrine of the supremacy of the Pope and the 
priesthood makes bondslaves of all people who be- 
long to them. It makes a God on earth of the Pope 
at Rome, lie is an ambitious tyrant over the piuest- 
iiooD, and the priests are tyrants over the people. 

No man can take this oath to the Pope, and be 
a faithful or true citizen of the United States, or a 
safe and consistent citizen of any country. No 
Catholic bishop, then, is an honest citizen of the 
United States ; if he were, he would be a perjurer. 
In another chapter, we have shown, in the memo- 
rable contest between the Pope and the republic 
of Venice, that the Jesuits all turned traitors, and 
fled from Venice, and went over to the Pope ! The 
Jesuits, who arc the Pope's greatest propagandists, 
never did, according to all history ai^d the authority 
of the French Parliament, dwell in any country, 
without destroying its liberties and its morals. The 
foreign hierarchy who control the Roman Catholic 
church in the United States to-day are J(}suits, 



i^ 



J: 






^? ! 




144 ROMANISISI OPPOSED TO OUR LIBERTIES. 



from the leading bishops spread over the states, to 
the Irish priest who came by the List emigrant 
arrival. 

It is in accordance with the American princi})le 



to 



(; 



examine everything presented to us. AVe ai 
carrying forward the glorious emancipation Lutlicr 
began. The liberty, civil and rclifjious, we so 
earnestly cherish and develop, is Bible liberty, 
and its home is on American ground. Witliout note 
or comment, we send that blessed book abroad over 
the world, the emblem of this ennobling, sublime 
liberty, and the guardian evidence to all who breathe 
American air to stand erect as freemen, and to 
bow, unmolested by papal curses and bulls, in the 
worship of our God. This blessed volume has been 
translated into more thim one hundred and sixty 
languages of the earth ; and, without the cost of 
a single mass or prayer for a soul in purgatory, it 
is, through American means and Protestant teach- 
ing, enlightening, and comforting, and instructing, 
millions of the human family. 

Two years ago, there Avas a consecration in St. 
Patrick's Cathedral, New York, of Bisliops Bailey, 
McLaughlin, and Dr. Goesbriand, by the papal Nun- 
cio, Monsignor Bedini. The Jesuits then took that 



ROMANISM OPPOSED TO OUR LIBERTIES. 145 



oath ill Latin, as we have given it in correct Eng- 
hsh ; but tlie priests pu])lishe(l a version in Enalish, 
for the newspapers, and little pamphlets contain- 
ing an account of the ceremonies ; one of which 
pamphlets is now before us, and it contains a coni- 
^jlete and w'lKwl fur fjcrjj. It omitted all the perse- 
cuting and political part, which the oath we give 
contains, and which is the exact one used here and 
at Rome tliis very day. They always deny this 
gross deception to Americans, and three fourths of 
the American Roman Catholic laity also deny it 
Why? Because these Jesuits find it expedient to 
cheat and deceive Protestants and their own prpist 
subjects in this American land. 

Cruelty is a central principle in the Church of 
Rome, and, therefore, anti-republican. It is very 
common, at present, with Roman Catholics, to deny 
that their church approves religious persecution , 
and in this assertion they arc backed up by ignorant 
or designing Protestants, for political purposes 
solely. But there is no fact more clearly proved, 
both by history and the dogmas of their church 
everywhere contained in their canons and bulls, and 
carried out in practice to the present day. The 
prisons of Rome, and all the Italian prisons under 



13 



* 




I M 



Utajl^.iaBinnli iii J I' !MJ»wMi!<Lil w y-' i ,iw 



[il'h 



140 ROMANISM OPPOSED TO OUR LIBERTIES. 










the influence of the Pope, are, id this moment, 
filled with victims groaning nmler these horri<l 
cruelties. The Inquisition, in some form, and every 
pr-est and his devotees, are agents to execute tliis 
intolerance. 

Vhr , mmentary of Menochius, which is a text- 
boo!, ni ill Catholic colleges and seminaries (»i' 
learning, dt^'ares, in connection with the paralile 
of the wheat and the tares, that the Saviour " docs 
not forbid heretics (or Protestants) to be taken awn y 
and put to death," and refers to Meldonatus on this 
special article of their belief. And these are the 
words of the authority alluded to: **They who 
deny that heretics are to be put to death ouglit 
much rather to deny that thieves, much rather that 
murderers, ought to be put to death ; for heretics 
are the more pernicious than thieves or murderers, 
as it is a greater crime to steal and slay the souls 
of men than their bodies." 

Bellarmine, the papal authority constantly ap- 
pealed to, says : '' Experience teaches us that there 
is no otlior remedy (than death) ; for the church has 
advanced by degrees, and tried every remedy. At 
urst slie only excommunicated, t\\Qn fined, then exiled ; 
at last she was compelled to have recourse to death. 



11 



ROMANISM OPPOSED TO OUR LIBERTIES. 



147 



iM( 



noinont, 
liorrid 
id every 
Lite tliU 

a text- 
iries oi' 

para]>le 
r ' ' docs 
en aw.'iy 
3 on this 
are the 
ey who 
1 ought 
lier that 
heretics 
rderers, 
le souls 

tly ap- 
at there 
ircli lias 
y. At 
exiled ; 
) death. 



* * * * * If you throw thom (Protestants) into 
prison, or send them into exile, they corrupt their 
neighbors by their languoge, and those who are at a 
dislaiico ]>y lh(»ir bo(/ks ; therelore, /he only remedij 
is, to send tliem speed ihj to their proper place.** 
The following is the curse of Pope Benedict 



VIII. 



a 



May they suller the curse of God and of the 



worhl ; may they suffer it in their 



j( 



1-r 



may 



their 



mind become stupefied, may the^ n. t with all 
bodily pains, and end in perdition. 

** May they be damned wit^ the cursed ones, 
and perish with the wicked. 

" May they be cursed with the Jews, who did 
not believe in our Lord, and crucified him. 

''May they be cursed with the heretics, Prot- 
estants, who attempt to overthrow the Holy Mother 
Church. 

*'May they be damned in the four parts of the 
w^orld : cursed in the east, abandoned in the west, 
interdicted in the north, excommunicated in the 
south. 

*' May they be cursed in the day, excommuni- 
cated in the night. 



I 



I 








II 



148 ROMANISM OPPOSED TO OUR LIBERTIES. 

" May they be damned in heaven, on earth, and 
in the regions below." 

Says the historian Bruys : ** Secular powers, 
if need be, may be compelled by church censures 
to destroy all heretics (Protestants) marked by the 
church, out of the lands of their jurisdiction.'' 
— Labb., Tom. 13, p. 034. Bruys' Hist, of the 
Papacy, Tom. iii., p. 148. 

The Council of Constance, 1414, in which Pope 
Martin presided, not only condemned and burned 
alive IIuss and Jerome of Prague, but issued their 
terrific anathema against the millions of heretics 
all over Europe, and commanded all kings, emper- 
ors, and princes, forthwith to exterminate by fire 
and sword. 

This dogma of persecution is int^'oduced into the 
class-book at Maynooth Jesuit College, for which 
England contributes annually thirty thousand 
pounds sterling. — See Delahogue's Tract. Theolog., 
cap. 8. De Membris, p. 404, Dublin edit., 1705. 

The oath which every Roman bishop swears 
contains this central principle of persecution. 

The following propositions are taken I'rom Dr. 
Den's System of Theology, a text-book for every 
papal theological seminary in the land : 



po^ 




ROMANISM OPPOSED 10 OUR LIBERTIES. 119 



1st. ** Protcstiints are heretics, iiiul iis such aro 
worse than Jews and Papm.^." 

2(1. " They are, hy baptism and hlood, under tho 
power of the llonian Catholic Church." 

3d. *' 8o far IVoni granting toh'ration to Protest- 
ants, it is the duty of the church to exterininato 
the rites of their religion." 

4th. '*It is the dutv of the Konian Catholic 
Church to compel lieretics to suhmit to her faith." 

5th. *' That the punishments decreed by the 
Roman Catholic Church are confiscation of goods, 
exile, imprisonment, and death." 

A converted Popish priest, in a late work, says : 

*' During the last three years I discharged tho 
duty of a Romish clergyman, my heart often shud- 
dered at the idea of entering the confessional. The 
recitals of the murderous acts I had often heard 
through this iniquitous tribunal had cost me many 
a restless night, and are still fixed with horror upon 
luy memory. But tlie mtjst awful of all consid(>ra- 
tions is this. — that through th(^ confessional I have 
been frequently apprised of Intended assassinations, 
and most diabolical conspiracies ; and, still, froni 
the ungodly injunctions of secrecy in the Romish 
creed, lest, as Peter Dens says, * the confessional 



c 

[I- 



,^*^-nt^'-, J-^.^.-^y^^jj, 





100 UOMANIb^M OITUSKD TO OUK LIBERTIES. 

shouM b(M'()iu(3 odious,* T dared not give the sli«^ht- 
cst intiinatioii to tho iiiarked-oiit victims of 



slauglitcr." 

Popo Ur])an TF. say,^ : 

*'AVe do not considor tlioso as homicides wlio, 
burnin«»- ^vilh zeal for tlio Catholic chm'ch against 
cxconnmniiiatcd persons, liappen to have killed any 
of them." 

Pope Sixtiis '\C, in a public address, applauded 
the assassination of Henry III. of France. 

Tho llhemish translators of the New Testament, 
on Rev. IT : G, *' Drunken Avith the blood of tho 
saints," say : 

- ** Protestants foolishly expound it of Rome, for 
that they put heretics to death, and allow of their 
punishment in other countries ; but their ])lood is 
not called the Idood of saints -no more than the 
blood of thieves, man-killers, and other malefactors, 
for the shedding of which, by order of justice, no 
commonwealth shall answer." 

Bellarmine and Maldonatus, two of the highest 
authorities tit Mavnooth, teach the same doctrines. 
The proceedings at Rome in regai'd to the massacre 
of St. Bartliolemow prove that Rome would have 
equally gloated over the Gunpowder Plot, if it had 



ROMANISM OPPOSED TO OUu LinEaTIES. 151 



sli^^ht- 
lu.s of 



's who, 
Ji^jiiii.st 
led any 



)laii(kHl 

;ament, 
of the 

inc. for 
)f their 
•looil is 
an the 
"actors, 
ice, no 

lighcst 
trincs. 
issacre 
I have 
it had 



only boon succossful. She has novor disavowed 
any of her atrocious principles, whilst flie recent 
avowals of Dr. Cahill, the Ramhicr, an<l the S/irp- 
hcrd of llic F////('^, denionstrate thai nio(|orn Papisls 
are quite as bloodthirsty as their ancestors. 

** The Inquisition was tirst established at Tou- 
louse, in 1233. It subsequently spread in Si)ain, 
Portugal, and o^jcr countries, increasing in power 
and cruelty. The managers of the in([uisitional 
courts were men of low origin and ])rutal nature, 
who had unlimited power Irom the Pope to [uit to 
death any person suspected of heresy ; and heresy, 
in the Church of Rome, means nothing but opposing 
the pretensions of the Papacy. Under the tryanni- 
cal sway of the Inquisition, parents were required 
to stifle all their natural atfections, and children 
forgot their reverence, gratitude, and love. The 
immense power of the Intpiisitor Cener.al we refer 
to. Among other practices of the Tmiuisition, it 
was common ibr persons to be seized and nuirdered 
ill order to get possession of tlicr propcn'ty. It 
was in vain to search the world for an institution 
to comp.'iro with tliis in atrocity and mcrcile;--^ bar- 
barity. 'Deliver yourself u]> a ]»ri>i)ner to The 
Inquisition,' filled the soul with h<^rior, and mu<.'e 



152 ROMANISM OPPOSED TO OUll LIBERTIES. 




the fnime motionless, for it was llie prelude to the 
dungeon and death. The infjunous praetiees of 
the inquisitional eourts were made up of cruelty, 
blood, death ! 

*'Konianism has not changed hy the light and 
progress of civilization. In 1825, under Pope 
Leo XII., the work of the In([uisition was recom- 
menced with great vigor. It was as dark, baneful, 
and bloody, as ever. From that period until the 
late revolution in Italy, scenes of horror transpired, 
the details of which are known only to their atro- 
cious authors. In 1849, the Constituent Assembly 
determined thai the tribunal should be abolished, 
and the building appropriated to some military 
purpose. In the Imildin^-s were the bones of human 
beings without number, thrown together in a man- 
ner to shock tlie feelings. There are to-day a 
thousand patriots suifering, in gloomy and filthy 
dungeons, all the horrors that the victims of the 
Inquisition endured. The truth is, that the spirit 
of deadly persecution is inherent in Romanism. 
It is one of its vital forces. While Romanism 
prides itself upon its immovability, progress is an 
integral part of Protestantism ; and its onward 
march, however slow, is steady and direct." 



ROMANISM OPPOSED TO OUR LIBERTIES. 153 



i^ to the 
tices of 
jriielty, 

:^lit and 
r Popo 
rcconi- 
)anorul, 
itil the 
ispired, 
ir atro- 
iscmbly 
>lishc(l, 
lilitaiy 
human 
^1 man- 
-day a 
filthy 
of the 
3 spirit 
an ism. 
lanism 
s is an 
•nward 



To those who think that tliis spirit of intolerance 
is relaxed in our day, eitlier in the United States 
or in other lands, we could present a volume of 
convincing and overwhelmiu';- facts to prove the 
contrary. But the following specimens will be 
sufficient : 

A few years ago, a Protestant minister in the 
AVest, after preaching to his own congregation on 
the su])ject of Popery, was met by the priest of the 
town at the church door, and told by him that, 
*' were it not for the huvs of the country, he would 
cut his throat." "Yes," said the minister, "I 
know^ that already." 

The Rev. ^Ir. Nast, of Cinciiniati, who has been 
instrumental in the conversion of many German 
papists, by preaching, lecturing, and publishing a 
German paper, received a letter a few months 
since, stating that if he did not stop his efforts, 
they would do with their fists what their priests 
cannot do with their pens, '■^ knock your eyes out.'" 

An Episcopal clergyman in the West stated that 
a member of his church married a Roman Catholic 
lady, who, by his influence, was converted to the 
Protestant faith. The father of the young lady 
called "^o inquire if it was so. 
14 




(( 





154 ROMANISM OPPOSED TO OUR LIBERTIES. 

daughter, " it is." On leaving the house, he said 
to his son-in-law, " Sir, I will never he satisfied 
till I have washed my hands in your heart's hlood." 

Who was it, a few years since, that drove six 
hundred I'aniilies from the Austrian empire into 
the Prussian territory, heeause they would not 
renounce the reformed religion? It was popish 
priests. 

Who was it that drove the Rev. Mr. Eule from 
Cadiz ? Papal authorities, directed to do so by 
the archbishop of the see. 

Who flogged a man nearly to death for renounc- 
ing Popery, in the State of Pennsylvania ? It was 
a popish priest. In the neighborhood of Doyles- 
town, a German Catholic attended a funeral sermon 
of a Protestant minister, after which a priest called 
and asked him if he had become a Protestant. 
*'If you have," said he, *'you have committed a 
mortal sin; confess your sin to me." " I have 
confessed my sin to Christ," said the sick man, 
'* and obtained absolution." The priest urged him 
with increasing Avarmth to confess ; he declined. 
The priest then seized a chair, jumped on the bed, 
and pounded him Avith it till he broke it in pieces ; 
he then took from his pocket a raAv-hide, and began 



ROMANISM OPPOSED TO OUR LIBERTIES. 155 



he said 
^atisiiod 
blood." 
ove six 
ire into 
-lid not 
popish 

lie from 
3 so by 

anounc- 

It WHS 

Doyles- 
sermon 
it called 
testiint. 
litted a 
■ I have 
K man, 
^ed him 
3clined. 
he bed, 
Dieces ; 
I began 



to scourge him, to compel him to confess. A 
stranger, passing by, hearing the noise, entered 
the house, and, finding the priest in the act of 
scourging the sick man, he seized him by the collar, 
and dragged him down stairs. Soon after, the 
man died. The priest was arrested and tried in 
Doylestown court-house, and fined fifty dollars and 
costs, and left the country. 

Who w^as it that threatened the cibj^ of Boston ? 
It was the lady superior of the convent, Avho, after 
that unclean and anti-republican cage had been 
attacked by rioters, said : '* The bishop has more 
than twenty thousand Irishmen at his command, 
who will tear your houses over your heads, and you 
may read your riot-acts till your throats are sore ! " 
We condemn the riot, but did that justify this 
diabolical and bloody threat of this female Jesuit ? 

Who was it that persecuted recently four hun- 
dred Madeira Protestants, and forced them to flee 
from their native country? The priests of the 
island. 

A convert to Protestantism, travelling along the 
road leading to ScarifF, Ireland, in the county of 
Clare, was accosted by some laborers in the field. 
After threatening him several times, they at length 






156 ROMANISM OPPOSED TO OUR LIBERTIES. 



1 1 
• 1 



suftcrod liiiii to pass, saying, ** If you dare to come 
this Avjiy Mgjiiii, you bloody Sasscuah rascal, we'll 
blow your brains out ! " — Limerick Standard, 

A savage-looking ruffian violently attacked the 
Ilev. Mr. Marks, a Protestant clergyman, late of 
the Molyneux Asylum, in the public streets of 
Dublin, and, without provocation, knocked the 
reverend gentleman down. What next? — Warder. 

On the evening of Wednesday last, loth inst., 
as John Ilonner, a respectable Protestant, was re- 
turning home from the Macroon Sessioiis, he was 
savagely assaulted midway between C-istletown and 
Enniskeane, by some person at present unknown ; 
no less than sixteen wounds having been inllicted 
on his head and face, besides several others on his 
body and limbs ; his skull was severely fractured. 
— Cork Slandarr', 

The names of nearly one hundred persecuted 
Protestant clergymen are given in the Tipperary 
Constitution. The manner in which they were 
treated is thus marked : stoned to death ; mur- 
dered ; stoned ; fired at ; dangerously assaulted ; 
abused and persecuted ; plundered ; interrupted 
and assaulted in the performance of duty ; house 



atta 

fron 

c 

pvi( 



3. 



ROMANISM OPPOSED TO OUR LIBERTIES. 157 



to come 
il, we '11 
ard. 
ked the 

lute of 
X'cts of 
ied the 
Warder. 
h iiisfc., 

was re- 

hc was 
)wn and 
xiiown ; 
nllicted 
3 on his 
ctured. 

^ocuted 
)perary 
Y were 
miir- 
iilted ; 
rupted 
house 



attacked, demolished, or ])nrned down ; driven 
from his home, or his country. 

Some time a^iio, M. Maurette, a Frencli Roman 
priest, was brought to tlie knowledge of the truth 
as it is in Jesus, and, in consequence, aliandoncd 
tlie pale of the idolatrous and apostate church in 
which he had been brought up. Having convinced 
himself of the danger of continuing in Ba])}don, he 
wished to induce as many as possible of his coun- 
trymen to flee out of her infected comnumion. 
With this view, he publish.ed a statement of the 
reasons that had led him to adopt the Protestant 
faith, and plainly and forcibly exposed the sup( r- 
stition of Rome, by the usual arguments employed 
by the divines of the French Protestant churc]^ 
For this he was condemned, o]i tlie 17th of May, 
1844, by the Court of As;,izes of L'Ariege, to .i 
year's imprisonment, and a fine of six hundred 
francs ! 

You have all heard of the brutish papal persecu- 
tions at Damascus, where two or three of the un- 
protected sons of Abraham were recently floggeil, 
soaked in large vessels of water, tlnir eyes pressed 
out of their sockets with a maehine, dragged about 
by the ears till the blood gushed ou^. thorns driven 




14 



# 





.; : 






158 ro\'ANTp:m opposed to our liberties. 



ia between the nails and flesh of their fuif^^ers and 



toes, 



d 



\\\'A candles pn 



]h 



it under tlieir noses, barniiiir 



their nostrils. This is Po[)ery ! Alter hearing of 
this act of persecution, and hundreds of otliers 
constantly taking place in papal countries, and onr 
own country, who will believe that this unchange- 
able church has changed her system of l)utchery? 
"What she has been she is now ; and you, my Prnt- 
estant brethren, Avould feel it if she had the power. 
Now, with the fact of the presence of this miglity 
enemy in our beloved land, what more astonishing 
than the apathy and blindness of our statesmen, 
and the slumbering security in which our patriotic 
citizens, to whom jLtberty is so sweet and dear, fold 
their arms, and never dream of papal danger? 
Do they imagine that our country is too great, our 
resources too vast, our nundjers too overwhelming, 
to feel the slightest apprehension on this subject? 
What was it but a spark that kindled up the con- 
flagration of Eome, and that w\as to blow up tlio 
Pari; anient of England? What was it but a Guy 
Fuwke.-, employed by the Jesuit priests to make 
that fatal arrangement, to overturn Protestantism 
in .'England? Wbjit was it but one gilded bauble 
from the Pope that corrupted the royal monarch, 



;s. 



ROMANISM OPPOSED TO OUR LIBERTIES. 159 



2:crs and 

l)urninf]: 
'arhi<j^ ol' 
f others 

and (jur 
icliana'c- 
it(dierv'/ 

ly Pmt- 
e po\v(>r. 
s niioiity 
onishin<i- 
itesDicn, 
patriotic 
ear, fold 
danger ? 
reat, onr 
lelming, 
subject ? 
the con- 
' np tlic 
t a Guv 
make 
;tanti.sm 

bauble 
onarch, 



Ilcnry II., to sa])niit himself and kingdom to the 
dictation of the A^itican ? AVhat is it but Pusey- 
isui, now in the hands of the subtle and scheming 
Nuncio of Itonie, aided by Iho University of Oxford, 
and the crafty spies and emissaries of Rome, that 
is undermining the foundation of Protestantism, and 
shaking the lancied stability of tlie throne of the 
Stuarts, in that land of the early Reformation, and 
heroic defenders of the bulwarks of liberty ? 

Do our listless Galbas imagine that the two 
thousand papal bishops, priests, and Jesuits, with 
their millions of obedient subjects, and nuiltitudes 
of endowed nunneries, seminaries, and colleges, 
planted over our land like so many batteries, with 
their guns and ammunition ready for action, are 
sent here and put in operation merely for the idle 
amusement of that foreign potentate ? Is the prize 
less tempting, by its surpassing beauty and mag- 
nificence, than other territories and states, at which 
its policy has been directed, and over which its 
skilful and deep-laid plots have triumphed ? There 
are but a few of our people, comparatively, who 
are aware of the secret and mighty springs which 
are at work in the wheels within the wheels of this 
spiritual and political machine. Its central power 





160 ROMANISM OPPOSED TO OUll LIBERTIES. 

is at Rome ; but Us army of chameleon and vigi- 
lant spies arc everywhere. Our people may despise 
its intrigues, and laugh at the warnings of more 
reflecting patriots, who stand like sentinels on tlic 
watch-towers of liberty ; but so reasoned the inliab- 
itants of Troy, when the treacherous wooden horse 
entered within its gates and took the city. 







M 



H 



s. 

md vigi- 
i despise 
of more 
Is on tlic 
e inlmb- 
en horse 







CX CvVA^V^V ^ 5^ A. O q\V^ . 



ii»iks. 



:A^T1 -' BuouU,- V»= •" 



i: i ■■ f . ( 



;^ panicipatlou in ou ♦.. » 



Maine. j!iim;ir/ 
■ utc.il r>'r I'j. 'r 



vit 1812 ]-• ii .vp- ij',- j.i,ivc • k'liul ui: i -.iiLve^- 



'■x* 



-•.•:0 oi'th*' yc 5.1' ISH, S ij.; '". t'ic uiiKlii: ,-'•..;, 

wa^ oMigcd, iksveil-rt;, \sii!-u a boy of v^av '.i.^at 

(n iiiiu. to bo;Z^n tr liuiA^ bis (iWii Wuv* ill ih-' w^i hi 

;i just lar<re enough t» t't.a i<p'.>'j eiratifk. 1»U(. with ibe 

,: Ol M. 111-;"! in Iji-; clii'Ti hc;i>t. f.i, u ;•:•■ U"l lii:-! <.'0!!V^^e 10 

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HON. ERASTUS BllOOKS. 



Erastus Brooks was born in Portland, Maine, January 
31, 1815. His mother descended from a family for many 
generations belonging to New England, and noted for their 
active participation in our Revolutionary battles. Ilis father, 
also, rendered efficient service in the ocean scenes of the 
war of 1812-15. lie was the brave, skilful, and success- 
ful commander of the " Yankee ; " and was lost at sea near 
the close of the year 1814, while in tlir; public service. Mr. 
Brooks' mother was left without tlie aid of fortune. Her 
son was obliged, therefore, when a boy of only eight 
years of age, to begin to make his own way in the world. 
When just large enough to run upon errands, but with the 
spirit of a man in his child's heart, he directed his course to 
Boston, and there entered a store, and weiglied out sugar 
and tea and coffee for the customers of his employer. lie 
next sought independence by a trade of his own, and en- 
deavored to obtain the rudiments of an education by attend- 
ing an evening school. The suiject of our sketch, who is 
now eminent as an editor of marked ubiiity, commenced his 
printer's career as the " Printer's Devil,"' and arose gradu- 
ally to the position of printer, publi.-her. and proprietor of 
a paper, at Wiscasset, Maine, wliich bore, in honor of his 
father's sea efforts, the significant title of '-The Yankee." 
Here his habits of industry were displayed in a manner that 




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]G2 



HON. ERASTUS BROOKS. 



won for liini tlic respect and admiration of all who witnessed 
his career, lie set the types ot" his pnper, woiked the press 
"willi his oun hands, \)y liie aid of a hoy, and distri'aited llu' 
copies amoii;^ tiie suhscrihers hiins(.dt', at day dawn ! All 
the work m and out of doors was pertbrnied without -inv' 
other assistanee tlian tluit of a small hoy hired for the ptu*- 
pose. — as a '•roller-hoy/" kc. Young J>rooks, now he- 
eoming more amhitious, thought he could edit as well as 
j)riMt a paper; and witliout the usual manuscript hefore hiui. 
he composed as he worked, setting in type his own editorials, 
and nianv miscellaneous articles and stories. These first 
lessons in the editorial profession made it apparent that he 
needed a hetter e'ducation than he had thus l;»r aC(pnrLd ; 
and, without considering the hard struggle he would be 
obliged to make, with his cxtreniely limited means, he at 
once resolved to possess a knowledge of books as well as men. 
Without any pecuniary assistance from others, he com- 
menced to prei)are himself for college at Waterville. Maine. 
He studied the " Liber Primus," Sallust, the Greek Gram- 
mar, I'cc, aided in these exercises by a few friends wlio were 
students at the college, and by resident gentlemen who felt 
an interest in one so well worthy of their fiiendsliip. liis 
})lans were now somewhat altered. He taught school one 
half of his time, to pay the expenses incidental upon his own 
education. His board he paid by setting types in a print- 
ing-office. By the greatest diligence in the pursuit of his 
studies, Mr. Brooks was soon qualified to enter Brown 
University, at Providence, Rhode Island. He passed throu;:h 
the sophomore and junior classes, took rank with the lat- 
ter, and was ecjual in point of attainments to those who had 
reached the senior class: but that stern necessity, which 
had so oppressed him pr<'viously, again interposed a barrier 
to his onward course. With others partially dependent upon 



HON. KRASrUS BROOKS. 



103 



him, and no nioncvcd nienns of iiis own. lie was obli;ife(l to 
reliiKjuisli liis ^^('llt»l;^slic (li'si^ii.s : but. like a |-liilos<>j)lier, 
lie suhiiiitti'd willi ;i ;:;•)' d ,Liaco to this second <iis:ij)j.oint- 
iiK'iii. and ic'tuiiictl (.Ik'tTrully :ind linppily to liis t \ pus in 
the [niiitin^-oliice. and liis seliool-toaelnn^. ^o')n 'dter tliis, 
the CHtniniittec of llavi-ihill, Mass., pionoiuieed liini to he 
competent to conduct one of the old-fasliioned •• (iraniii;ai' 
i*chools'* of the state: whicli was a compliment well de- 
srrved by Mr. Brooks, and proved hiiilily tiratifyitig to him. 
Tlie happiest day of his life, he has often said, was when he 
jiassed muster as a school-teacher in the State of Massa- 
chusetts, where lie was born, before Maine became a state, 
and where he was pronounced entitled to four hundied and 
eighty dollars a year, as the })er amium pay of one who was 
compelled to teach boys and girls at least eight hours a day. 
His taste for literary pursuits still governing him in the 
choice of a profession, Mr. Brooks became the editor and 
jiait owner of the ILivcrluU Gazette. This position he 
ielin(|UJshe(l in ISoG, and repaired to Washington, D. C, 
;iiid became the correspondent of the New York Daily Ad- 
rtrfiser, afterwards merged in the New York L\r/)res.'i, 
and of several New England papers. While in this ca- 
pacity, Mr. Brooks had ample opportunity for the study of 
ihcn and events; and, with his usual diligence, he employed 
all his spare time in the investigation of all the prominent 
measures of the day, and the political history of the countiy 
While at Washington, he enjoyed the personal confidence of 
such men as Clay, WEn.sTi:ii, Ai>am.<. and Fill.mori;, and 
with them he both sympathized and acted, politically. At 
Uiis time Mr. Brooks obtained an interest in the New York 
lLrpr(ss. which had started in July, ISIIG. in behalf of 
Gen Harrison, and is continued up to the {)resent time, Mr. 
Brooks continuing as one of its editors and proprietors. This 






164 



HON. EllASTUS IJltOOKS. 




excellent newspnpcr is now in a most prosperous condition 
and is the principjil organ, in the State of New York, of iho 
American party. Fur (sixteen con^seeulivc sessions of Cun- 
irress. Mr. lirooks remained in Wa.sliiniz'ton, eonduciin;' his 
pajM'r there, in piirt, as tlic Wasliin;^toii editor. 

In ltS4J'), Mr. iirooks visited Europe, and travclU^Ml as far 
north as ^Norway, and as far south as Naples and the Lower 
Danube, bi faet, he jjassed over Euro,)e generally, and 
penetrated to the heart of Russia. His letters from Eurojie 
over the siijnaturc of " K. c."' are remembered as aflbrdinLr, 
perhaps, the most graphic account ever written by an Ameri- 
can traveller of scenes and incidents in the Old World. 

In 1853. Mr. Brooks was elected to the Senate of tlic 
State of New York, by a plurality vote, and distingui.'^hed 
himself by his une(|ualled energy, and his attention to all the 
wants of his constituency, and also by his able advocacy of 
the " Church Property Bill,"' which was intended to secure 
to the American Catholics a more c(piitable disposition of 
their church property, hy transferring it from the hands of 
the bishops individually, to those of the lay trustees, whose 
province it properly is to manage the temporal concerns of 
the congregations. The wise provisions of this celebrated 
bill were heartily approved of by the trustees of the Cath- 
olic Church of St. Louis, at Buffalo, N. Y'^. Indeed, none 
felt aggrieved at the passage of tliis salutary law, but the 
bishops, who wished to hold and possess in their individual 
right all the property belonging to their congregations. 
The great danger of a perversion of so great a trust and 
power by any one man so circumstanced, nmst be acknowl- 
edged by all rational men. Of course, the bishops were 
enraged against those who had participated in the enactment 
of a law which took from their possession millions of dollars, 
and Archbishop Hughes, of New York, testified his anger by 




HON. ERASTU^s BROOKS. 



IG 



• •J 



tlio piiMicatioii of a spitcHil Icttor. in \v]ii('h he clinrcrorl the 
Hull. Erastus IJrooks witli tlie uttorauco of a falsvhiJod con- 
ccrtiiii;^ the aiuoiiiit of property lu M l>y him ( Archliishop 
lluiilu's). Tliis ('oimnLMK.vd a coiitiowrsy, with wliich the 
■world i.s now acfpiaintc*!. On the ]>art of Arclihisliop 
]In;:h(S, it was condnctcd with the view solely to hear down, 
hy the weight of his own great name, and by the force of 
liard charges, false acv-'iisations. and browbeating, the Ameri- 
can senator who had dare<l to do r'ifjht, and confront, in the 
net of doing so, the powerful Archbishop of New York. 
Hoping to crush out of sight and out of mind the ugly facts 
Avhicli the honorable senator had dragged into the light of 
(lay, and appearing to believe that he could frighten the 
senator from his position, the archbishop threw, with a 
desperate energy, all the weight of his position, his power, 
and his pen, into the controversy. But he had a man to 
(leal with who was schooled in the republican belief, and in 
the Protestant faith : one who feared no man, and one, too, 
who, as a polemical writer, was the archbishop's superior, 
— superior, because honest, truthful, and straightforward. 

That Mr. Brooks proved the victor in this lenowned con- 
troversy, was, at its close, conceded by the press and the 
people throughout this country and Europe. Here is the 
principle involved : The Pope of Rome is the supreme head 
and front of the Ilomish church, throughout the world ; 
his bishops in America are his personal agents ; these agents, 
acting by his orders, held in their hands, for the Pope, mil- 
lions of dollars' worth of property ; so that the Pope of 
Rome was the director and controller of these millions, for 
good or evil, in the United States. Now, we, as an indi- 
vidual and distinct nation, could not with safety allow the 
temporal and spiritual monarch of a foreign country to 
wield, through his agents in this country, a power great 

15 



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HON. r.HA^^TUs r.nooKS. 



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onon^ii to control our oioclion?. 'riiorotDro. nnd hocan^o it 
was Jinti-roj)i\1)li<':in in every respect, our raitliful, feiule >«, 
and honest le;i;i.-5liitor. Hon. Era^tus lirook.s, AvreHtod this 
fearful power out of the liaiid.s of tlie l*o])e of l^onu', hy 
•wresting it from tlie hands of Ardihisliop Hughes, that mon- 
arch's agent in New York. This is tlio true issue, in a few 
■words. It is diflicult to ivalize the weight of ohli^jati'-n 
under whieli. :is a i)eople, >ve ]a^or, to Mr. lirooks. fr 
the inc.ilculahle servie(>-^ ho has renderel ii-; in freeiuijr us 
from the terril)le j)OAver of that inuiien.sc amount of wealth, 
which could have heen used in the formation of armies of 
foreigners in our midst; ^Yhic]l could liave heen empbyed in 
the perversion of tlic legitimate purposes of the l)al]ot-ho.\; 
•which could have hought up thousands of those corrupt 
demagogues with whom all countries are cursed. Indeed, 
there is no end to the evil uses to which money may be ap- 
plied, in the hands of individual men, who are better poli- 
ticians than priests, better temporal commanders than 
spiritual advisers. But this important event in the history 
of our state and nation is well understood, and we have only 
dwelt upon it at this point, in our brief biography of Mr. 
Brooks, because it merits, whenever mentioned, more than 
ordinary attention. 

The controversy ended, and the archbishop, completely 
foiled, concluded that the next best thing to be done was to 
defeat Mr. Brooks, who •was now renominated for the senator- 
ship of his district. Accordingly, a Roman Catholic was 
nominated by the Hughes party to oppose Mr. Brooks, and 
every scheme and device that the Jesuits and their coadju- 
tors could bring to bear upon the election were used, without 
a thought of their character, and Avith a total disregard as to 
the cost they imposed. But the people, who had sanctioned 
the acts of Mr. Brooks, and gloried in the defeat of a cor- 



HON. ERASTUS HROOKS. 



lev 



^"11190 it 

cd this 
•rue. 1)v 

\\ IIIOII- 

n a few 

'k.s, l".r 

\vealth. 

mies of 

I j}T(l in 

ot-box ; 

corrupt 

Indeed, 

he sip- 

er poli- 

rs than 

history 

ive 01 dy 

of Mr. 

re than 

ipletcly 
was to 
senator- 
lie Avas 
ks, and 
coadju- 
without 
rd as to 
ictioned 
■. a cor- 



rupt priesthood, sustained the clianipion of their ri;:)its 1)y 
icturniii;^ liini to the f<en:itc ciiani'icr of tiu' iSl.ilr of New 
Yuik. — wlii'Mce his priesilv antiiLronist iiad cndcavond to 
(Xfliide him, — !»y a niajoi ity of over four thousand, :iiid 
;in incivasrd vote of sev( n thousaiul over liis fii>t idt'ctit»n. 
More than a thousand of the most piomincnt citizens of New 
Yolk, of all ranks ami jn'ofessions. unili'd in the request to 
have Mr. JJrooks continue to represent them : hecause no 
stivant of the public had ever shown more deference to the 
^\ill of his constiliu'nts, or been nioie inde(ati;iablo in his 
eflbits to advance the moral, social, commercial, mechanical, 
and industrial interests of thiit city. Mr. JJiooks is now 
the nominee of the American })arty for the governorship of 
the State of Nevt' York, having received in convention the 
unanimous vote, by acclamation, of eleven hundred and 
si.xty-nine delegates, >vho met in llochester as a nomi- 
nating convention, on the 24th of September last, and who 
arose to their feet as one man, and shouted the name of 
Erastus Brooks, — a thing unheard of in the political history 
of the state or country. 

This brief sketch of Erastus Brooks may serve to emu- 
late American youth, and teach them that t!ie only true way 
to reach preferment, under our republican institutions, is by 
pursuing a course of moral rectitude, energy, and industry, 
in whatever sphere of duty they may be engaged. By just 
such a course Mr. Brooks has arisen, in rapid gradations, from 
the errand-boy of Boston to the senatorship of his adopted 
state, where he has represented about three huui^red thou- 
sand people. During the present political camjjaign, Mr. 
Brooks has exhibited that untirirjg industry and energy for 
which he is remarkable. In addition to his editorial duties, 
he has spoken at almost every important town in the State 
of New York, and in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and in 






I 



108 



HON. ERASTUH BllOOKS. 



four of the Now En;^l:ui(l St;»tos. Nor hns he over faih'd to 
respond, j)roiiij)tly and clu'crriilly. to the calls of ilie Aineii- 
cans of other states: Imt is ever ready to lal)or in the eiusi^ 
of Ills country, and of the Union and its supporters. Millatd 
Filhnore and Anihcw Jackson Uomdson, for \vlio>o nomina- 
tion he labored in the National Convention, as one of tlic 
dele'^ates at large from the Empire IState. lie never spares 
himself, night or day. when he has a <luty to j)erform. ainl 
it cxeites the wonder ot' all to ])eh(dd th(; woik he does with 
the ratlier delicate frame he has: hut there is an iron will. 
an indoiiiit l^K■ spirit, and a valiant heart within, that stistain 
him tiiroagh all. 

We leave him at this period of his history, as the fiojninee 
of the American people, wwAo^ nU Protestants^ for the gov- 
ernoiship of the btate of New York. We leave him as the 
tried and true man, in the hands of those who know how to 
appreciate and reward the truly meritorious. 



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! of tbi> p'l.M^.:!!*' fit ill an Ami'mi''^ 

ri"<l th«' li^hi «t' tlj'- Aiiier'u'Mn ]'<M.|ut ^o the 
ti'»l . : their '»\vii in;ii?"i>. Tluv «;'-i»K 
titntioii tlv'v li:if iir^, tlii-t i.'i»?i'ji-< .-> < ouM 



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CENTRAL AMERICA. 



I f 



Cir AFTER I. 

It was our fiitlicrs' ^visli to keep the administra- 
tion of this government in an American sphere. 
They wanted no colonial or territorial dependence. 
They wanted to maintain the Union, and iherefore 
asserted the right of the American people to the 
exclusive control of their own matters. Tb jy said, 
in the constitution they left us, that Congress could 
sell the puhlic lands, that it could admit new 
states, but not a word was mentioned about organiz- 
ing any government without the riglits of a state. 

Under this constitution we Americans liave sig- 
nally pros[)ercd, while our infhience lias exerted a 
mighty power over all the civilized states of the 
world. There is not a nation with which we liave 
not a commercial and political rehition. There is 
not a country in which our enterprise has not 




1 



r,* 



170 



CExNTllAL AMERICA. 






entered, nor an ocean on which oui ships do not 
float. American genius is mor(^ or less impressed 
upon every people and clime, and mutual interest 
and sympathy bind us to mankind. We have no 
need now, Americans, to fear to assume the prin- 
ciples which have guided us thus triumphantly ; 
nor can we limit those principles within our ouu 
borders. Our example, our ideas, our discoveries, 
our inventions, our habits of life, our social, politi- 
calj and religious institutions, must ultimately ex- 
tend O'JY form of government. And to sec our 
maxims securely applied to other people ; to see 
our laws, the settled principles of equality and 
justice, administered throughout Christendom ; to 
see our industry and enterprise exacting equality 
everywhere, could not but create an honest exulta- 
tion within the breast of every true American. 

We, then, my countrymen, have a mission to 
periorni, out of our country : wo nave to tiiruw 
our weiglit, in behalf of e({uality Mud justice, over 
the countries of the world, and to guard with a 
vigilant eye the principles of Protestraitism and 
Americanism, that our own strength shall increase, 
our owai resources expand, and an additional im- 



CENTRAL AMERICA. 



171 



do not 
pressed 
nterc.st 

»«'IVC 110 

priii- 

aiitly ; 

r own 
)vcries, 

politi- 
oly ex- 
ec our 

to sec 
iy and 
)ni ; to 
lUfility 
Jxultu- 
in. 

ion to 
throw 
', over 
vitli a 
n and 
rease, 
il im- 



petus be given to our moral, commercial, and polit- 
ical greatness. 

On the 1st of July, 1S23, Central America 
funned a federal republic, called the "United 
Provinces of Central America," doubtless designed 
to accord with our system of government, and 
adopting our constitution as its guide. The suc- 
ceeding year, they emancipated all the slaves in 
the republic, amounting to about one thousand, 
and indemnified the owners for the pecuniary loss. 
The constitution of this republic was ratified in 
November of that year, and the first federal con- 
gress was convened the 1st of September, 1825. 
But this union did not bind the states together 
like those of the United States (jf North America. 
It did not prevent the eniision of blood. And their 
constitution was but " a passive instrument, power- 
less for good, and only active for unimportant or 
l)ernicious purposes. ' ' The unchecked force of num- 
bers, influenced by bad, designing men, soon anni- 
hilated the union, by making the small states 
tributary to the larger ; a fate, Americans, we shall 
surelv feel, if ever our own beloved Union shall bo 
cursed by separation. 

On the 20th of July, 1838, in the thirteenth 



h 
•m 



172 



CENTRAL AMERICA. 



W 



& 



year of the Central American republic, Congress 
met hr the last time under the constitution, and 
the states retunicil to their former political system. 
In 1840, General Francisco Morazan, " the Wash- 
ington of Central America," made an elfort to 
restore the union of these states ; but the Jesuit 
priesthood united with the Indians, under Carrera, 
in opposing tlie liberties of the peo[»le, and expelled 
the *' father of his country" from his native soil. 
Morazan subsequently returned, in 1842, to Costa 
Rica, where he was murdered ; and this consum- 
mated the destruction of that unfortunate republic 
in Central America. And, Americans, mark the 
fate of that country, and you will see, in its feeble- 
ness, suffering, and horror, but a faint picture of 
what these United States will encounter, if ever 
the traitors within our borders shall sever the bonds 
which now^ hold us as one people. 

A light fi'om heaven has now guided a son of our 
American republic, to open the w^ay for the beauti- 
ful flag of the free, to deliver that misguided people, 
and bring them out of the humiliating condition to 
which tyranny and prie.>tcraft have sul)jected them. 
Gen. William AValker, now President of A'icaragua, 
a citizen of the United States, has commenced, and 



was I 

does n 

iippea 

licing 

a(ldre^ 

lueeki 



gish 



CENTRAL AMERICA. 



173 



we trust willnot fail, to ronovjite that land. TTo 
was born in Naslivillo, Tennosscc, and his age 
(Iocs not exceed tlurty-thrce years. His personal 
;ip[)earance is not conunanding, by any means ; 
being of small stature, without the prepossession of 
address or manner. But there is an expression of 
meekness, accompanied by a nasal tone and slug- 
gish utterance, Avhich^would arrest attention in 
any assembly ; and these peculiarities made young 
Walker a subject of interest at a very early age. 

lie was remarkable, as a boy, for the ardor of 
his friendships, the amiability of his disposition, 
and his obliging character towards Ms companions. 
If a *' hard sum," or an " awful lesson," was ex- 
citing his young friends. Walker w^as eagerly 
sought to remove the difficulty. He was never 
known to be at recitation unprepared, and was so 
sensitive of his reputation at school, that the 
slightest mistake or blumk^r he might make would 
alfect him to tears. He rarely then was known to 
laugh, although he often participated in tlie amuse- 
lucnts of his companions. 

But, to give the secret of Walker's rise from the 
modest school-boy of Nashville to the presidency 
of Nicaragua, we must tell you he had a good 















■l I 











174 



CKNTllAL AMERICA. 



mother, an American woman, who loved God anc 
her country, and by gentleness, aU'ection, jni! 
purity, exemplified and inculcjwted into the mind uf 
her son the laith and doctrine of our Protestiml 
Bible, lie thus, as the eldest of four ehiUlren, be- 
came the reliance of his widowed mother, and by 
the amiability of his disposition, and the sweetness 
of his temper, supplied th? place of a dau;j,hter to 
her as a companion. 

Walker was educated a Christian youth, and 
made a proficient in Christian law. This stimu- 
lated him to spread American principles, and en- 
listed the sympathy of his fellow-men in his new 
and important mission of introducing a new admin- 
istration and hiws, exciting enterprise, and pro- 
chiiming human rights and freedom in that darkened 
land. He Avas originally intended for the ministry, 
but a visit to Europe interposed, and he remained 
in Paris two years to prosecute the studies of law 
and physics, lie returned home, and connected 
himself with the editorial corps of his country, first 
at Kew Orleans, where he was connected with the 
Crescent, and then with the Herald, at San Fran- 
cisco, California. 

His independence, as well as ability, soon made 



CENTRAL AMERICA. 



176 



I i 



Oo(\ aiif. 



<»n, {111! 

mind uf 

■otcstjiiit 

ren, be- 

aiid by 

wectnes/^ 

^^licv to 

-ith, and 
3 stiniii- 
and en- 
liis ncAv 
v^ adniin- 
ind pro- 
Uirkened 
ninistry, 
cmaincd 
3 of law 
'Tinectcd 
:iy, fir.^t 
vitli tlio 
11 Fran- 

11 made 



him a terror to evil doers ; and an article reflecting 
upon the judiciary in Califbrniu caused him to be 
arraigned for contempt of court. lie was con- 
demned, and made to pay a fine of five hundred 
doUars, and suiler incarceration. 

This tyranny excited the just indignation of even 
that community, and every i)ul)lic demonstration 
was made to encourage Walker in his advocacy of 
the liberties of the people. When he afterwards 
appeared before the legislature to demand the 
removal of this unjust judge, he awakened tlie con- 
fidence and respect of the assembly, altliough he 
failed to secure the expulsion of his em^my. 

Gen. Walker's fii^fc military eifort was directed 
to conquer 8onora, in northern Mexico. Vnit the 
brig was seized in which his party were to embark, 
by the interference of the government. This mo- 
mentary detention was followed by greater suc- 
cess on tlie part of Walker ; and, landing in Lower 
California, in October, 1(S53, he was soon declared 
jiresident of that country. 

The motive which influenced Walker was frankly 
cx|)osed, namely, to take possession of Mexico, by 
first securing the provinces of the north. Tlie 
y vasion of Sonora whs tlien made. His numbers 






1-^ 







176 



CENTRAL AMERICA. 




:!i;i 



became reduced by desertion and starvation, and ho 
and hissurvivin*;" men, clothed in tattered garments, 
were compelled to retreat. This expedition occu- 
pied seven months, when Walker returned to Cali- 
forni.'j, and resumed his occupation of editor. 

In August, ]S54, a company, formed for connncr- 
cial purposes, organized in California, and set sail 
for the gold regie ms of Central America. After an 
absence of some months, it was proposed to aug- 
ment their forces, nnd send for Walker, to 
enlist in negotiations with the Spanish Americai 
republics. A grant of twenty-one thousand acr(s 
of land was oftered this party to enlist in the 
democratic cause, and the siege of Granada. 
Walker demanded fifty-two thousand acres, and 
w^ould consent to nothing less. This proposition 
was accepted, and after five months of preparation, 
attended by formidable opposition on the part of 
capitalists, he endjarked early in May, 1855, upon 
the enterprise of colonizing these states by Ameri- 
can mean?, and on American principles. Sixty- 
two persons composed this entire expedition, armed 
each with a rifle, revolvers, and knives. 

The scenes of massacre and carnage which fol- 
lowed the dissolution of the union in Central 



CENTRAL AMERICA. 



177 



Aniericn, dcMnonsiratcd tliiit these people were unfit 
lor soll-^ovenniient. In >sieanigu;i jind (Juatenialji, 
partieularly, tlie .strife lia<l beeonie most f'earlul 
with the Indian and negro, in opposition to the old 
S[>anish races. 

Two years a;^'0, CasteHan, a republican democrat, 
without the sujjport of wealth or power, attempted 
to redeem his ojjpressed countrymen, by intro- 
ducing the princii)les of freedom. He was opposed 
by Chamorro, a luiuglity aristocrat, who, by intrigue" 
and wealth, secured his reelection, against the will 
of the people. Castellan and other political oppo- 
nents were then thrown into prison. The Supreme 
Court was abolished, and these men finally banished 
from the country. 

Castellan fled to Honduras, where, under the 
protection of President Cab'anos, the friend and 
patron of human rights, they conceived the idea of 
revolutionizing Nicaragua for the sake of liberty. 
Castellan and his associates returned and triumphed. 
He became Provisional Director, which office he 
held until his death, September, 1855. 

The priesthood, the most powerful enemy to the 
rights of the people in Central America, as every- 
where else where they prevail, now united with the 

10 






I : 



■■•— i*iH 



■ i;.f't' 



N.v 



■J 



178 



CENTRAL AMERICA. 




autocrat Chamorra, to defoat the liberals ; and this 
proud demagogue obtained almost the entire statt; 
of Nicaragua. At i\m crisis Chamorra died, jind, 
amidst the savage ferocity which followed among 
hiscliiel's, wlio assumed tlie ((uarrel, General Walker 
cntercMl, and arrested the career of bloodshed by 
the immediate restoration of peace and order. 

Gen. Walker repaired to Leon, the capital of 
the state, exhibited his contract, and reported him- 
self ready for action. 

The ministry had steadily opposed the coming of 
the Americans ; and Walker, disgusted by their 
delay to give him a formal recognition, was about 
embarking for Honduras to aid the patriot Cabiinos 
against Guatemala, when a courier was despatched 
entreating him to stop, and the next day the 
Americans enlisted in the cause of Nicaragua. 




CHAPTER II. 



The battle of Rivas was the fii'st to eiifin^^e the 
fifty-eight Americans who were then iinuor Walker, 
lie added to that number one hiuKh'ed natives, who 
fled at the first fire, leaving the Americans to 
encounter five hundred of the enemy alone. The 
fight continued several hours, and wliile the Ameri- 
cans left double their own number of the enemy 
dead on the field, they remained without the loss 
of a hair of their heads. Walker, seeing the odds 
of eight to one Avas too great an exposure, made for 
a house where the enemy was sheltered, and drove 
them out and occupied it. These CJiamorrins 
then held a council, and decided to dislodge them ; 
but every attempt was made futile by American 
shot, which was poured into each as he attempted 
to approach. At night, however, the Americans 
fought their Avay out, and retreated to Virgin Bay. 

This Rivas battle inspired the Nicaraguans 
with such awe of American arms, that they 



Ai 



^M, 



'■.f 



.-IK 






f 




180 



CKNTUAL AMEUICA. 



ro^nrdod it certain dcnth to ^n) witliiii thro(5 Imndrod 
yjird.s of tlwir rillc.^. Gen. IJoclia ou'iud oiw hun- 
dred and ei^idy killed in tliat ii.uld, and tlu 
condnet wliieli the Anjerieans disphiycMl nnch'r Hu«;h 
learlul otlds soon eneuuni^fed the (h'niDeratie party 
to ho[>e lor sneeess under the iidrepid Walker. 

The battle of VWr^in 15ay lolluwed next. Here, 
a'z;ain, the lifty-eight Americans, with one hundred 
and twenty natives, were all Walker's force, while 
the servile party had five hundred and forty. 
Beside, they Inui cannon, and were protected by 
timber, while the Walker party were exposed in the 
streets. lUit these enemies to fn^edom were a^aiii 
routed. Gen. Walker was struck by a spent ball 
in this battle, and otlier Americans escaped in a no 
less remarkable manner. 

The Americans, after makinp^ a ^-ood impression 
at Virgin Bay, proceeded to San Juan, where, with 
death meeting them at every tnrn by cholera, this 
littlf American band remained, encouraged by the 
example of their brave commander. From San 
Juan del Sur, AValker, with his troops, proceeded 
in October to Granada, where some fighting was 
done, fifteen of the enemy being killed, and seven 
taken prisoners. The Americans were fired upon 



CENTUAL A.MKUICA, 



181 



from tlio Roiiiisli cluirt'li ; juid, on M|)pro!Hbin^ if", 
iuiind mm, women, and rhildirii, to Ihu iiuiiiImi- of 
ei«;hty souls, (diaiiu'd, in al>j(Mt misery, wliom the 
Americans instantly released. 

Lieut. Col. (lilinan, and twenty-fne Americans, 
were now detaile(l to obtain the I'ort, a mile cast 
of the city, which was armed hy forty men ; and 
(»ii the morning of the loth Octoher, 1N.>">, ihc 
]»attlc of Granada was f(m^]it. Gen. Walker, dis- 
cardin«i: the natives, had but one hundred and ten 
men, with wIkuu h(> took tlie Grand Plaza, ca[)tur(Ml 
all their artillery, and, after killing hut ten men, 
from three lunnh-ed to four Inuulred surrendcu'ed as 
prisoners. In this engagement, l)ut (rne American 
was slightly wounded. 

Walker's power Avas now felt, and he was then 
military commander in the van([uished Sehastojxd 
of Nicaragua. On the day succeeding the battle 
of Granada, the native citizens met, and adoi)ted 
resolutions oll'ering AValker the Presidency of Ni- 
caragua. This ho declined in fjivor of Gen. Corral. 

Col. Wheeler, the American Minister, was then 
consulted, and reciuested ,to take to Gen. Corral, at 
Leon, a proposition of peace. Wheeler at first 
declined, under the fear that it iiiight compromise 



I 






f% 



\§ 



p.- 



182 



CENTRAL AMERICA. 





\'^i 



ill 



his govornnicnt ; but, becoming satisfiod tliafc it did 
not, lie proL'Ci.'ded at once to Rivas. Corrul wis 
a)).se'it ; and, ai'tcr a few hours, WhiMdcr onU'iCil 
his horses, to rt'tiini, when he was tohl he eoid.l 
not leave, and iirnied soldiers were phiced at his 
(h)or. Tluis detained for two days, his friends 
became ahirmed at liis absence, and sent a special 
messenger to Rivas, who, una})le to enter, was 
informed by a native woman, true to the instincts 
of humanity, tliat the American Minister was a 
prisoner. 

The steamer Vinjin immediately proceeded to 
Rivas by the quickest water course, and fired four 
heavily-loaded cannon on Saint George, the nearest 
point to tlie town. Col. AVheeler tlien informed 
the governor, through the Minister of War, that, 
if he was detained another dav% his friends would 
attack Rivas, and exterminate its population. This 
produced the desired effect, and Wheeled' obtained 
his passports, and an escort of one hundred men to 
the ship. 

Reinforcements now began to pour into Nicaragua 
from California. Col. Frv and Mr. Parker IT. 
French arrived in October, iiccompanied by brave 
and spirited men. They were too late to partici- 



CENTRAL AMERICA. 



183 



I • 



piito in the coraiucst of Graiuula, but there wore 
still enough to engage them in Nicaragua. Col. 
Fry and Mr. French took passage in the Mrgin, at 
Mrgin Bay ; and, determined to take 8an Carlos 
by surprise, sent the captain and two men ashore, 
rc(piesting the immediate surrender of the fort. 

They were seized and made prisoners, and the 
steamer was fired into by twelve-pound shot five 
times. The American riflemen, detached from 
Walker, under Capt. Turnbull, \vere then sent 
ashore, to taku the fort ; but their ammunition got 
wet by the rain, and they were obliged to retreat 
to Virgin Bay. About an hour after these men 
left, the New York steamer ^an Carlos arrived, 
and was hailed from the fort before reaching it ; 
and an eighteen-pounder was fired into her, in- 
stantly killing a mother and child, residents of 
California, and otherwise committing serious out- 
rages up'^n the ship. 

A few days later, while these passengers were 
waiting for transit at Virgin Bay, a troop of horse- 
men surprised them, and fired seventy shots over 
their heads. The excitement now was appalling, 
and passengers fled in all directions, while many 
were subsequently caught, and deprived of their 



! 



■''•"fJsJid, 



** -Ji^i 




HilMiliMma 



w 






184 



CE:STRAL AMERICA. 



revolvers. Those two steamers, Virgin and Sun 
Carlos^ then made for Granada, and placed their 
passengers under the protection of Col. AVheek^r, 
the American ^liiiister. 

While this outrage was hcing perpetrated on 
passengers at Virgin Bay, Gen. Walker was in 
Cranada, organizing the army, of whicli he was 
made general ; and in sixteen days from his en- 
trance into that city, peace had been made, and a 
new government organized. 

Why did Walker thus become the liberator of 
Nicaragua ? We answer, because his integrity 
inspired confidence with friends and enemies ; and 
"when ne refused the Presidency, it carried convic- 
tion to the minds of tlie peoph) that he would not 
deceive them to glorify himself. 

On the 10th of Octo])or, Gen. Corral Wf!S inau- 
gurated President of the country. A public 
thanksgiving was made for peace, and oaths trflcen 
to perpetuate it. ** Look at that man Walker, 
sent by Providence to bring peace, prosperity, and 
happiness, to this Idood-stained, unhappy country," 
was the hmgunge of Padre Vijil, v.ho subsequently 
was sent on a mission to the United States, for the 
recognition of Nicaragua's independence. Walker 



::s» ^ i. 



iplji' 



CENTRAL AMERICA. 



185 



and Corral reviewed the army on that day ; and it 
certainly must have gratified any American to 
behold the promising prospect of thiit country, in 
an American citizen claiming to teach the people 
the rights and the benefits of democratic freedom. 

By every monthly steamer from California, p.I- 
venturers flocked to Central America ; and from 
both sides of the continent AValker's forces were 
steadily augmented, until they had grown from fifty- 
eight to upwards of one thousand men. Nor were 
these emigrants confined to mere adventurers, with- 
out education or fortune. On (he contrary, men 
imbued with the true spirit of American progress, 
who could look to the future, and see America's 
magnificent destiny, were found identified with the 
" Nicaragua Expedition." 

The devastation of war was sadly visible over all 
Central America. Granada, upon whom a new era 
had then dawned, was reduced from thirty thousand 
to about eight thousand. Walker was soon placed 
in emergencies which })i'ove the real character of 
men, and settle the rpiestion of fitness for mental 
and moral responsibility. A man named Jordan 
had fired at a native when intoxicated ; and, under 
the belief that the man would recover, Jordan was 




■*"T"*"HH! 



18G 



CENTRAL AMERICA. 






I' 








sentenced by court martial to leave the country. 
Subsequently, the man, however, died, and Walker 
ordered Jordan to be shot, next nKjrnin,!:', ]>y a lilt.' 
of tw.elve rilk'.^. The motlier ol' the boy went 
down ui)un lier knees, and implored Walker's ch.iii- 
ency. Padre Vijil and others also begged the 
same, on Iheir knees. But Walker was inexorable. 
lie had made this stern decree to sati>ly justice, 
and no power could dissuade him from its execu- 
tion. 

Treason was now discovered in the President of 
the country, and he too was made to pay the pen- 
alty of the traitor. Gen. Corral, to whom Walker 
yielded the chief magistracy, and who, with the 
Bible in one hand and the treaty in the other, had 
promised to sustain and respect the government, 
was proved to have been plotting its entire destruc- 
tion. Treasona])le design on tne part of Corral was 
proved by a fair trial, and he w^as sentenced to be 
shct. Walker appro vx^d the fauling of the court 
and sentence ; and, on November the 8th, at two 
o'clock, he ordered Corral to be led to the great 
srpiare, in the presence of the garrison, and die the 
death idl traitors should die. Rivas then was made 
Presid'nit of the country. 



m 



CENTRAL AMERICA. 



187 



At this time, new reiiiibrcements oaine to Walk- 

« 

or's aid ; and a letter to liini IVoni Col. Kinney, 
propo^in^ij: to r(MMi<i'nize (reii. Wnl'vcr as coiHuiandor- 
iii-cliief of tlio Jinny of Niearau'iia. provided 

» 1-1. 

Walker would reeouni/e him as Uovenior oC Mos- 
qiiito Territory. Walker tliiis eharacteristirally 
r('[died : "Tell Mr. Kinney, or Col. Kinney, or 
Gov. Kinney, or hy whatever name lie styles him- 
self, that, if he interferes with the territory of 
Niearagua, and I ean lay my hands on hin:, I will 
most assuredlv Innm' hi ii." 

The Amerieau minister, Mr. J. II. Wheeler, 
olhcially reeognized the new government of Niea- 
ragua, and he was offn'ially received hy President 
Rivas on the 10th of Oetoher. On the 17th of No- 
vember, the N'lcaragucuse newspaper was started; 
and, with an independent press, and a free consti- 
tutional government, it became at once an important 
(»hject to have it recognized l)y all the states of the 
world, but, a'oove all others, by that of these United 
States. Col. Parker II. French was consef[uently 
sent as minister j)leni})otentiary to this government. 
This placed the administration in its usual attitude 
of weakness before the world ; and, the authorities 
at Washington becoming alarmed about Central 






'-■A* 



188 



CENTRAL AMERICA. 






I 




if' 



m 




American matters, the District Attorney of Ncnv 
York, ^Ir. ]\Iclveon, was directed to ^i^iiard us 
against fillilnisteros with a vigilant eye. Here, 
Americans, with the Cuban aflairs and the burn- 
ing of Grey town staring us in tlie face, the ad- 
ministration suddeidv becomes frightened at a verv 
liarndess fact ! 

In the mean while the government of Nicaragun, 
learning the treatment awarded to its accredited 
minister, immediately dismissed or suspended all 
official communication with Mr. AVheeler, the 
American minister, and revoked the appointment 
of Mr. French, that he might return to Nicaragua. 
The refusal of Mr. Pierce's administration to recog- 
nize this ambassador was based upon the unwar- 
ranted conclusion, in view of the facts, that Walker's 
government had not been acknowledged by the 
people of that republic. Col. French, instead of a 
reception befitting his mission, was arrested on the 
charge of enlisting soldiers, and the steamer North- 
ern Lif/Jit detained from her regular trip, and pas- 
sengers ttd^en from her. l>ut American acumen 
was quick to discern the utility of Walker's govern- 
ment, and the people, undaunted by the petty 
refusal of Mr. Pierce to sanction American rule, — 



CENTRAL AMERICA. 



189 



which promised reform in a foreign hmd, — pressed 
on with ahicrity to ^sicaragu^, under tliose inalien- 
ii))le rights which are the heritage of American men. 

The early explorations in the gold regions of 
Nicaragua were made under the temporary estab- 
lishment of peace, and satisfactorily demonstrated 
that, with the advantage of such machinery as is 
used in California, the product from them would bo 
infinitely greater. AVith the common rocker, from 
five to ten dollars a day were at once realized. The 
climate of Nicaragua, too, is inviting to settlers ; 
the fevers do not prevail there, as in California ; 
the air is cool and salubrious, and labor is rarely 
impeded at any season of the year. 

Nothing can surpass the beauty of the natural 
scenery of Nicaragua. Its plains, valleys, and toI- 
canoes, the plumage, of its birds, its beautiful verd- 
ure, and the ever- varying hues of its mountain 
ranges, present attractions for habitation rarely 
pointed out to man. Then the richness and variety 
of the products of its soil are not less noted ; and, 
with the exception of cotton, there is not a vegeta- 
ble growth in the United States of America that 
does not flourish in Nicaragua. 

What is there, then, Americans, to arrest or check 
17 



' 



'^K^^ ' 



■^1 






&9CflSSRV7(»i»nK<(r.'f>»^(W^ 



190 



CENTRAL AMERICA. 



hi I 



h. 



it 




the advancement of this new republic under Aniori 
can men? Nothing l)ut interior impediments, arising 
from the want of eihication nmong the people. La- 
bor is cheap. It is on the very road of commercial 
travel, and between our Pacific and Atlantic states. 
In point of geographical locality, with an ocean eacli 
side, in the great centre of trade, Nicaragua must 
become a great "highway" of commerce through- 
out the world. Now, what she needs is the right 
kind of population. To obtain this, Americans nuist 
have the bona fide evidences of interest. With its 
auspicious position, its goLl, and its American pro- 
tection, we shall see American settlers increasing 
from year to year. 

The government of Honduras has made grants 
'already to the Honduras mining and trading com- 
pany, of New York. The daily discoveries prove 
the universal presence of this metal. 

After California wms discovered, England became 
alarmed at tha travel across the Central American 
isthmus, and thought there would be another ellbrt 
to get a ship canal between the oceans ; and, to 
arrest Americans in taking exclusive advantage of 
this centra, roiite, England brought about the 
unique treaty of 1850, made by Mr. Bulwer on 



CENTRAL AMERICA. 



191 



the part of Great Britain, and Mr. Clayton in bo- 
half of the government at Washington. This 
" Chiyton-Buhver Treaty" ostensibly setthMl this 
disputed region ; and, under this idea, it was con- 
lirmed and ratified. The states of Jentral Amer- 
ica supposed it was a full redress for their past 
^rievanees ; but too soon they discovered the 
whole affair was a failure, England asserting her 
claim to the " Ruatan Islands " and the '* ^losquito 
coast." It is useless here to inquire into the fal- 
lacy of this claim. It is clearly proven she never 
(lid of right possess it ; and recent negotiations at 
London have resulted in the entire withdrawal from 
this pretension. 

The eifect of our government's refusal to recog- 
nize the independence of Nicaragua through Mr. 
French was very disastrous. GuatemaLi, Hondu- 
ras, and Costa Rica, immediately followed tiie 
example, and refused all correspondence with Walk- 
er's government. Col. Schlessenger was sent as 
commissioner to Costa Rica, to inrpiire into the 
reasons of its refusal to recognize, stating that 
Nicaragua desired peace with all the neighboring 
states. He was treated with scorn, and driven from 
the country. Gen. Walker instantly declared war 



"%^' 



h^ 



""Stll*, 



t* 



414 



1 






m 



192 



CENTRAL AMERICA. 




.'\gainst Costa Rica, and the most energetic meas- 
ures were taken to avenge the insult. Tlie Costa 
Rican government then authorized its president 
alone, or in union with other states, to take up arms 
against Nicaragua, and ^^ drive lhcforci(jn i /traders 
from the soil." The nnlitia of Costa Rica, aniounl- 
ing to nine thousand, wcie called into action, mikI 
one hundred thousand dolhirs were immediately 
raised for their support. The army commenced its 
march to Nicaragua before the design was known 
to Gen. Walker. A printing press was taken along, 
and daily bulletins issued of their progress. 

Schlessenger, an unprincipled German, was se- 
lected by Walker, more from the spirit of retaliation 
than personal regard, to head the forces sent against 
Costa Rica. This force amounted to two Imndrcd 
and seven in number, conunanded l)y Schlcsser.g'v'r, 
when he left Virgin Bay for Costa Rica. These 
w^erc composed of two American companies from 
New York and New^ Orleans, and tw^o other compa- 
nies of Germans and Frenchmen. 

The guides left this little band on reaciiing Costa 
Rica ; and the brutal conduct of Schlessenger to the 
troops, requiring them to march under a torrid sun 
and lie by under a cool moonlight, and innumerable 



CENTRAL AMERICA. 



193 



acts of "VUcUy and (.'owardioo, soon disgusted the 
Americans, and inspired their d(>epest resentment. 
]le showed, hesides, marked dill'crence in his treat- 
ment towards Americans and the other troops. A 
German, for exam^de, wlio liad committed an act 
which in military hiw merited death, was scarcely 
reprimanded ; while a New Yorker came near heing 
shot for picking up a [)icco of bread as he was walk- 
ing. The fear of American fire only prevented that 
act of the ignominious coward. 

17* 






SE':;jK?e»r^=" -^ •■"- ■ --^ - 





I 







^'ji 



C II A r T E U III. 

The l)atll(3 of Saiila Rosa is in all respects tlic 
iiiost disreputable engagement which ever occni'rcil 
upon this continent, or was associated witli the 
American name. Santa Ilosa was the hacienda 
occupied by Schlessenger and his forces when they 
fired upon the enemy. The Americans took their 
position in the front ranks, and while the battle 
was raging, Schlessenger appeared at the corner 
of the house behind the New York troops, and, 
in utter consternation, cried out, " There they are, 
boys! there they are!" Then, retreating, ex- 
chdmed, *' Campaigne, Francaise ! " and ran with 
his best speed, followed by the Frenchmen. The 
Germans caught the influence, and, dashing th(ir 
weapons on the ground, fled likewise. The Amer- 
ican party remained unmoved and undaunted, and 
as soon as the real intentions of the enemy were 
discovered, Lieut. Jliggins gave the order to fire, 



m- 



'^R!! 



:iii 



CKNTRAL AMERICA, 



105 



els tlio 
'(•(MllTnl 
ith the 
{iciciida 
L'll (Iicv 
)k their 
5 battle 

corner 
>s, and, 
ey are, 
^, ex- 
Lll Avitli 
. The 

X thi'w 



Ame 



I- 



d, and 
^ were 
;o fire, 



and never did ',\n ani:rv volh'V of slint m) out witli 
a ^Teater //.'///, or d(» ni(»re ell'eetive execution. 

The enemy lell hack, hu(, on ndoadin^-, pressed 
nearer to the ;^^'lt<^s of the haeieinhi, when the brave; 
Parker, en;::a;^'ed in e]i(?(d<in^^ llieni, was shot to tho 
iieart. Cahart, another ))rave American, now took 
his position on the pi;iza, and sliot the eneniies* 
leach'r as lie rode up and down their lines, and who 
three times bef'oro had fired his rifle into the 
American ranks. }]y this tinn^, ]\Jaj<»r O'Neill, 
who hnd ^one after Sehlessen^er, returned, saying 
"he wanted to be with tho company who would 
fight;" and the New York company then, seeing 
the enemy approachiii'!; with such fearful odds, 
withdrew, under O'Neill's sanction. 

Here note the fact that this New York company 
was the only one which fired a volley in that 
action ! These fortv-four men were reduced to 

ft' 

« 

twenty-two by the action, and were the last to 
leave the spot. The enemy, too, on this occasion, 
beside being double Schlesscnger's force, ^wero 
picked and tried soldiers, who had ])efore fought the 
Americans at the bloody battle of Rivas. The 
troops in the American camp were entirely un- 
prepared for this engagement. And it was not 






«*iK 



,. ! 



196 



CENTRAL AMERICA. 





\im: 




i^i 



remarkable that rowdies and raw recruits should 
run, when their leader took theui by surprise and 
set the example. 

The whole management of this expedition to 
invade Costa Rica was defective, and served to 
warn Americans from taking arms again under an 
incompetent leader, like Schlessenger, or relying for 
cooperation upon men without principle, experience, 
or patriotism. Schlessenger was caught, and tried 
by court-martial on two indictments. One was, 
that he had acted the traitor when Walker sent him 
as minister to Costa Rica, and that he betrayed his 
country to that government. The other was, cow- 
ardice in deserting • the American army in that 
country. Before the court, however, had consum- 
mated the trial, Schlessenger suddenly disappeared, 
and joined the ranks of the enemy. 

After Schlesseiiger's defeat by the Costa Ricans, 
no effort w\as made to impede their invasion of 
Nicaragua, and about three thousand concen- 
trated at Granada. The havoc of property, and the 
murder of wounded ^Vnicrican citizens residing at 
Virgin Ray and San Juan del Sur, are among the 
acts of the most atrocious barbarif^y on record. The 
Americans, however, found some little redress for 



CENTRAL AMERICA. 



197 



ts should 
prise and 

dition to 
served to 
under an 
dying for 
:i)erienee, 
and tried 
)ne was, 
sent liim 
rayed Iiis 
►'as, cow- 
in that 
consiim- 
ppeared, 

' Ricans, 
asion of 
concen- 
, and the 
iding at 
ong the 
d. TJic 
ress for 



these outrages, a few days hiter, wlien Col. Green, 
with but fifteen men, met two hundred Costa Ri- 
cans, killed twenty-seven and dispersed the remain- 
der, only losing one man and wounding two 
others of that little party of Americans. 

We next find tlie Costa Eicans entering the city 
of Rivas, on tlie 7th of April, to take possession. 
Gen. AValker, on hearing this at Granada, deter- 
mined to expel the enemy from Rivas ; and, with 
only five hundred men, including one hundred 
natives, he made preparations, in a simjh day, to 
attack the enemy in their stronghold, with a prac- 
tised force of two thousand seven hundred men. 
With this democratic party. Walker surprised the 
enemy by coming in by a route which they had never 
suspected. But when the troops were seen, as they 
ascended the eminence to approach the city, the 
enemy poured down their batteries with tremen- 
dous violence, which the American forces returned 
with such fierce energy and rapidity, that in five 
minutes they had the entire possession of the 
pl'iza. The Costa Ricans fled to their l»arricades, 
and, concealing themselves for protection, continued 
to fire. Then, too, they had the advantage of a 
cannon, which made them more formidable. The 






1*"..^' 









m 




198 



CENTRAL AMERICA. 



'1 " 



11 ;i--. 



'Mi 



Americans, having none, dotcrmincd to seize it. 
The design was no sooner formed than Lieut. Col. 
Sanders gave the order to fire on the Costa Ricans, 
and, regardless of danger, he and his brave fol- 
lowers rushed in and captured this fatal weapon of 
war. They took it to the corner of the plaza, and 
placed it under the management of Capt. Mc.lrdle, 
a ready and accomplished artillerist ; and in a few 
minutes that engine, which was destined to destroy 
Walker's forces, was playing fatally over the enemy. 
Infuriated to madness, the Costa Ricans tried to 
recover their gun, hut the Mississippi rifles drove 
them back to concealment. A body of these rifle- 
men now stationed themselves on a house-top, and 
during the engagement killed, at least, one hun- 
dred of the enemy. Seeing the American party 
invincible, 'the Costn, Ricans, with three hundred 
remaining, retreated toAvards San Juan del Sur, 
where they were met with a reinforcement of two 
hundred and fifty from Virgin Bay. As soon as 
Gen. Walker was notified of their approach to San 
Juan del Sur, he sent a body of men to protect that 
part of the town in which the American rangers 
were stationed ; and after signal execution on their 
part, the Costa Ricans again were repulsed, with 



CENTRAL AMERICA. 



199 



slaughter. More than one hundred dead bodies of 
the enemy wercr left to tell the story, while two of 
the noblest of the democratic party becam.e victims 
in this action, — Lieut. Morgan, of Gen. Walker's 
stall*, and Lieut. Doyle, of the army. 

This fighting was excessive, and showed the de- 
termined spirit by which tlie Americans were actu- 
ated. They fought from morning to night, and 
when the enemy ceased liostilities it was soon dis- 
covered to be a ruse to reinforce tliemselves. Lieut. 
Gay, who subser|uently died from excessive exer- 
tion and useless exposure to danger, was the man 
to detect the trick ; and it was decided to rout 
the Costa Ricans fiom the pLiCC they so much 
<'oveted. 

Ten officers, beside three privates, armed w^th 
rifles and Colt's revolvers, equipped themselves for 
the expedition, and entered the building of the foe 
to determine on a plan of operation. As soon as 
they did, they gave the signal and fired, and drove 
the enemy to the fence without any loss, except a 
single wound upon one gallant officer, Capt. Breck- 
enridge. The opposition was at least one hundred, 
but these thirteen Americans, with bullets flying 
all over them, persisted, and accomplished their 



*««t|||j^ 






'^mwmmwffffiwfMHpH 




200 



CKNTllAL AMERICA. 




life? 




purpose of dislodging the enemy, without the loss 
of a single man, killed or woundeuk 

The enemy still obstinately attempted to main- 
tain their ground, and in the continued action 
Capt. llueston was killed. Tliirty of the enemy 
now paid t^.o atoning penalty for this brave Ameri- 
can spirit who had fallen, and the remaining twelve 
carried such havoc into the Cosia Rican ranks that 
they once more desisted, and sought safer quarters. 

Retreating and assailing continued, until, after a 
loss of ten more of their number, the Costa Ricans 
again reached the old cathedral, from behind where 
they renewed the assault on the Americans. Lieut. 
Gay, Avho was in the first battle of Rivas, and in 
all the future engagements of Nicaragua, was now 
compelled to lay down his life. He who projected 
the engagement died in its triumph. 

The English and Germans held Minie rifles, 
which they used dexterously ; and it was by those 
foreign jacobins, who had joined the despot's party 
in Central America to put dow^n liberty and tram- 
ple upon human rights, that most of our American 
citizens were killed. 

The Walker party, in this second Rivas engage- 
ment, was not one fourth as great in number as the 



CENTRAL AMERICA. 



201 



Costji Ricans. Beside, all the barricades and fort- 
rcsse^i were witli the enemy. Gen. AV^alker, lor 
lioLirs, in this battle, moved about on liorsebaek, lui- 
iu.)ved and undismayed, reposing confidently u[)on 
tiie justice of his cause, and sustained continually 
by the sublimity of his victories. The stall' ot Gen. 
AValker demonstrated extraordinary courage and 
daring, and, ^>ith the exception of the brave Capt. 
Sutter, they all died gallantly and desperately as- 
serting the rights of human freedom. Col. Renew, 
also the volunteer aid of Gen. Walker, was not 
less noted for his prowess in arms ; while the 
native force in this battle, under their distinguished 
leader. Col, Machado, who fell in the engagement, 
certainly deserved the highest commendation for 
their enunent courage. 

This engagement of the 11th of April, 1856, is 
one of the most remarkable in the history of Central 
America. The Costa Ricans had actually killed 
at least six hundred of their nund)er ; how many 
wounded and deserted was never ascertained. Their 
(juick retreat and abandonment of Rivas tell the 
unfortunate result to them. And now^ look at the 
disparity again. The Americans came off with 

18 



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202 



CENTRAL AMERICA. 



i::;« : 



\k'4'- 



fresh laurels, having had but thirty killed, and the 
same number wounded. 

By this time recruits came in numbers from New 
Orleans, New York, and California, to reinforce 
the Americans by joinliig the Nicaraguan army, 
while public meetings in the United States, and 
the voice of the press, united in pa3ans of praise 
for the brave deeds of Atnericans on foreign soil. 
Hostilities now seemed to cease towards Gen. 
Walker by the northern states of Central America, 
and the proclamation of President Rivas was ac- 
cepted by San Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala, in 
the most amicable spirit. The enlistment of soldiers 
was therefore stopped in these states, and the new 
levy ceased ; and, the Rivas government of Nicaragua 
being acknowledged, the surrender of that country 
to Anglo-Saxon liberty seemed to have been made. 

There are those, unquestionably, among us, who 
censure the idea of American expansion, and would 
squeeze the very thought from the minds of the 
people. But, Americans, you may search the 
records of history, in vain, to find that any people 
were ever condemned or defamed for their con- 
quests. Why have Ciiesar, Alexander, Charles the 
Fifth, Charlemagne, and Napoleon, been held in 



CENTRAL AMERICA. 



203 



admiration by the human race ? Simply because 
they extended their conquests into foreign territo- 
ries. And while American youth will study the 
histories of those heroes with interest and pleasure, 
they will never be inspired with enthusiasm foi the 
opposite class of men. And this sympathy, in- 
stinctive with Americans, for any people stru Pigling 
to he free, carried brave men to the Mexican army, 
to the Russian army in the Crimea, as well as to 
Nicaragua, when they beheld their own countrymen, 
imbued with the true spirit of liberty, and nerved 
with Anglo-American energy, unsheathing the sword 
upon that soil to accomplish what years of blood- 
shed might not otherwise have done for that people. 
Walker has done for Nicaraguan liberty what La- 
fayette, De Kalb, Pulaski, Kosciusko, had done 
for American liberty, and for such considerations. 
Who, then, can repress patriotic emotion, or deep 
sympathy for his triumph ? 

When the people of Nashville, Tennessee, the 
place of Walker's birth, heard of his brave deeds, 
they met to testify their joy, and bore witness to 
the singular purity of his character, and his high 
mental and moral endowments. They had watched 
his movements with filial solicitude, from the Che- 



'■•!;,:f^' 



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I '■{.■ 




204 



CENTRAL AMERICA. 



ti 







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m M 



mora and Castcllon revolutions to the battle of 
Kivas, Avliicli secured to Nicaragua independence ; 
and when it was demonstrated that Walker had 
covered himself with glory, there was no measure 
to their generous admiration. 

After the battle of Costa Rica, on the 11th of 
April, to which the friends of liberty in the United 
States looked with so nmch apprehension. Gen. 
AValker, without ammunition, remained on the spot 
until next day, and then marched with nmsic lo 
Granada unmolested, leaving the Costa Ricans to 
evacuate the town. 

And now, my countrymen, you may inquire 
whence the determined hostility of the Costa Ricans 
to the government of Nicaragua. It was the re- 
sult of British instigation to drive out the Ameri- 
cans, which English and French agents encouraged, 
after the government at Washington refused to 
accept ;Mr. French. When, then, the fortunes of 
Gen. Walker seemed about to end, England made 
offers of thousands of her arms to prejudice the 
natives against Americans, and, if possible, to get 
the control of Central America. The conduct of 
the President of Costa Rica w\as unparalleled, in 
denying Americans the right to engage in foreign 



CENTRAL AMERICA. 



205 



Fcrvice, and ordering them when taken prisoners 
i;i all cases to be shot. The atto'^pt, then, of Costa 
Kica to control and prescribe tlie action of Anicri- 
ciins, was enough to call upon every citizen of the 
land to bid our people " God speed " in Nicar.'igua 



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lift. 



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C II A r T E R I V . 

le it nothing, Aniericjins, to see a son of tliis 
soil opening two Inindred jind fifty thousand acres 
of land to the agricultural pursuits and industry of 
freemen Avho may choose to go there and occupy it ? 
Is it nothing to see two millions of people heing 
regenerated from papal ignorance and degradation ? 
Is it nothing to see this portion of the Western 
world affording its facilities for commerce, by bring- 
ing together the extremes of trade, which will 
benefit mankind ? 

When w^e consider that British power nerved the 
Costa Ricans with twenty-five hundred fighting 
men, to punish Americans for bringing Nicaraguii 
to the desire for independence, and that France and 
Spain aided the effort, what American w^ould hesi- 
tate to give every proper encouragement to Walker? 
From the nninent we acquired California, too, the 
isthmuses of Nicaragua and Panama have been 
important to us. 



CENTIIAL A.MKllICA, 



207 



In 1811, Congress declared the Territory of 
Florida to be necessary to the United States, and 
pasf-ed a res(dutioii <o keep it out of the hands of 
foreign powers. On the loth of January, the same 
day the President api)roved the act. Congress 
authorized Mr. Madison to take possession of that 
territory, and, if required, to use the army and navy 
of the country to defend it ; and such civil and judi- 
cial power was given as would protect Americans 
in all their rights of person, property, and religion. 

My countrymen, no effort was withheld by Eng- 
land to deprive this Union of Texas ; and, to pre- 
vent the acquisition of California, which she wanted 
to colonize, her squadron followed ours with a vigi- 
lant eye. When, then, she saw Nicaragua almost 
in American arms, she set about aiding the Costa 
Ricans to put Americans down. Can we ever 
forget how England treated our fathers in their 
colonial independence ? And yet, what has added 
so much to her greatness as our nationality ? Had 
we never possessed California, England could never 
have penetrated the gold mines of Australia. 
What right, then, had she to interfere, because an 
American hero appeared by invitation in Nicaragua, 
t ) gx a higher glory upon his own glorious institu- 



^f^i^m ' 






208 



CENTRAL AMERICA. 



!■■ 





(ions, whiJi opon tlio imiiii cliancc alike to all the 
sons of the soil ? 

It was Kn^iland's iiifcrlVn'iico that dissolved \\u: 
union of tin; Central Aniorican states in iS.'iiS, just 
as she is now altonipling to separate these United 
States to-day hy intrigue and treachery on the 
question of slavery, ahout whieh she cares nothing", 
biit to use Jis an instrument of discord to destroy 
pur beautiful system of government. England 
bound herself by treaty to al)andon Central America ; 
and yet, in the face of her solenm engagement, 
she has maintained asc<Midency over the Moscjuito 
territory, lield on to the Bay Islands, and en- 
croached on Honduras ; and, two years after the 
Clayton and Bulwcr treaty was ratifi d, we find 
the queen issuing a warrant to erect these islands 
into a British colony ! 

Now, Americans, do you not consider it right to 
extend the protection of your laws to a people who 
invite you to take up their cause ? Do you not, in 
the self-relying, self-denying spirit of your ances- 
tors, wish to see the principles of self-government, 
upon which they planted this confederacy, made 
impregnable to tyrants in other lands ? In this 
sense, eyery American is a pillar to support the 



CENTRAL AMERICA. 



209 



edifice of freedom, and (o prepjire tliis pooplo for 
i]i(» perpi'tuity of Protc stjinl liluity. Look at the 
length and breadth of our country, ))e>:iimin<^ with 
a slip u[ion tin; Atlanlie, and niovin«i: on until it 
has niet the roar of th(( Pacilic. We have Mexico, 
nearly equal to our original dimensions. We have 
secured the territory of the W\'st. And when we 
see what American ener^^y and American princi- 
l)les have already done in Central America, and 
consider how our own territory is to be defended, 
we have no reason to doubt tliat our stars and 
stripes will yc I float over the Pacific gate of the 
Nicaragua transit ; because we cannot believe 
that Americans, now, w^ill ever allow the key of 
the Gulf of Mexico to fall into the hands of 
savages. They will not consent that the Central 
American states, essential to the commerce of the 
United States, shall ever be owned by their enemies. 
They w^ill not allow any foreign power to arm 
Spanish colonists to murder their kinsmen ; which 
has been the work of J^^uropean despotisms, -who 
hate our interests, and tremble at the consequences 
of seeing Central America yield to Anglo-American 
intelligence, liberty, and laws. And, sooner than 
witness the unprovoked assault our people have 



*.\t.^|« 



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'•t 



mmtttlK\mm»t>'\ mn\wlt»i 



210 



CENTRAL AMERICA. 





sust«imed at Nicaragua and Panama, it would be 
better far to repeal the neutrality laws, and let 
Americans defend their own personal rights. 

Gen. Walker intercepted the letters intended 
for the Consul General of Costa Rica in London, 
proving that England furnished arms to the ene- 
mies of Americans. Beside, the whole British 
West India squadron went to the San Juan del 
Norte to testify that government's sympathy, and 
is there still, because Americans struck down the 
foe in Nicaragua, and defended the people who 
were panting for freedom. The route to California 
was also endangered by the English s(iiiadron at 
the mouth of the river. 

Now, my countrymen, mark the Jesuit trick ! 
These bloody Costa Ricans never declared war at 
all against Nicaragua, but against the Americans 
in that state, thereby denying them the power to 
defend the rights of human freedom. Ameri- 
cans, then, were shot when taken, their houses 
burned, their bodies consumed to ashes ; and still, 
as citizens of the United States, claiming protection 
from no other government. Think }ou that our 
Washington, could he rise from the deep slumber 



CENTRAL AMERICA. 



211 



ould be 
and let 

ft i 

ntendcd 
London, 
;he ene- 
British 
Lian del 
hy, and 
)wn the 
die who 
ilifornia 
dron at 

t trick ! 

war at 

aericans 

ower to 

Ameri- 

houses 

nd still, 

otection 

hat onr 

slumber 



of the grave, would refuse his sympathy to the 
heroic Walker and his adherents ? Read his words ! 

On the 1st day of January, 1790, in reply to the 
minister of the French Republic, on tlie latter 
presenting the colors of France to the United 
States, George Washington pronounced these noble 
words: ''Born, sir, in a land of liberty; having 
early learned its value ; having engaged in a 
perilous conflict to defend it ; having, in a word, 
devoted the best years of my life to secure its 
permar ent establishment in ray own country, — my 
anxious recollections, my sympathetic feelings, and 
my best wishes, are irresistibly excited, when- 
soever, in any country, I see an oppressed nation 
unfurl the banners of freedom." 

Had Gen. Walker taken possession of Nicaragua 
merely to keep the peace, he would luive been 
justified by the precedent and practice of other 
nations. At least three countries in Europe are 
now occupied by the foreign troops of England, 
France, and Austria. Nothing could exceed the 
enthusiasm of the people, as the stars and stripes 
were raised at the American legation ; and all the 
subsequent acts of Gen. Walker, after the estab- 
lishment of the Rivas governmrnf, and the acknowl- 



'•^mm 







212 



CENTRAL AMERICA. 



edgment by the iifitives that he was their deliv- 
erer, confirms the prophecy of Padre Vijil, a few 
days before Walker entered Granada, when ho 
said, " Our only hope now is in Heaven and Gen. 
Walker." 

Walker has been censured for the execution of 
Corral, most unjustly. Did not Corral himself 
select the Americans to try him, having no faith in 
his own countrymen ? And the two most intimate 
associates cf Corral, who attended him to execu- 
tion, are now the warmest friends of Walker. 

When the presidential election again came 
around, the candidates all sympathized with demo- 
cratic freedom ; but Walker was called, in prefer- 
ence to all others, to the presidency ; and, from the 
day of his inauguration, Nicaragua acquired a 
position, from which, we believe, she will never 
willingly recede. After the defection of Rivas, 
*who, it is remembered, absconded with his cabinet 
on the 21st of June, Gen. Walker, in virtue of the 
authority placed in him by the treaty, appointed 
Fermin Ferrer president pro tempore ; and he, 
Rivas, and Salizar, all were candidates for the suf- 
frages of the people, as well as Walker. But, while 
Walker was elected by nearly sixteen thousand 



i\ 



CENTRAL AMERICA. 



213 



votes, the aggregate vote of the other three did 
not much exceed seven thousand. 

This election occurred the 10th of last July ; 
and, on the 12tli, Walker took the oath of office. 
The ceremonies were very imposing. The Ameri- 
can flag and those of Nicaragua and France were 
in front of the stage, an open Bible and crucifix 
placed on it, and a cushion laid upon the floor, on 
which President Walker knelt reverently, and took 
the oath of office. On the platform sat the pro- 
visional President, Ferrer, the bishop. Col. Wheeler, 
and some of the field officers and their staffs. Aa 
appropriate valedictory w^as delivered to the people 
by President Ferrer, and an inaugural by President 
Walker which would have honored any President 
of our own country, divested, as it was, of all use- 
less verbiage, all specious professions, but carrying 
an intuitive conviction into the minds of the people 
that they had at last found a man in whose integ- 
rity and honor they could confide. 

The assembly then proceeded to the church, 
according to their old custom, where the Te Deum 
was performed, with the usual ceremony of blessing 
the President, to which Walker submitted. Some 
may say, ** Why did he do this, being a genuine 

19 



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214 



CENTRAL AMERICA. 



Protestant?" We ansAVcr, because reason and the 
Word of God justified the necessity of temporarily 
tolerating useless rites, which ignorance and papal 
prejudice had fastened upon the people. In this 
way he might hope to enlist their good-will, and 
gradually develop the benign influences of light 
and liberty, and prepare tliat down-trodden race to 
discard the infatuation of Jesuit priests, and the 
consequent degradation to which they are subjected. 
And until the population of Central iim erica, or 
anywhere else, shall have become Americanized by 
Protestant faith, they are imfitted to tread the 
American soil as citizens ; and we earnestly dep- 
recate the idea of the annexation to our own terri- 
tory of a race of savage idolaters, as the greatest 
national calamity that could befall us. 

In all subsequent difficulties by which the safety 
of the government of Nicaragua and President 
Walker has been perilled, the same deteraiined 
courage has signalized the man. He executed 
Salizar when he was proved a traitor, and issued 
an exequator to the British consul when he detect- 
ed his complicity. The want of resources, and the 
consequent desertion of American troops, have at 
times since looked fatal to republican hopes ; but, 
whatever may be the result, it is glorious to recount 



CENTRAL AMERICA. 



215 



ind the 
>orarily 
d papal 
In this 
ill, and 
>f light 
race to 
md the 
bjected. 
rica, or 
lized by 
cad the 
;ly dep- 
n terri- 
groatest 

e safety 
resident 
ennined 
xecuted 
I issued 

detect- 
and the 
have at 
s ; but, 

recount 



the brave deeds of Americans upon that foreign soil ; 
and it will ever invest it with interest, to know that 
it is enriched by the blood of American martyrs, 
which, ultimately, must germinate the eternal prin- 
ciples of truth and freedom. 

And, while we are astonished at the unequalled 
valor of our brave men in a foreign land, we find 
in their galhmt and patriotic doings fresh evidences 
of the spirit with which they would meet the enemy 
on their own soil, if called to defend the national 
honor of their country, her rights, her altars, her 
homes, and her liberties. 

We deprecate war, and believe it is opposed to 
the benevolent principles of Christianity, and we 
trust no occasion shall ever arise to plunge us into 
its cruelties ; but, if this inevitable necessity should 
come, it is a blessing to feel that we are armed with 
brave defenders, millions of freemen, ready to repel 
the invader, and triumph mightily over the foe. Cen- 
tral America is yet in the mists of papal ignorance 
and delusion, through the influence and tyranny of 
a heartless, domineering priesthood, which must 
first be put down, and their power annihilated, 
before any free government can hope for permanent 
endurance, and the true sun of liberty lise to bless 
and gild the horizon of her hopes. 



(«« t 



^1 



THE ROMISH SYSTEM A POLITICAL 
CORPOIIATION. 



li 



C H A P T E E I . 

By the Declaration uf fnir Independence there are 
certain imprescriptible rights, derived from God, 
and of which man cannot be deprived by a ma- 
jority, or have weakened by any conditions imposed 
by society. These are rights everywhere. They 
are necessary elements of free ngency, and without 
them God is not worshipped at all. God has given 
to man the Bible, and the possession and use of 
this are man's inalienable privileges. The Romish 
church has, in its general councils^ restrained the 
printing, translation, and circulation, of the Bible ; 
and, by this restriction, has invaded the natural 
and indefeasible rights of man. 

The American constitution, which guarantees 
these religious principles, and the state constitu- 



i 



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re iire 
God, 

a ma- 
poscd 
Thev 

V 

ithout 
givon 
ISO of 

toiiiish 
ed the 

Viblo ; 

latural 

•antees 
nstitu- 



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B\ Ui-. DiM:himtlriii of our rtidrpciulencf i'm-i^ . 

arc Ji..:' »• ^vii \" » !i T:H'.'.' •' 'i ?•:;■;!' lii ^ . Ji.' I Vt ?tfr!. 
(•hem ^0(1 [.. ]i'> \V<';V-l;.ip|i(.,u .i! a^^ ' 'v ! hu":^ fii- 

to inan s^ui. Hii'V, <\]'{ Mto !;t.-^-^f.>-i'ri ;\iM usu 
inese religious priucipies, and the state eonstitu- 



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'IF rHn}/h::-;'JKt: 



ROMANISM A POLITICAL CORPORATION. 



217 



tions formed since its adoption, have reiiflirmed this 
safeguard in these words : *' All men have a natu- 
ral and indefeasible right to worship God aceording 
to the dictates of their own consciences." **No 
man can, of right, be compelled to attend, erect, 
or support, any place of worship, or to maintain any 
ministry, against his consent ; no human authority 
can, in any case whatever, control or interfere with 
the rights of conscience ; and no prefe: nee shall be 
given by law to any religious establishment or mode 
oi worship." This is the constitutional definition 
of religious liberty. 

The constitution, then, is republican, and, by 
these prescriptions, Protestant ; and hence the lib- 
erty, the intelligence, and the unequalled blessings, 
of the people of the United States, over the down- 
trodden, priest-ridden populations of the Roman 
Catholic countries of Europe, and of South America 
and Mexico. Romanism is an arbitrary and irre- 
sistible power over its subjects ; and the man or 
woman who becomes its voluntary devotee renounces 
the most precious rights of freedom, and cannot be 
otherwise than mentally debased. So, whoever thus 
surrenders these constitutional rights into the hands 
of the priest cannot be a good American citizen, 
19* 



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218 



ROMANISM A POLITICAL CORPORATION. 






■< ."I 




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nor IVrc ill niiy true souse. The '* indelihie braiiil 
of sljiv<'ry " is put upon every cliiM alio is horn 
under the doiiiiuioii of the Ilouiish ehunh, by its 
sacrument of bajdisni. And tlie Courteeuth canon 
on baptism is tluis : " Wlioever sliall aHinn tliat, 
when these baptized ehihU'en (jnnc up, they are to 
bo asked whether they will eonfmn ilie promises 
made by their god-fatlun's in their name, at their 
baptism ; and that if they say they icill not, they 
iire to be left to their own choice, and not to be 
compelled in the mean time to lead a Christian life 
by any other punishment than exclusion from the 
cucharist and other sacraments, until they repent, 
— let him be accursed.^' 

It is by force, then, not by moral means, that 
this obedience is enjoined ; and the promises made 
by the godfathers are to be obeyed, or the subject 
is to be forever ** excluded from the eucharist and 
other sacraments." It is made not only the seal 
of bondage, but also the seal of salvation. And 
nurses and physicians, and the laity at large, are 
authorized to administer baptism to the dying infant, 
while the priest, in order to enforce these shocking 
popish rites, often leaves the mother suspended be- 
tween life and death, to save her babe from the fate 



110MAN18M A POLITICAL CORPORATION. 



219 



of a heretic ! This is the first deliislou practised 
upon ail iiidixidual, as it is also the death-l»lo\v to 
the first [)rin(iph's of lihcrty. 

The next device to (hvslroy the liherly of the 
indiviihial and of nations is inn-iciilar ro/ijcssion. 
Tliis papal injunetloii is so eaUeil heeaiise the priest 
alonc^ without any authority I'nuu heaven ci' natu- 
ral riglu, puts forth a elaiui to know all tlie secrets 
of all the people. This is tlie most dangerous feat- 
ure of the Jtoniish chur<*h to the liherties of our 
country, and [)lainly proves it to be a mere political 
corporation to advance its power. This invasion of 
the primordial rights of man, and his responsibility 
to God only, is an ahirming vicdation of human, 
agency, as a free citizcn,and the safety of the states. 
It is putting the people and their rulers under the 
priesthood. This confers an omnipresent espionage, 
by which the Pope of Rome can gain the secrets 
and control the votes of every Papist elector, and 
becomes a priestly political power o^ er the millions 
of his subjects in ail parts of the United States. 
This secret power of the confessional lias enabled 
the priesthood, wherever it has prevailed, to extort 
legacies from wealthy individuals, to dictate wills, 
to subsidize the wealth of provinces, as well as to 






m. 



EH, 
'1- 




i 




220 



ROMANISM A POLITICAL CORPORATION. 



govern magistrates and monarchs ; and is the means 
by which that ambitious hierar(;hy has always luled 
the countries and states in which it got a foothold. 
The dogmas for self-examination in the Book of 
Devotion, by the authority of the Roman Catholic 
priesthood in the United States, and in use all over 
our land, are enough to destroy all kinds of liberty 
God ever gave to the mind of man. 

The power of the confessional, too, over morals, 
is incredible and astounding. The '* Christian's 
Guide to Heaven," issued under the sanction of 
Archbishop Kendrick, of Baltimore, is so vile, so 
shocking an outrage upon decency and morals, that 
none other than a Romidi Jesuit could conceive it ; 
and even the men who print and circulate it have 
desired its suppression. This book says : ** If you 
have anything upon your conscience which you have 
a particular difficulty in confessing^ cease not, with 
prayers and tears, to i?nportu?ie your heavenly -Father 
to assist you in this regard, until lie gives you grace 
to overcome the difficulty. Let your confession be 
entire as to the number of your sins, and such circum- 
stances as quite change the nature of your sins, or 
notoriously aggravate them." The fifth chapter of 
the Council of Trent, on Confession, commands the 



ROMANISM A POLITICAL CORPORATION. 



221 



) means 
y^s ruled 
)otliold. 
3ook of 
Catholic 
all over 
liberty 

morals, 

ristian's 

tion of 

vile, so 

4s, that 

ive it ; 

it have 

If you 

ou have 

)t, with 

Father 

u grace 

sion be 

3ircum- 

3ins, or 

pter of 

ads the 



most secret kind of ** mortal sins " to be confessed, 
as indispensable to forgiveness. Can Americans 
need more than this to open their eyes, and see the 
ruin of the heart, the ruin of conscience, the ruin 
of female virtue and modesty ; the ruin of the 
sanctity of the family, by invading its privacies, and 
creating, whenever it pleases, discords ; the ruin 
of liberty, and the subjugation and final ruin of the 
country? Hence we see how that hicrnrchy has 
jesuitically contrived to pry into the secrets of the 
people, to know their thoughts, feelings, acts, inten- 
tions, and desires. 

One question, among others in their odious books, 
asks a w^oman if she loves any of the priests. How 
does she answer her good confessor ? Tell Ameri- 
cans, ye holy fathers ! In the fourteenth session 
of the Council of Trent, it is written in the decree 
of penance thus: ''It is plain the priest cannot 
sustain the office of judge if the cause be unknown 
to them, nor inflict cr|uitablo 'punishments if the sins 
arc only confessed in general, Jnid not minutely and 
individuaJJg described. Those wlio do otherwise, 
and knowingly conceal any sins, present nothing to 
the divine goodness to be forgiven by the priest.^* 
Again, the sixth canon is as follows: *< Whoever 



(*! 



IS 



■'F!«l. 



i >' 



'i 

i 






..•XJSiJ. 



222 



ROMANISM A POLITICAL CORPORATION. 





shall deny the sacramentul confession was instituted 
by the divine command, or that it is necessary to 
salvation ; or shall aflirm that the practice of con- 
fessing to the priest alone, as it has ever been 
observed from the beginning of the Catholic 
Church, and is still observed, is foreign to the 
institu/Jon and command of Christ, and is a human 
invention, — let him be accursed." 

Now, Americans, what is this but putting the 
priest, as judge, in God's ph.ce ? It is forcing a 
man or woman to unveil the inmost secrets to a 
mere creature, which act of confession belongs and 
is due to God alone. Here, in our beloved country, 
there are upwards of two thousand priestly confess- 
ors to-day, into whose ears are poured the e7itire 
secrets of the wife, and sister, and daughter, who 
have breathed, not only their words and actions, 
but the very thoughts, feelings, and desires, when 
alone, to the celibate confessor ! ! ! Blush, hus- 
bands, brothers ! Be amazed at this extorted con- 
fession and intrusion into your family privacies and 
secrets, under the garb of religion, and which not 
even a Gabriel, much less mortal authority, has a 
right to assume or exercise ! Do we wonder, are 
we startled, at the depth of depravity which flows 



ROMANISM A POLITICAL CORPORATION. 



223 



like a polluted stream out of the confessional ? 
Here, too, into the ear of this same confessor, are 
poured the secrets of all the villains connected with 
that church, who have incited mobs, stolen their 
neighbors' goods, oppressed the poor, cheated and 
lied at the ballot -])ox ; and then to return, the 
very next day, to act over again the same guilty 
practices, because, the priest hjiviug given absolu- 
tion, the white-washed culprits can take a fresh 
start on the march to crime, until the ''bag of 
sins" is filled again, for the priest in the confes- 
sional to cast into the reservoir of oblivion, and^ 
by absolution, give another new start. And so, in 
alternate repetition, the confessional, by the united 
action of the priest and the guilty culprit, aids the 
police, multiplies subjects in courts of justice, the 
penitentiary, and prisons, and, like Othello, does 
the state some service. 

In all the devices of human ingenuity, none has 
ever been found so elTective, on this earth, to ad- 
vance the crafty schemes of ji potentate, and to 
entrap and fasten the will, and control the interests, 
temporal and spiritual, of mankind, as this master- 
piece of Satan, the invention of the confessional. 






I 









224 ROMAinSM A POLITICAL CORPORATION. 

But, however dangerous the confessional is, it is 
only one part of the machinery employed hy the 
political corporation of Rome in effecting its designs 
to bring the world to its feet. 



41 

■ ? 



11 




CHAPTER II. 



The sappi*ession of the freedom of the press is 
another. When, in I4G0, the art of printing, 
through the genius of Faust, was invented, it was 
Uke an angel of light suddenly bursting through 
the mists of darkness which had so long covered 
the eatth. The first fruit of this sublime invention 
was the printing of the Bible. This immediately 
awakened the alarm of the papal hierarchy ; for it ^ 
was a sign of a successful invasion upon the fort- 
ress of imposture, more mighty and portentous 
than the attack of all the irresistible hordes of 
Attila upon the city of Rome. A struggle at once 
commenced with this light of genius and liberty 
against despotism ; and, from tliat time to tlie 
present, the apocalyptical despot, in league with 
the other despots of Europe, has shown his deter- 
mined antipathy to the freedom of the press. 

Milton represents Satan in his passage over 
20 



' 13?;; 



■Mi 



p.mt^ 



226 



ROMANISM A POLITICAL CORPORATION. 



chaos, looking toward paradise, and spying the sun 
in his *' meridian tower," and makes him exclaim, 



4« r 



id 



• V^Bh 



1:1 



•• To thee, 
sun ! but with no friendly voice, I call, 
To tell thcc how I hate thy beams." 

With the same instinctiAX aversion and irrecon- 
cilable hatred, tliis hiernrch of Eome exclaims 
against the press ; and whenever he has occasion, 
and revolutionary symptoms appear, he thunders 
from the Vatican his bulls. In this act, he only 
imitates his inexorable predecessors, and carries 
out the decrees of Romish councils. 

We will here present the canons upon which the 
decrees against the press are based. 

The great Council of Lateran, held at Rome 
A. D. 1515, under Leo X., session tenth, enacted 
thus : " We ordain and decree that no person shall 
presume to print, or cause to be printed, any book or 
other ivritimj ivhatsoevp.r, either in our city [Rome] 
or in any other city, unless it shall first have been 
carefully examined, if in this city, by our vicar 
and the masters of the holy palace, or, if in other 
cities and dioceses, by the bishop or his deputy, 
with the inquisitor of heretical pravity for the dio- 



[:•: -.r 



ROMANISM A POLITICAL CORPORATION. 



227 



cese in which the impression is about to be mude ; 
and unless, also, it shall have received, under 
our hands, their written approval, given without 
price and without delay. Whosoever shall ever 
presume to do otherwise, beside the loss of the 
books, which shall be publicly burned, shall be 
bound by the sentence of excommunication." 
And, in another part of this decree, they further 
say, "that the transgressing printer was to pay 
two hundred ducats, to help to build St. Peter's 
Cathedral at Rome," and **to be suspended for a 
year from his trade," &c. 

The Council of Trent affirmed this decretal, and 
enacted. Rule 1st: '* All books condemned by the 
supreme pontiffs or general councils l)efore the 
year 1515, and not comprised in the present index, 
are nevertheless to be considered as condemned." 
The creed, as adopted by every Roman Catholic, 
requires all *' to receive undoubtedly all things 
delivered, defined, and declared, by the sacred 
canons and general councils, and particularly by 
the holy Council of Trent." 

Here, then, is the destruction of all liberty to 
print, read, or think, enforced and sealed by that 
council. ** Concerning the index of books, the 



ii ' 



i 






li 



228 



RORlANlbM A POLITICAL COliPOKATION. 



H 







most holy council) in its second session, under our 
most holy lord, Pius IV., intrusted it to certain 
select fathers to consider what was needrul to ]je 
done in case of divers censures, and books either 
suspected or pernicious^ and tluii report to the holy 
couii^^il . ind, having heard nt-.v that their labors 
are t' rin>i ted, hut yet seeing, ou account of the 
variety and inher of said books, the council can- 
not minutely judge in the case, therefore it is 
decreed thac whatever is determined by them shall 
be laid before the most holy Pope of Rome, so that 
it may be completed and published according to 
his judgment and authority." 

This is the authority or decree in council to 
sanction the act of the Pope and the committee. 
So the '* committee on the index " went to work 
to draw up a list of *' prohibited books." It is a 
very large volume, and the book can be had but in 
few of the libraries of America. In this book, ten 
*' rules" are added^ which the Pope approved and 
the church receives. Every succeeding Pope, to 
Pius IX., has ratified it. The second of these 
rules will show something of this tyranny : '' The 
books of heresiarchs, whether year above men- 
tioned, or those who have been or are heads or 



ROMANISM A POLITICAL CORPORATION. 229 



ler our 
2crta'm 

to 1)0 

either 
le holy 
■ labors 

of the 

Ai C5U1- 

e it is 

;m shall 

so that 

ding to 

ncil to 
LTiittee. 
work 
It is a 
but in 
)ok, ten 
ed and 
ope, to 
)f these 
'^The 
e men- 
eads or 






leaders of heretics, as Luther, Zwin^ulo, Calvin, 
Balthaser, Pacimontanus, LuiMichfeld, and oth'n* 
similar ones, arc altofjcthcr forbidden, whatever bo 
their names, titles, or subjects." 

The fourth rule is this: <' Inasmuch as it is 
manifest from experience that, if the Holy Bible, 
translated in the vulgar tongue, be indiscritninately 
allowed to every one, the temc ' y of men will 
cause more evil than good to aris-^ fr i if, it is on 
this point referred to the judgr u of bishops and 
inquisitors, wdio may, by the rdvice of the priest 
or confessor, permit the reading of the Bible in the 
vulgar tongue, by^ Catholic authors, to those whoso 
faith and piety they apprehend will be augmented, 
not injured, by it ; and this permission they must 
have in writing ; but, if any one shall have the 
presumption to read or possess it without such 
written permission, he shall not receive absolution 
until he have first delivered up such Bible to the 
ordinary. Booksellers, however, who shall sell or 
otherwise dispose of Bibles in the vulgar tongue, 
or any person not having such permission, shall 
forfeit the value of the books, to be applied by the 
bishop to some pious use, and be subjected by 
the bishop to such other penalties as the bishop 

20* 



I3»< :, 



1..^^ 



230 



ROMANISM A POLITICAL CORPORATION. 



' i 



m 



m 



sluill judge proper, according to the quality of the 
olleuce. But regulars sludl never read nor pur- 
chase such Bibles Avithout license from their supe- 



riors. 



> > 



The fifth rule allows " hooks of heretics, contain- 
ing but little of their own, to be used })y Catholics, 
after having been corrected by their divines.'' 

The sixth rule says : " Books of controversij be- 
tween Catholics and heretics of the present time, 
written in the vuhjar tongue, are not to be indiscrim- 
inatelfj allowed, but are to be subject to the same 
regulations as the Bible in the vulgar tongue/' 

The tenth rule is thus : '^ In the printing of 
books, or rather the writings, the rules shall bo 
observed Avhich wxre ordained in the tenth session 
of the Council of Lateran, under Leo X. There- 
fore, if any book is to be printed in the citg of 
Rome, it shall be first examined by the Pope's 
vicar, and the master of the sacred palace, or 
other persons chosen by our most holy fjither for 
that purpose. In other places, any book or manu- 
script intended to be printed shall be referred to 
the bishop, or some skilful person whom he shall 
nominate, and the inquisitors of heretical pravity 



Pi; U 



ROMANISM A rOLlTICAL COllPOllATION. 



231 



■ of tho 
1)1' pm- 
[Y supe- 

M)nt;iin- 
.tliolics, 

ersfj be- 
lt ti?ne, 
iiscrim- 
he same 



of the citij or diocese in which the imprcaaion is 



> > 



ting of 

hull bo 

session 

There- 

citi/ of 

Pope's 

lace, or 

ther for 

maiiii- 

erred to 

le shall 

pravitij 



exec 



utcd. 
Moi 



ff 



'ly and di( 



ilie h( 



•cover, in tvenj aiy ana aioccse^ me iiou.so 
or place where the arl of printing is exerciseil, au«l 
also shops of booksellers, shall be Irecpiently visited 
by persons deputed by the bishop or his vicar, con- 
jointly with the in(|uisitors, so that nothimj that is 
prohibited may be kept or sold.'' 

"If any persons shall import foreign books Into 
the city, they shall be ojjliged to renounce them to 
the deputies. Heirs, or executors, shall make no 
use of the books of the deceased, nor in any 
way transfer them to others, until a catulogue 
is presented to the deputies, and obtained their 
license, under pain of confiscation of the books." 

'* Finally, it is enjoined on all the faithful, that 
no one keep or pretend to read any books contrary 
to these rules, or the prohibited index." *'But, if 
any one shall keep or read the works of a heretic, 
he shall instantlij incur the sentence of excommuni- 
cation, and those who keep works interdicted on 
another account, beside the mortal sin committed, 
shall be severely punished at the will of the 
bishops." . . 

Thus are the consciences, the intellects, tram- 



' •; la. 



# 



232 



ROMANISM A POLITICAL CORPORATION. 







mcllod, and llie a(!COHS to knowlodfro shut out from 
the sight of Aniericiiii>^, who arc .siihjccts of thu 
Eomi.sh chiircli. Think of this, (), my c(ninlry- 
men, think, aiul protect your schools for the educa- 
tion of your chihh'on ! » - ' 

What says the decree of tlie Holy Council of 
Trent, on the mere edition of God's Holy Word ? 
Why, phiinly this : *' That considering no small 
advantage may accrue to the Clmndi of Ood, of all 
the Latin editions in circulation, some one should 
be regarded as aathentic, doth ordain and declare, 
that the same old and vuJijatc edition^ which has 
been approved hy its use in the church for ages, 
shall be held authentic in lectures, sermons, expo- 
sitions, and disputations, and that 7io one shall dare 
or presume to reject it, under amj jiretence ivhatever." 
And further, *' That in mjitters oi' faith and morals, 
no one, confiding in his own jiidgmrnt, sliall dare 
to wrest the Sacred Scriptures to his own setise of 
them, contrary to that ivhich hath been held, and 
still is held, by Holy Mother Church, ivhose right 
it is to judge of the true meaning and interpretation 
of the Sacred Word, or contrary to the unanimous 
consent of the fathers, even though such consent 
has never been published." 



niili. |r 



ROMANISM A POLITICAL CORPORATION. 



23.^ 



)Ut frfnn 
5 <»r tht' 

) CMlu(;ti- 

lUfil of 
Word ? 
10 small 
(1, of nil 
I should 
decl.'iro, 
iich has 
)r ages, 
expo- 
rt // dare 
atever.'' 
morals, 
ill dare 
setise of 
dd, and 
se right 
retation 
inimous 
consent 



Now, Americans, do not forget to note this 
solemn fact, that what this Romish system styles 
the ** vulgale," or *'old Latin version of the 
Bihle," is filled with interp(dati(>ns, add'tions, and 
suhtraetions, and the falsehoods of the Apocrypha, 
and treats with entire contempt the original Greek 
language of that hlessed book, ^vhich alone is able 
to make us ** ^>ise unto salvation." 

This Roman policy forces upon its church a 
spurious Bible, and ordains it a standard opposed 
to God's Word, and makes it also exctusivc, in 
order to carry out its own accursed purposes. It 
forbids men and women to thinlc for themselves. 
You will further find, on the thirtieth page of their 
index of '' prohibited books," that they actually 
forbid the reading of any Bible in any translation. 
Not merely the Protestant, but the Roman Bible, 
and this only under the sanction of their church, 
thus : *' Biblia Vulgar i qiiocunque Idiomate con- 
scripta,'' which means, the Bible, in whatever 
idiom written, is prohibited. 



!lj t 



'Hi 



'- ' - ■■•" 


»^-- 


p 










M'lf 







C II A P T E R III. 

Now, let tlie hierarchy of Home, in the Unite<l 
States, to-day, rise up, if they dare, and deny that 
tlic decrees and rules wl.ich we quote here from 
tlieir councils and papal authorities are not true ; 
are not rigidly enforced by them upon every sub- 
ject of their priestly influence ! Let any lover of 
his country deny that this power tramples liberty 
in the dust! Pope Gregory XVI., in his ency- 
clical letter addressed to the faithful of the world, 
August 5th, 1832, at lae time of his coronation, 
wrote thus : 

" Towards this point tends the most vile, detest- 
abhj and never to be sujficienthj execrated liberty of 
booksellers, namely, of publishing loritings of what- 
ever kind they please ; a liberty ivhich some persons 
dare ivith such violence of language to denounce and 
promote.'' ^' The Apostles," he continues, ^^ pub- 
licly burned a vast quantity of books.'* " This 
matter occupied," says he, '* the attention of the 



ROMANISM A POLITICAL CORPORATION. 



235 



(3 United 
ieny that 
ere fVoia 
lot true ; 
'cry sub- 
lover of 
s liberty 
lis ency- 
le world, 
ronation, 

c, detest- 
herty of 
of luhat- 
persons 
unce and 
, ''pub- 
''This 
n of the 



fathers, luho applied a rc?nedi/ to so great an evil by 
publishinfj a salutary decree for compiliiuj an index 
of hooks in tvliich improper doctrines were contained. 
We must exterminate the deadly miscliief of so many 
books ; lor the matter of guilty error will never be 
effeetually removed unless the (juilty elements of 
depravity be eonsumed in the flames." "The Holy 
See has striven throuyhout all ayes to condemn sus- 
pected and noxious books, and wrest them out of 
men's hands. It is clear hoiu false, and rash, and 
fruitful of enormous evil to the Apostolic See, is the 
doctrine of those who not only reject the censorship 
of books as too severe and burdensome, but proceed 
to that length of wickedness as to assert that it is 
contrary to equal justice, and dare to deny to the 
church the right of enacting and employing it.'' 

It needs no telescope, Americans, to discover 
now why Pope Pius the jSinth, the successor of 
Gregory, has had his foreign hierarchy at work, to 
got the Bible out of your public and free schools, 
and to expunge passages from school-l)ooks, which 
treat of the Reformation, and riglits of men to be 
free to worsliip Cod as they choose. It is no won- 



I 






dor, now , why they dt 



to 



[t the blasphemy 3 



conunil 
and insult the Christian community, in publicly 



23G 



ROMANISM A POLITICAL CORPORATION. 



i! 



^!i 



burning the Bible in New York, and other places 
in our country. 

The right to worship God, Americans contend, 
none can take away, unless it interferes or involves 
the rights of other men, This religious right is 
spoken of in the constitution as a civil right, which 
it neither gave nor can take away. The constitu- 
tion protects this right of free worship ; and de- 
clares, in direct terms, that, 'Mvhen any form of 
government becomes destructive of these ends, tlio 
people have the ri(jht to alter and abolish it." It 
asserts the necessity of revolution, if these rights 
are undermined. The tyranny of forcing men to 
accept, without choice, the doctrine and faith of the 
Romish church, submitting to the tyranny of the 
confessional, making a Romish priest the judge and 
lord of conscience, is an invasion upon the just 
political exercise of American men. The Romish 
catechism says, that *^ the priests hold the place, 
the power, and authority, of God on earth." 
The practical effect of the confessional is to put 
all nirii wlio confess to them in their power, and 
at their disposal. Hence the danger to American 
liberty. Out of the Romish church, they teach, 



ON. 



ROMANISM A POLITICAL CORPORATION. 



237 



her places 

s contend, 
)r involves 
IS right is 
[^ht, whieli 
D constitu- 
; and dc- 
ly form of 
) ends, the 
ih it." It 
ese riglits 
ig men to 
aith of the 
ny of tlie 
judge and 
I the jast 
le Romish 
the place, 
1 earth." 
iS to put 
ower, and 
American 
ey teach, 



there is no salvation. In it, remember, Ameri- 
cans, there is no liberty. 

. Jesuitism, says Do Pradt, embarrasses itself very 
little about means, — scruples are trifles. The de- 
cisions of the Council of Trent are laws with all the 
Roman Catholics. The broad seal is set by this 
last great council, and over the whole earth every 
Romanist is under the following obligation : *' I 
also profess, and undoubtedly receive, all other 
things delivered, defined, and declared, by the 
sacred canons, the general councils, and particu- 
larly the holy Council of Trent." The hierarchy 
impose on the civil power, by this oath, to punish 
heretics ; to exterminate them, in order to give 
their lands to Catholics ; while, in return, great 
indulgences are given to their persecutors. 

Baptism, by their catechism and theology, makes 
subjects of the church ; and, being so, the church 
has ordained means to punish them. 

No Protestant in our land would dare to refuse 
his son or daughter the right to unite with Papists, 
although they knew it would shut the Bible from 
their sight, make the pardon of the priest their 
means of salvation, require them to confess their 
inmost secret sins to wicked men, and send them 

21 



imu{ 



238 



ROMANISM A POLITICAL CORPORATION. 



i?l^^ 

t'-" 




into " voluntary slavery " of the most abject and 
degraded character. Why? Because the system 
is beguiled under the name of reliijion. And it is 
an invasion on Protestant liberty, on our constitu- 
tional republican rights, to al)ridge personal choice. 

The political system of Rome is subject here, 
as in all other countries, to the Roman head of 
the church, whom the foreign hierarchy are sworn 
to support and obey by the most solciun oath, in 
things temporal and spiritual. Tliey are even 
bound to put to death, when ordered^ any heretic 
in a Catholic family, and deny them tlie right to 
lie down in the same family grave-yard. 

History, as well as the evidence of the present 
day, is full of these facts. I)e Pr^idt sisys : " Cath- 
oUcisjn is not orfjan'zed like other worships. The 
latter hav - no cohimj.'/^ centre ; no exclusive source 
from Avhence flows power in every religious society. 
They have no Rome, nor precedents of Rome, nor 
pretensions of Rome. The exaltation or depression 
of these worships is of no importance in the political 
order of states. It is not so with Rome ; everything 
in Catholicism tends to Rome. The Pope is chief 
of one hundred and twenty millions of followers. 




ROMANISM A POLITICAL CORPORATION. 



239 



lect and 

nd it is 
(mstitii- 

cboice. 
^t here, 
head of 
'0 sworn 
oath, in 
re even 

heretic 
right to 

present 

<' Oath- 
\i. The 
source 
society. 



me, nor 



[)ression 
}olitical 
ry thing 
is chief 
Uowers. 



Catholicism cannot have less than four hundred 
thousand priests. The idolatrous worship of tliat 
church and its priests is spread everywhere. The 
Irish j)riests in America are more oij.se(juious to 
Rome than the German or Trench [)riests, wlio are 
phiced nearest to her. Beverence is increased with 
distance. Home, A'iewed at a distance, is a colos- 
sus. The Pope counts more subjects than a sover- 
ei(jn ; more even than many sovereigns together. 
These have subjects ontjj on Tfll'^IK own tiohuitoiiv. 
TJie Pope counts SUBJECTS on thh tkriutohv of 
ALL SOVEREIGNS. Tlicsc Command onty the exterior. 
The Pope penetrates deeper. lie commands the Inte- 
rior. The seat of his empire is ptaced in t/ie con- 
science itself. If tlie wtiote world were R'juan 
Catholics^ tlien tlie Pope would command tl'-e 
world. What a power ! What would it lea\ •; to 
others? In a word, he would shak' the world, uvA 
shroud it in midnight darkness. He did it^ for 
ages, in respect to Europe. Not to 'novj how to fore- 
see, is not to know Jiow to govern cr Judge tJie world.'' 

The writer who gave tliis graphic description of 
the political system of Popery was an Abbe of the 
Pope, and knew the exact meaning of all he said. 

If ever Rome has the power in this country, 






il-j^ 



'«aiS«l( 



tfiii 





240 



ROMANISM A POLITICAL CORPORATION. 



which she is striving, by the aid of all Catholic 
Europe, and certain blind, selfish American politi- 
cians, to attain, the treasonable war will ))e waged 
under the name of religion. Rome knows lier [>olit- 
ical men, and her zealous agents in the United 
Slates, almost to a unit ; and she knows her re- 
sources, also, to a, doUjir. Slic waits only for 
strength to her increasing resources, and the nuilti- 
plication of her numbers, for her successful aggres- 
sion on t]\(} ballot-])OX, and her acquisition of tlie 
civil power. When ripe, eventually, and in suc- 
cessful domination, she will confiscate our lands. 
She will pay her devoted political aspirants, as the 
price of their treason^ in papal votes. She will 
enlist tlic zealous devotion of all tbo Catholic Irish, 
and priest-ridden foreign Papists, through the 
dangerous and unlimited power of priestly absolu- 
tion in the confessional, and the dispensation of 
indulgences by the Pope. 

The bull is published, and is irrepeahdde, in 
Avae; M?a, to-day, in which " the great hunter oi' 
nu^a " iaves through tlie earth, and lays his cwr^c 
and ills chtim on all the civil and religious rights 
of nan, not even leaving a grave for a heretic. 
He <daims jurisdiction over armies, navies, seas, 



ROMANISM A POLITICAL CORPORATION. 



241 



lands, treasures, coasts, &c. The Pope could 
order the extenninatioii, by a crusade, of heretics 
within any province under his undisputed control. 
What hinders hiin but the iron will and the ma- 
jority of Americans, from putting in operation the 
persecuting principle inherent in the very system 
of Popery ? 

Has not the Pope palsied and ruined every coun- 
try where his power could be felt ? Look at the 
kingdoms and states of Italy, — Lonibardy, Florence, 
Tuscany, Genoa, Naples, — so nourishing, once, in 
maritime prosperity, and all tlie arts of genius ! 
Look at Spain, Portugal, France, Austria, Mexico, 
the states of South America ! 

Why that tyrannical oppression of tlie beautiful 
valleys of Piedmont ? Why tluit Idoody triumph 
of the Vatican over the martyred Waldenses and 
Albigenses ? AV hy has this spirit of persecution 
extinguished every rising effort for liberty, trod- 
den crowns in the dust, and drenched Europe and 
the earth in blood ? If tlie Pope, at any time, 
relaxed his grasp of empires, and his tortures of 
the Inquisition, — if, at any time, the fires at the 
stake have been put out, and the groans ol" slaugh- 

21* 




:4 



242 



ROMANISM A POLITICAL CORPORATIOX. 



' i' 



terod victims liav(^ ceased to fall on the ear, — to 
^vhat is it to be ascribed but to the want of unre- 
strained power, and the energ''«3S of some Lutlier, 
some Elector of Saxony, some conquering arm of 
Marlborough, Charles XTL, or a Napoleon? Did 
the Pope attempt to tread on the liberties of Venice 
in the seventeenth centurv, and is he a hanb to- 
day ? If he spared not Venice then, why does he 
spare the United States to-day ? For this simple 
reascm, the want of strength and a majority. For 
it is the boast of the hierarchy, that its principles 
and character never change, 

Du Pin, the papal historian, furnishes the most 
striking picture of the Papacy in the seventeenth 
century : 



THE HISTORY OF THE INTERDICT OF VENICE, FULMI- 
NATED 15 Y POPE PAUL v.* 

" The (liffeicnce of the Republic of Venice ^vitil Paul V. 
is one of the nicest iniportaiit points of the ecclesiasticid 
history of the seventeeiitii century; not only by reason on 
the suhject ')f the dispute, but idso much nioi-e on account 
of the great number of questions wliich wcie agitated on 
occasion of that difft'ience, by the most aMe »livini'S and 
lawyers of that time. Tlie Senate of A enice made two de- 
crees in tlie beginning of liiat century; i)y the fiist of Vihicli 

* From Du Piu's Ecclesiaiitical History, VoL \iii. Book ii. Chap. L 
Century 17th, 



ROMANISM A POLITICAL COilPORATION. 



243 



:ar, — to 
->f unre- 
Liitlier, 
anil of 
•/ Did 
' Venice 
a nib to- 
do es lie 
simple 
y. For 
inciples 

be most 
nteentli 



ruLMi- 

Paul Y. 

'.sja.sticid 
jasoii oil 
account 
ta U'd on 
IK'S and 
two (ie- 
)f vdjicli 

Chap. 1. 






it was forbidden, under severe penalties, to build hospitals 
or monasteries, or to establish new convents or societies, in 
the state of Yenico. without the pcnnission of the senate. 
By the other, Avhieh was made the -iJih of March, IGUo, a 
law made in 15oG was renewed, confirujed, and extended 
over all parts of the state, forl)idding all the subjects of the 
republic to sell, alienate, or dispose in any manner wliatso- 
cver, of immovabh; goods in peipetuity, in favor of ecclesi- 
astical persons, Avithout tlie consent of the senate; upon 
condition, nevertheless, that iC any lej^iacies of immovable 
goods were bequeathed, those j^oods >houhl be sold within 
i^xo years after, and the purchase givcii to discharge those 
legacies. There hap|)ened at the same time two ciiminal 
aftairs, which concerned the ecclesiastics. Scqnon Sarra- 
shi, canon of Yiconza, who had taken off the seal of the 
magistrates, afhxe<l to the Episcopal chancery, at the re- 
quest of tJio chaiAcellor, the see being vacant, was seized by 
the senate, and put into prison, for having insulted one of 
his kinswomen, w honi he intended to debauch : and some 
time after, Count Baldolin \^aldeaiarino. Abbot Feveza, 
being accused of many enormous ciimes, was imprisoned 
by order of the senate. TJie Pope, Paul \.. being per- 
suaded that the decrees and enterprises against the clergy 
encroached unon ecclesiastical jurisdiction, complained of 
them to the ambassador of A'enice, and deujanded of the 
senate, by his nuncio, that the decrees should be revoked 
immediately, and ilie ecclesiastics i?nprisoned by the au- 
thoiity of the senate delivered into the hands of his nuncio, 
to be tried by ecclesiastical judges; threatening to interdict 
the repuMic, if he wjis not obeyed inunediiitely. The senate 
answered, the 1st of December, 1GU5. that they could not 
release prisoners accused of crime which belong to the 



244 



ROMANISM A POLITICAL CORPORATION. 



ii 



i f 



recognizance of the secular judges, nor revoke the laws 
Avhich tliey liad a right to make, and Nvhich tlicy hi'liuvetl 
necessary for the good of the state, Tlie Pope, having re- 
ceived tliis answer hy letters from his nuncio, and by \\urd 
of mouth from the ambassador of Venice, despatelu'd on the 
10th of December two briefs; the one addressed to Marin 
Grimani, Doge of Venice, and the other to the repuldic, b^ 
way of monitory, exhorting the state to revoke their de- 
crees, wliich he thouglit contrary to the canons, and preju- 
dicial to the liberties of the church ; declaring that they 
Avho made these laws, or caused them to l)e executed, had 
incurred ecclesiastical censures, from whicli they could not 
be freed but by revoking those statutes, and reistablishing 
affairs in their former state. lie commanded them, under 
the penalty of exconnnunicDtion, l((f(e SotUti/iff, to revoke 
them, Avhich, if they refused, he protested that he should be 
obliged to put in execution the penalties annexed to such 
offences, without any other citation ; being not Avilling that 
God should call liim to account one day for having thus 
failed in his duty, and not being able to dissendde, when he 
saw the authority of tlie holy Apostolic See infringed, the 
ecclesiastical immuniti .s trampled under foot, the canons 
and holy decrees neg.ected, and the rights and privileges 
of the churcli subverted." 

The Pope sent these briefs to his nuncio at Venice, with 
orders ''to present and publisli them; and acquainted tlie 
cardinals, in a consistory held the l^tli of thiit montli, with 
the subject of complaint he had against the repuidic of 
Venice, and witli what he had done tbereu})on. Neverthe- 
less, the republic appointed Leonardo Donato, procurator of 
St. Mark, to go express, and treat of this affair in the 
quality of ambassador at Eome. The nuncio, not having 
received those briefs till the day after Donato had been 



c\ 

til 

I" 

e\ 

C( 



;lic laws 
Ix'lit'ved 
vin;:; 10- 
I)y >Nord 
(1 on tlic 
o Marin 
iblic, 1)^ 
lioir (lo- 
ci prcjii- 
lat tlioy 
ted, had 
oiild not 
d)lisliin<x 
11, under 
3 revoke 
liuuld be 
to such 
ig that 
.g thus 
hen he 
^ed, the 
canons 
ivi leges 

with 
ited the 
1, with 
)lic of 
vorthe- 
iitor of 
in tlie 
having 
i been 



ROMANISM A POLITICAL COUl'OKATIOX. 



245 



chosen ambassador, tliought he ought to jiut oft* the publica- 
tion of tliotn, and wrote to tiie lN)pe. who (irdrrcd hinj to 
present thoin. The nuncio K'coivcd this ordrr on Christmas 
eve, and presented, the d.iy following, the hrirfs to the 
counsellors assembled to assist at a sulcmn mass, in the 
absence of the Doge (nimani, Avho was extremely ill. and 
(lied the day iblluAving. His death was the r:\^^ -n why the 
briefs were not op<.ned, the senate having oidiifd that no 
aftair should be transacted, but that of the election of a doge. 
The Pope, on his side, wiote to the nuncio to protest to the 
senate that they ought not to proceed to a new election, 
because it would be null, as made by excommunicated })er- 
sons. The nuncio pressingly demanded audience to niakc 
this declaration ; but the senate would not give it him. it 
being not customary to receive any memorials from the 
ministers of foieign })rinces during the interregnum, but 
cumjiliments of condolence. The electors were not a long 
time in choosing a new doge. The 10th of January, lOOG, 
Leonanlo Donato was advanced to that high dignity. All 
the ambassadois went innnediately, according to custom, to 
visit the new doge, and pay him their compliments. But 
the nuncio would not visit him. The doii;e did not omit 
Avriting to the Pope, according to custom, to notify his elec- 
tion to him ; and the Pope received his letter. The first 
affair which was transacted at Venice, after the election of 
the doge, was the diflerence of the repul)lic with the Pope. 
It beiran with nominatiuii; the (hevnlier Duodo in the idacc 
of Leonardo Donato (who was elected doge), ambassador at 
Rome. After this the briefs were opened ; and when the 
senate saw what they contained, before they returned an 
answer to the Pope they determined to have the advice of 
some divines and lawyers. The lawyers whom they princi- 
pally considered were Erasmus Gratian, of Udina, and Mark 



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ROMANISM A POLITICAL CORPORATION. 









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Antonio Pellcgrin, of Padua : and the famous Fra-Paolo 
Sarpi, of the order of the Servites, was appointed ilic divine 
of tlie repuhlio. It was also resolved not only to consult 
the doctors of the university of Padua and of Venice, but 
also the most able lawyers of Italy and Europe, who sent 
them their opinions, with the laws of the other kingdoms 
and churches of Christendom, which had any relation to the 
affair in (piestion. Then the senate, after having understood 
the opinion of the doctors, returned this answer to the Pope, 
the 28th of January : 'That they heard, with a great deal 
of grief and astonishment, by letters from his holiness, that 
Jie had condemned the laws of the republic (observed with 
success for many ages, and with which his piedecessors had 
found no fault), as contrary to the authority of the holy 
Apostolic See ; and that he regarded those wl.o had made 
them (who were men of piety, and had well deserved of the 
see of Rome) as persons who broke the ecclesiastical immu- 
iiities ; that, according to tho at monition of his holiness, 
they had caused to be examined their ancient and modern 
laws, and that they had found nothing in them which could 
not be ordained by the authority of a sovereign prince, or 
which infringed on the power of tho Pope; because it is 
certain that it belongs to a secular prince to take cognizance 
of all societies which are founded within his own jurisdic- 
tion, and to take care that no edifices may be raised whicii 
may prejudice the public safety, when there are in a state 
as great a number of churches and places of devotion as i.s 
sufficient. That they never refused giving leave to builil 
them ; the repuldic even contributir.g thereto very lil)ei;dly 
on her part. That the Liw prohibiting the alienation of the 
goods of tho laity forever in favor of the ecclesiastics re- 
garding nothing but temporal affiiirs, it cannot be pretended 
that they have done anything by that against the canons. 



sa 
lie 
he 
hi. 




ROMANISM A POLITICAL CORPORATION. 



247 



ra-Paolo 
lie divine 
consult 
nico, l)ut 
wlio sent 
kingdoms 
on to the 
nderstood 
the Pope, 
^reiit deal 
ness, that 
rved with 
Dssors had 
the holy 
had made 
ved of the 
cal immu- 
holiness, 
d modern 
lich could 
prince, or 
;cause it i^ 
cognizance 
I jurisdic- 
ised \vhich 
in a stale 
otion as is 
e to huiltl 
y libcnilly 
tion of the 
siastics re- 
) pretended 
he canons. 



That if the Popes had power to forbid tlie ecclesia-.tics to 
alienate in favor of secular persons the goods of the clinrch 
without her consent, it might he lawful for princes to pro- 
hibit seculars also to alienate theirs in favor of the eccle- 
siastics witliout their permission. That the ecclesiastics lose 
nothing by their decrees, because they receive the value of 
the immovable goods which are given or becjuoatlied to 
them. *That this alienation, weakening the state, is not less 
prejudicial in s})iritual than temporal concernments. Tiiat 
the senate cannot believe they have incurred any censure 
by making these laws, since princes have by a divine law, 
from wliich no human authoiity can derogate, the power of 
making laws in temporal affairs. That the admonitions of 
his holiness have no effect but in matters that are purely 
S})iritual, and not in a temporal affair, which is in all things 
separate, and wholly exempt from the pontifical authority. 
That the senate does not believe his holiness, who is full of 
piety and religion, will persevere, without kno\\ ledge of tlic 
cause, in his menaces. That tliese were an abridgment of 
the senate's reasons, whicli their extraordintiry an)l)ussador 
would give him to understand more largely.' 

"The Pope, having received this answer of the senrite, 
declared to the ambassador th:it he could not relax his 
severity if tliey did not revoke their hnvs. and deliver into 
the hands of his nuncio the prisoners. He complained still 
more of ajiother decree they had miide upon the einphythco- 
ses,* and c.iused h'lA coni})liiints to be delivered ])y his nun- 
cio to the senate. As he knew they would give him no 
satisfaction theieupon. he gave orders for another l.'iief to 
be pre.-ented, the 10th of December, to the senate, whereby 
he re(|uired that the two prisoners should be delivered to 
his nuncio, under the penalty of excommunication. The 

♦ A term of law for a long lease, from ten to a hundred years. 



'^1 



\3V. 



i 






248 



ROMANISM A POLITICAL CORPORATION. 



senate answered that tliey would not divest tliemselves of 
the right which they liad to punish the crimes of their sub- 
jects, vhich tlicy had alwa^'s enjo^'td from the estahli.sli- 
mvut of iheir state, "with the consent of the sovereign pontiffs. 
The extraordinary Jinihassador of tlie republic came to Rome, 
and represented to the Tope the reasons of their proceed- 
in>j;s; but nothin^j was able to move his holiness. He caused 
a monitory to be drawn up against the republic of Venice, 
and having communicated it to the cardinals in consistory, 
the loth of April, he ordered it to be published and fixed 
up in the public places at Home. This monitory imported 
that the senate of Venice being not willing to re.oke the 
laws which they had made in prejudice of the ecclesiastical 
authority, nor to deliver their prisoners, he declared these 
laws to be null, and pronounced the doge and republic of 
Venice excommunicated, if, within the space of twenty-four 
days, to begin from the day of the publication, they did not 
revoke, break, and annul, the aforesaid laws, and actually 
deliver the canon and the abbot into the hands of his nuncio. 
That till such time as they should pay obedience to this 
order, he forbade them to bury in consecrated ground those 
who happened to die : and that if, within three days after 
the twenty-four were expired, they did not comply, he laid 
the whole state under an interdict ; and forbade all masses 
and divine offices to be celebrated, except in such cases and 
places as were privileged by common law. .Vnd that he 
deprived the doge and senate of all the goods which they 
possessed in the lloman church, or in other churches, and 
of all the privileges or indultos which they iiad obtained 
from the lioly see, and especially from those which they 
had to proceed against clerks in certain cases. Tlie moni- 
tory was addressed to the patriarchs, archbishops, bishops, 
their vicar-generals, and to all the clergy, secular and regu- 



ROMANISM A POLITICAL CORPORATION. 249 



iselvcs of 
Jieir sub- 
I'sitalilisli- 

to Rouio, 
proct'cd- 
[le Caused 
f Venice, 
onsistory, 
ami fixed 
imported 
•e.oke the 
dcsiastical 
ired these 
^public of 
;enty-four 
}y did not 
I actually 
is nuncio, 
ce to this 
und those 
ays after 
y, he laid 
11 masses 
cases and 
that he 
lich they 
ches, and 
obtained 
lich they 
he moni- 
, bishops, 
ind regu- 



lar, having ecclesiastical dignity in the state of the republic 
of Venice. 

'"Tlie senate, being infoiined that the nonitorial l»ull was 
published, recalled their extraordinary ambassidor, forljado 
all ecck':-iiaslical prelates to publish or set uj) the bull of 
the I'ope. and commanded that all they ^\lIo liad copies of 
it sliould carry tiiem to the nia<:istrates of A'cnice. The 
Pope, on his j^ide, recalled the naiicio avIio -nas at A'^enice, 
and dismissed the ordinaiy auibassador of the republic. At 
the san»e time the chiefs of the council of ten sent for the 
superiors of monasteries, and of the other churches of AY'nice, 
and declared the intention of their sovereign to be that they 
should continue to })crform the divine ollices, and that no 
one should leave the ecclesiastic state \Nitliout leave, assur- 
ing those ^^ho staid of protection: and declaring that they 
wlio departed should not carry with them any of the goods 
and ornaments of the churches. They commanded them, 
in case any brief was sent to them from Rome, or order 
from their su|)eriors, to send it to the magistrates before 
they read it. And the governors of all the cities of the 
state were enjoined to give the same orders in the places of 
their jurisdiction. The superiors immediately all promised 
to obey the orders that had been given tliem, and to perform 
divine service as before. A council was held upon what 
was proper to be done concerning the monitory of the Pope. 
Some gave their advice to appeal from it. as many princes, 
and the republic itself, had done on the like occasion. But 
others believed there Avas no occasion for having recourse to 
this remedy, pretending that the briefs were notoriously 
null of themselves. This opinion Avas followed, and nothing 
was done, but a mandate made in the name of the doge, 
addressed to all the ecclesiastics of the republic, wherein he 
declared that, having received advice of the publication, 
22 






250 



ROMANISiM A POLITICAL CORPORArivlN* 



I' i 




|i 



I £ 



J ' 






^,tBi 




April 17th, at Rome of a certain brief fulminated against 
him, and the senate, and sovereignty of Venice, he thougljt 
himself obliged to cmjiloy his cares in ni'iintaining the 
public traiKjuillity, and su})i)oiting the authority of the 
prince. Tliat he j»rote.Mted Ijelbre (jod he had not omitted 
any means of informing an 1 laying before the Pope the 
strong and convincing reasons of the republic. 15ut that 
having found his ears closed, and seen the brief he had pub- 
lished against all kind of reason and justice in opposition 
to the doctrine of the Holy tScriptuie, the fathers and 
canons, and to the prejudice of the secular authority which 
God has bestowed upon sovereign princes, the liberty of the 
state and the public repose, and to the great scandal and 
offence of the whole Christian world: he held that brief to 
be not only unjust, but also null, unlawfully fulminated in 
fact, and contrary to the rules of law, and that he would 
use the same remedies which his predecessors and other 
princes have used against the Popes, who abused the au- 
thority which God had given them to edification, and passed 
the bounds of their })ower. And this he was the more in- 
clined to do, forasmuch as he was certain that this brief 
would be looked upon in the same light, not only by all the 
subjects of the republic, but also by the whole Christian 
world. That he Avas pei'suaded they would continue, as 
before, to take care of the souls of t!ie faithful, and to per- 
form the divine oflficcs, being fully resolved to persevere in 
the Catholic and apostolic faith, and the respect which is 
due to the holy Roman church. This mandate, dated the 
6th of May, IGOG, Avas immediately published and set up at 
Venice, and in all the cities of the state. 

" As the term of twenty-four days allowed by the briefs 
approached, and the Jestdts, who had received particular 
orders from the Pope, showed plainly that they were in- 



ROMANISM A POLITICAL CORPORATION. 



251 



1 nji^ainst 
; thought 
iiin^ the 
y of the 
t omitted 
L\)pc the 
But that 
had pub- 
ipposition 
hers and 
ity which 
•fj/ of the 
iiidal and 
,t brief to 
iiinated in 
he would 
ind other 
d the au- 
nd passed 
more in- 
his brief 
>y all the 
Christian 
ilinue, as 
id to per- 
rsevere in 
which is 
dated the 
set up at 

the briefs 
particular 
were in- 



clined to observe the interdict, and would at least aljstain 
from saying of mass, they were commaiiihMl. on the 10th of 
May, to give an express declariition of the iiieiisures they 
designed to take. They acknuwlodgt'd thi'n tb:it they could 
not celebrate n\i\s^ during the intenlict. aiul tliat if the 
senate obliged them to do it, they chose ratlier to retire froni 
Venice. Upon this answer, the senate resolved to send 
them away, and a[)pointed the grand Vicar of the Patriarch 
to receive the ornaujenta of their churciies. and gave them 
order to depart immediately. Tiiey went out that evening, 
carrying each of tliem a consecrated host about their necks ; 
and being put into two barks, retired to Ferrara. The 
Jesuits in the convents which were in tiie other cities of the 
republic departed also. As it was manifest that the Capu- 
chins, Theatins, and other regulars, after the example of 
the Jesuits, were resolved to observe the interdict, the senate 
published a decree, the last day of the term, by which all 
those who refused to celebrate the divine offices, in the 
accustomed manner, were enjoined to retire out of the juris- 
diction of the republic : upon which the Capuchins and 
Theatins departed also, and the other religions were placed 
ill the government of their churches. The Capuchins of the 
territories of Bresca and Bergamo stayed, and continued to 
perform divine offices, like the other ecclesiastics, secular 
and regular, of the republic. 

"The nuncios of the Pope, who were in the courts of 
Catholic princes of Europe, endeavored to exclude from 
divine service the ambassadors and envoys of Venice ; but 
their attempts were fruitless. They continued to be treated 
as they used to be, and were admitted to prayers, assem- 
blies, and the ecclesiastic ceremonies, as heretofore, in 
France, Spain, Italy, and Poland. Tlie ambassador of the 
republic assisted in person at Vienna, in the first solemn 



<*mi 



I' '' 






]f' 




ii\ 




252 



ROMANISM A POLITICAL CORPORATION. 



procession of the Holy Sacrament, which was made by the 
Jesuits. ]5ut tlie nuncio, who was not present for fear of 
meeting the jmihassiidor, gave out such menaces, that the 
ambassador did not think fit to be present at the two follow- 
ing ones. Though the interdict was not observed in the 
states of A^Tiice. it occasioned {unuil/s and seditions in 
several places, Avhich the senate, having attributed to the 
suggestions of the Jesuits, made a decree, the 14th of June, 
whereby they declared that the Jesuits should never more 
be received for the future in any place of the state of Venice, 
and that this decree should never be revoked, before there 
had been first read the Avhole process in presence of all the 
senate, which should be composed at least of a hundred and 
four score senators, and unless there were five for one who 
voted for the revocation. 

" Neverthele:?s. the Christian princes interposed to accom- 
modate the diiference betwixt the Pope and the Venetians. 
But these wouhl not hear any proposition of accommodation 
before the Pope bad taken away the interdict, and the Pope 
demanded before all things the revocation of the decrees. 
The ambassador of the most Christian king exerted himself 
more strongly and efficaciously than any one else in bring- 
ing matters to an accommodation, and at length effected it. 
The King of Spain assured the Pope that he woiild assist 
him with all his forces, and that he had given orders for 
that purpose to his ministers in Italy. But these promises 
had no other effect than to retard the ac^^^mmodation, and 
had like to have kindled a war in Italy. Some unknown 
persons having set up in the state of A^enice a placard by 
which the republic was^ exhorted to separate herself from 
the Roman Church, the senate commanded that search 
should be made after the author of it, and protested that 
their intention was never to depart from the Catholic reli- 



lii 



f. 



ROMANISM A POLITICAL CORrOIlATION. 



253 



tie hy the 
or fear of 
I, that tlic 
wo follow- 
X'd ill tlic 
'lilions in 
ted to the 
h of June, 
lever more 
of Venice, 
efore tlicre 
5 of all the 
indred and 
or one vrho 



gion, nor the ohediencc due to tlic Holy Sec. They puh- 
litihed afterwards several orders to maintain a war, in case 
they shouhl he attacked. The Pope, on his side, solicited 
the princes of Italy to put h'nnsflf into a condition to attnvk 
the Venetians, or to defend himself, if he should he attacked 
hy them. On each side preparations of war were made, 
but the dispute never came to an oj)en rupture. It was nut 
80 in the war which was carried on hy the pen ; for a very 
great number of writings were published on both sides, with 
heat, vivacity, and learning. Though the affair had a 
lowering aspect, and all things threatened a rupture, the 
ambassadors of France did not cease, nevertheless, to nego- 
tiate an accommodation." 

99* 






d to accom- 
Venetians. 
immodation 
d the Pope 
le decrees, 
ed himself 
fce in bring- 
effected it. 
o\dd assist 
orders for 
promises 
dation, and 
le unknown 
placard by 
erself from 
hat search 
tested that 
tholic reli- 



ve 



1 



1 






1 ; 



C HATTER IV. 

J? 

AVe Icam from his history that the Pop;*, only 
two centuries ago, excommunicated a whole people 
for exercising the right to punisli, by civil jurisdic- 
tion, two ecclesiastics, for drunkenness, murder, 
and other crimes, and for prohibiting the erection 
of monasteries and nunneries. These matters be- 
longed to the state government alone. The courts 
of the church had no right to try civil cases, or 
inflict temporal punishment, without infringing on 
the liberties of the people, and violating the laws 
of God. The Pope demanded that these criminals 
of the republic of Venice should be tried by Jwn 
in his ecclesiastical court, and threatened an in- 
stant interdict if prompt obedience did not ensue. 
The monasteries were polluting and ruining their 
country ; and the senate passed salutary laws pro- 
hibiting their future erection, without the consent 
of the legislature, and reguLiting the bestowment 
of property on the clergy, who were securing the 



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p:-, only 
c people 
jurisdic- 
niunler, 
erection 
tters be- 
le courts 
cases, or 
iging on 
he laws 
riminals 
by him 
an in- 
:>t ensue, 
ng their 
iws pro- 
consent 
towment 
ring the 



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ROMANISM A POLITICAL CORPORATION. 



255 



treasure and soil of the country in their own hands. 
The Pope would not allow the state to govern his 
subjects, though they resided in it. 

The Jesuits — observe, Americans ! — loft Venice 
to espouse publicly the cause of tlic Pope as a 
military foe to Venice ; and the oath of allegiance 
to the Pope, by every Jesuit bishop and priest, will 
lead to the same results in this country whenever 
the blow is struck openly for Popery. 

*' The Pope," says Du Pin,*' solicited the pow- 
ers of Italy to put him in a condition to attack the 
Venetians, or defend himself if attacked by them." 
Thus the Pope, the head of the church, placed him- 
self at the head of the army, to crush the republic 
of Venice for punishing two priests who had been 
found guilty of incest and murder. 

The Jesuits then were the soldiery of the Pope, 
and left their country to join him in arms. But, 
to the glory and praise of Jehovah, there wxre 
some patriotic spirits in Venice who stood up for 
liberty, and who showed their love for the rigiits of 
the people by punishing their priestly persecutors, 
and annihilating their convents and monasteries, as 
Spain and Portugal had done before them. 

All men, if their minds are not demented, love 






256 



ROMANISM A POLITICAL CORPORATION. 



1/7' ( 



l^ _ 

i-!^i 




frcetlom ; and when Roman Catholics ha^ c become 
sufTiciently enlightened and caught the true spirit 
of liberty, they have burst their chains o^' ])ondage, 
and risen up in Romish countries, as they did in the 
Reformation of Luther, and recently have done in 
Sardinia, New Granada, and partiall}^ in Mexico. 
It is by the spread of knowledge and the influence 
of true liberty that the hierarchy of Rome will, ai 
last, fall. A system so false and pernicious, a 
power so grasping, a despotism so at war with human 
rights, so bloody and insufferable, cannot last for- 
ever. The people of the earth will, in the fulfil- 
ment of scriptural prophecy, comprehend that God 
has given them the will to be free. 

The Church of Rome claims to bo infallible, and 
that it has an unquestioned right to enfcM'ce all its 
rules and tyrannical oaths upon its subjects. It 
declares damnation on all out of its visible com- 
munion. It dares to claim uniA'c^sal s])iritual and 
temporal dominion, — a more arrogant .umI impious 
pretence than ever Zenghis-Khan or the most wicked 
or victorious tyrant ever claimed. In the decretals 
by Pope Gelasius to the Emperor Aurelius, it is 
written thus : 

*' 0, august emperor, there are two by whom the 



ROMANISM A POLITICAL CORPORATION. 



257 



world is chiefly ruled, — the sacred authority of 
the Popes, and the kingly power ; in the "which, 
that of the priests preponderates, inasmuch as in 
the divine examination they \\\\\ have to nnswerto 
the kings of men." *' Be well aware, tlierelbre, that 
in these matters you depend upon their judgment, 
and they cannot be suhservient to your will ; for- 
asmuch as ijou see that the necks of kimjs and jirinces 
are put under the knees of priests ; and that, when 
they have kissed their right hands, they believe 
themselves to be partakers of their prayers." The 
heading of the chapter is in these words : " // is 
necessary to the salvativn of cdl the faithful in 
Christ, that they be subject to the Pope of Rome, 
who has the power of both swords, and who judges 
all, but is judged by none.'' "= Moreover we declare, 
assert, define, and pronounce, that it is altogether 
necessary to salvation for every human creature to 
be subject to the Pope of Rome." 

AVhat a preposterous decree ! What arrogant 
blasphemy ! The Pope pronounces himself to be 
God's vicegerent on earth ; to dispose of church 
and state, heaven and hell ; to determine the eter- 
nal salvation or damnation of the souls of men ! 
In perfect consistency, he gave a grant to Spain 



I 












1 * 



v. 'i 



0k 





258 



ROMANISM A POLITICAL CORPORATION. 



of America, even before its discovery. This grant, 
never having been revoked, is in full force ; and 
Mr. 0. A. Brownson, his Corypheus in America, 
says that the Pope hohls it as his possession ! And, 
with the Pope's increasing millions of subjects, his 
accumulating revenues, his subtle secret and open 
emissaries, his numerous and constantly multiplying 
papal schools, seminaries, colleges, nunneries, and 
monastic establishments, and all his swarming 
priests and Jesuits, is there not, my countrymen, 
ground for apprehension and serious alarm ? No 
matter whether our politicians and unsuspecting and 
busy people see this danger ; no matter whether 
the hope of accomplishing a particular end be ful- 
filled now or centuries to come ; the springs and 
ramifications of this system, often concealed, and 
wholly unlike all other humm inventions, are in 
powerful operation, and its agents labor assiduously 
to effect this end. 

Pope Pius v., in his bull to Queen Elizabeth, in 
which he deprives her of her kingdom, and releases 
her subjects from allegiance to her government, 
said : *' He who reigns on high, to whom is given 
all power in heaven and in earth, hath committed 
the Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church, out of 



\H " 



ROMANISM A POLITICAL CORPORATION. 



259 



tvhich there is no salvation^ to one alone on earth, 
namely, to Peter, Prinee of the Apostles, and to 
the Roman Puntiir, sueeessor to Peter, to be gov- 
erned in the IVilness of power. Tliis one man he 
hath appointed prince over all nations and all 
KINGDOMS, that he may ptuck up, destroy, scatter, 
ruin, plant, build.'' 

The bull against Henry of Navarre and Prince of 
Conde, by Sixtus V., says: "The power of the 
Roman Pontiff passes an uncontrolled sentence on 
all ; casts down the most powerful from their thrones, 
tumbles them down to the lowest parts of the earth, 
as ministers of the proud Lucifer." 

Among the definitions of papal power received 
and in use in the Romish system, we find the 
twenty-seven sentences or dictates of Pope Gregory 
VII. 
"8. The Pope alone can use imperial ensigns. 

9. All princes must kiss the feet of the Pope 
only. 

12. That it is lawful for him to depose emperors. 

17. That no chapter or book is canonical without 
Ins authority. 

19. That he himself ought to be judged by no 
man. . 






'X 



I' ' ' 



I 

m 



m 



260 



ROMANISM A POLITICAL CORPORATION. 



•Hi! 



27. That he may absolve the subjects of unjust 
men from fidelity to their princes." 

Pope Leo III. says, *' That the church, his 
spouse, had given him the milre in token of things 
spiritual; the crown, in token of things temporal: 
the mitre for the pricstliood, the crown for the 
kingdom, making nie a lieutenant of Him, who 
hath w^ritten upon his thigh and his vesture. King 
of kings and Lord of lords ; / enjoi/ alone the 
plenitude of power ^ that others may say of me^ next 
to God, and out of his fulness we have received.'^ '■ 

These doctrines are brought to America, and, 
although not written in our statute-books, nor pro- 
claimed from the top of the capitol, yet every 
"cross" on the splendid cathedrals and popish 
chapels in this country ; every elevation of the 
** host" by the bishops and priests before the eyes 
of the crowding multitudes Avhich throng them ; 
every sermon on the Sabbath which teaches implicit 
obedience to the Pope ; every oath of every Jesuit 
and prelate, and all the solemn binding vows of 
the millions of their adherents, proclaim, as with. 
the voice of a trumpet, these dangerous and 
unchangeable edicts. 

In che book called *' Three Books of the Sacred 



EOMANISM A POLITICAL CORPOBATION. 



261 



)f unjust 

irch, his 
3f things 
emporal : 
for the 
Lim, who 
ire, King 
alone the 
7WC, next 
2ived." 
ica, and, 
nor pro- 
^et every 
id popish 
in of the 
the eyes 
o- them ; 
s implicit 
ry Jesuit 
vows of 
, as with 
'ous and 

he Sacred 



Ceremonies of the Holy Roman Church,'^ printed at 
Cologne, 1571, it is seen how the Pope reigned 
in his days of greatest temporal splendor. These 
were his orders : 

*' 1. The Emperor shall hold the Pope's stirrup. 

2. The Emperor shall lead the Pope's horse. 
. 3. The Emperor shall bear the Pope's chair on 
his shoulder. 

4. The Emperor shall bear up the Pope's train. 

6. The Emperor shall bear the basin and ewer 
to the Pope. 

6. Let the Emperor give the Pope water. 

7. The Emperor shall carry the Pope's first dish, 

8. The Emperor shall carry the Pope's^rs^ cup.** 
^ This is the man who claims to be the successor 
of St. Peter) the follower of our blessed Lord and 
Saviour Jesus Chiist, who said to his disciples, 
"Silver and gold I have none!" 0, the pride, 
the ostentation, the guilty ambition, of this Roman 
god, ** sitting in the temple of God, and calling 
himself God ! " 

The religion of Protestants in America, as well 
as the constitution, oppose not the hierarchal pre- 
tensions of Rome only, but all established religions 
on earth. Both Protestantism and the constitution 
23 



1*3= ;■ 




f;. 





262 



ROMANISM A POLITICAL CORPORATION. 



deny the right of the legislatures to enact laws 
against the freedom of conscience or private judg- 
ment. They deny that the majority has any power 
over the minority in these matters which belong to 
God alone. No mortal has this right ; and whoever 
assumes it, be he monarch or priest, is a base and 
impious tyrant, against whom rise up the laws of 
heaven, and the conscious reason of man. 

They who peopled our soil, and fought on the 
battle-fields of the Revolution, — the illustrious and 
heroic representatives of the first American Con- 
gress, who legislated our freedom, with Washington 
at their head, — felt the strong impulse of Protestant 
principles, and imbued the immortal instrument of 
the constitution w^ith those principles, and thus 
established the glorious edifice of civil and reli- 
gious liberty. Every true American patriot changed 
his allegiance to every foreign government, and 
denied the right to any civil authority or priestly 
usurper to trample on these native principles, or 
legislate away the rights of conscience. This 
denial, by the American inhabitants, with the 
exception of the Roman Catholics, was made even 
before the adoption of the constitution. But the 
papists have never dared to deny their allegiance to 



'.&■ 



ROMANISM A POLITICAL CORPORATION. 



'>63 



the foreign hierarchy of Home, and therefore have 
never denied to the priesthood, or to the Pope, this 
usurped right to control the conscience^ or to think 
and decide as they may dictate, in all matters of 
religion. Why ? — Their dogmas forhid ; the pivot 
of the lips of the priest, on which their salvation 
or damnation turns, a d all the inextricable and deep 
web of superstitious mummeries in which they are 
immersed, sealed by " infallibility," forbid. Their 
souls, and consequently even the disposal of their 
bodies, are not their own. Freedom of conscience 
being in the hands of the priest, and the priest in 
the hands of the Pope, all the papists in this coun- 
try, unless a little too much Americanized, form 
one great army, and move as a unit under the dic- 
tation of the priest. They are here, therefore, 
what, in spirit and in the principles of their 
system, they were under Raymond, Godfrey, Tan- 
cred ; what they were at the siege of Eochelle 
under the cardinal minister of France, when, for 
twelve tedious months, the Protestants endured 
their unrelenting persecution and cruelties ; what 
they were when the fires of Smithfield, under the 
reign of bloody Mary, lighted up England, and 
multitudes of Protestants perished ; what they 






264 



ROMANISM A POLITICAL CORPORATION. 



i 




PP^l 



I 



■««5 



i;i 



were on St. Bartholomew's night, when they mur- 
dered more than sixty thousand Protestants ; 
what they were under the Inquisition ; what 
they are in Rome, in Italy, in the armies of 
the Austrian and French tyrants, l)ayonctiii^' 
the patriot sons who venture to breathe the 
aspirations of liberty ; what in Spain, in Portugal, 
and wherever the priests hold their conscience, and 
dictate their ready obedience and movements. * 



1. . tSgta^ltitHii'.' 


.1 ! 
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CHAPTER V . 



The Pope's power, which grants parchn, forgives 
sins, past, present, and to come, is in full force 
here. He pardons rebellion and high treason ; 
dispenses with oaths, promises, or vows. And, 
though a subject take one thousand or five hundred 
thousand oaths to support the civil government, 
if it is not a Roman Catholic government there can 
be no possible security for his allegiance. 

Is there an American w^ho will say, in the face of 
these facts, that the system of Popery is favorable 
to civil and religious freedom? Is there one who 
will deny that its dogmas and practices are opposed 
to the principles of that constitution, which are 
dear to freemen as their hearts' blood ? 

Not merely the Pope, but the priests, can forgive 
sins. The priests are the monarchists ; they are 
the hierarchy of Rome ; they are the church, and 
the church is the foe of divine truth and human 
liberty, 

23* 






I[?^ 



26G 



ROMANISM A POLITICAL COUrOllATION. 



r 





» A 



■' 1'! 



When Ronio ceases to he consoUdjiteil, its system 
liJis ended. It has no vitality, l)ut through the 
great lyranf ^ who *' calls himself God," and rules 
on the ruins of religion, liherty, and hiw. Protest- 
ants, on the other hand, cannot consididatt, in Ihe 
sam(i manner, under one supreme head, who unites 
church and state. They own no such head. The 
Pilgrims of Plymouth, the Huguenots of South 
Carolina, the disciples of Wni. Penn, the Hol- 
landers who colonized Manhattan, were all alike 
Protestants. But it was their freedom to think and 
choose each the mode of worship it adopted, and 
they were each and all resolutely and unanimously 
united in the founding of American liberty. 

Bishop England, a most crafty Jesuit, in his book 
transmitted from Rome, 26th March, 1833, speak- 
ing in praise of the Pope's encyclical letter against 
liberty, says : ** In the venerable successor of St. 
Peter I behold the former active, zealous, and 
enlightened prefect of the propaganda, whose deep 
interest and laborious exertions in the concerns of 
the Church of the United States have been so bene- 
ficial." lie further says, '' that stripping the Holy 
See of its temporal independence would inflict a 
deep wound on religion/' And, in addressing the 



R0MANI8M A POLITICAL COUPORATION. 



2G7 



cariliiials, whom this puiuc Bishop En<^ljin(l stylos 
** the venerablo and oniiiicnt senate of tlie Christian 
worhl," lie further wrote : ** That the «;rain of 
niustanl-se<'(l (the Papal Church in America), cul- 
tivated with success, under tlu; auspices of Pius 
the hJixth, has mightily grown to a rapid tree, and, 
protected hy Gregory XVI., is now extending its 
branches above an enlightened community, re- 
posing in peace under its shadow." 

To show further that this political corporation of 
Rome docs what it dares and can do to subvert our 
liberties, we ask you, Americans, in conclusion, to 
read the letter of Bishop England, written from 
Rome, upon American nationality, soon after the 
news of the burning of the Massachusetts convent 
reached that city, and which was published under 
his direction, in Charleston, South Carolina. 

*' IIow often," says he, *' do I wish my voice 
could be heard across the Atlantic, proclaiming to 
your meetings what I have seen and heard since I 
left you ! A people valuing freedom, and in the plen- 
itude of its enjoyment, destroying religion, naij, 
having nearly effected its destruction, by reducing to 
practice here the principles ivhich the Veterists and 
Conciliators contend for among you. 



i«i.< 



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268 



ROMANISM A POLITICAL CORPORATION. 



*^ The Americans are loud in their reprobation of 
your servile aristocracy^ who would degrade religion 
hy placing it under the control of a king's minister; 
and could your aristocracy and place-hunters form 
the state of Catholicity here, they would inveigh 
against the Democrats, who would degrade religion 
hy placing its concerns under the control of a mob; 
and I am perfectly convinced they are right. 

** I am convinced that if these gentlemen of 
the Irish hierarchy, who are suspected, and I fear 
with good reason, of being favorable to Velotistical 
arrangements, had each one month's experience 
of the operations of the principle here, their good 
sense ^ and piety, and zeal for religion, would compel 
them to suffer inconvenience rather than commit the 
fate of the religion of millions under their charge, 
and myriads yet unborn, to the influence of that most 
destructive principle, to release themselves and their 
flocks from the unmitigated persecution they now 
suffer. The people here claim and endeavor to as- 
sume the same jwwer which the clauses and conditions 
■would give the Crown among you, though not to the 
same extent. The consequence is that religion is 
neglected, degraded, despised, and insulted, with 
impunity.'* -; : 



:»ii I 

''!!il 



i % 



ROMANISM A POLITICAL CORPORATION. 



269 



This bold assert ion of Bishop Enghiiid against 
*' responsibility to the people as the yrcat principle 
of the American sr/stem,'' is coufmued by that of 
all other leaders in the design upon Ameriean 
liberty. Tlie Catholic Telegraph, published in 
Cincinnati, the contemporary of Cardinal England, 
spoke thus of our republicanism: ^*The system 
mai/ be very fine in theory, very fit for imitation on 
the part of those who seek the power of the mob, in 
contradistinction to justice cmd the public interest. 
But it is not of a nature to invite the reflecting 
part of the world, and shows, at least, that it has 
evils/* 

This foreig:i emissary and his coadjutors, the 
Jesuits and agents, who are under a bond to the 
Pope, dare to announce to our laces that the burn- 
ing of one convent in New England, by a mob, 
*' is one fact in condem?icttion of the system of 
American instiivtions, confirmed lately by numerous 
other proofs.'' 

Bishop Flagett, of Bardstown College, Ken- 
tacky, gives to his patrons abroad this plain hint 
at their ulterior political design, and that no less 
than the entire subversion of our republican govern- 
ment. In regard to the difficulty of Catholic mis- 




I 



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K^ 




m 




2;u 



ROMANISM A POJITICAL CORPORATION. 



sionaries with the Indians, he says the greatest is, 
** their continued traffic with the whites, which 

CANNOT BE HINDERED SO LONG AS THE REPUBLICAN 
GOVERNMENT SHALL SUBSIST." , - 

Do Americans know that, at the point of the 
bayonet, every individual must kneel or retreat, at 
the sig-ht of a Catholic procession of the idohitrous 
'*host," in every country in the American Avorkl, 
as well as papal Europe, wliere the power of the 
Romish system prevails? What though Papists 
are idolatrous ; what though Bishop England says 
"Nothing is more offensive to Catholics than a 
TRANSGRESSION OF THIS PRINCIPLE," that is, kneel- 
ing to a popish procession ? What though it is the 
custom among the European slavish masses to wor- 
ship a *' wafer," which the priest (who secretly 
laughs at the credulous ignorance of his dupes) 
tells them is converted, by a few mumbling words 
which he utters, into a real God ; what though the 
priests close the Bible, and their poor blind sub- 
jects know no better than to permit this despotism ? 
Are Americans to be compelled to take off their 
hats to such a ridiculous deception, — to consent to 
be fools, and kneel down to such a monstrous im- 
posture? And yet an Lish Papist, some months 



N. 



RO^UNISM A POLITICAL CORPORATION. 



271 



•eatest is, 

5, WHICH 
EPUBLICAN 

nt of the 
•e treat, at 
idolatrous 
an world, 
^er of the 
li Papists 
2:laRd says 

CS THAN A 

is, kneel- 

h it is the 

3S to wor- 

) secretly 

is dupes) 

Liig words 

lough the 

)lind sub- 

3spotisin ? 

off their 

onsent to 

rous im- 

e months 



ago, at a Popish procession in Cincinnati, had the 
astonishing impudence to assault a Protestant and 
knock off his hat, because he chose to maintain his 
independence ! IIuw many hats will bo knocked 
off when Rome gets to be more powerful ? If this 
is the first lesson to Americans, what will be the 
second, and the last ? 

The Canon Law is Rome's Magna Charla. 
Robinson, the historian (a favorite author of Ro- 
manists), says, " The Pope's public political end was 
to be absolute ruler (/ all the priesthood ; and, 
through them, of all mankind.'' '' It is a Jewish 
Christianity, having in it the seed of a hierar- 
chy;" "they sunk the people to elevate the 
order;" **the order created a master-like Aaron.'* 
*' If this dispute," siiys he, " had been only about 
wearing the bells and pomegranates, as Aiiron had 
done, and a breast-plate, that none but a Jew 
could read, it might have created mirth; but it 
took a very serious turn when it was perceived 
that Aaron had under all his fine things a Knife 
and a Blood Basix." 

Al)l)e De Pradt says : *' Jesuitism is empire by 
RELIGION. The general of the Jesuits is a veritable 
King." The Pope is master oi the general. He 






w 



t 



272 



ROM/INISM A POLITICAL COUl'ORATION. 



says, *' it is organized intolerance." Who is chief 
of this immense family, this militia present every- 
where? The Pope. He counts more subjects than 
any sovereign ; more than even manij sovereigns 
together. If the whole world were Catholic, 

THEN THE PoPE WOULD COMMAND THE WHOLE WORLD." 

** Catholicism," this Abbe De Pradt further 
says, '* is not organized like other worships. The 
latter have no common centre ; no exclusive source 
from whence floivs power in every religious society.'^ 
They have no Rome. 






liiii 



/ .' ' 



>. . - * - J 



- 1 ,1 



.••.:;• 



CHAPTER VI. 



Now, my countrymen > by the very highest 
Roman Catholic authorities on earth, we have 
exposed the design and tendency of this corpora- 
tion to subvert civil and religious liberty and law. 
Rome counts in her communion more than one 
hundred and fifty millions throughout the world. 
The entire Protestant world now exceeds but little 
upwards of one hundred and twenty millions. 
Rome has one^ and only one, centre, and boasts of 
her unity, indivisibility, and common principles of 
the great tyrant who dwells in the '' Eternal City,'* 
Protestants have no central head, and are never 
under such ecclesiastical rule. Yet, in the last 
three hundred years, where but with Protestants, 
and under Protestant governments, have science, 
enterprise, commerce, agriculture, order, law, and 
liberty, the inventions of mechanical genius, na- 
tional and individual prosperity^ flourished in all 



274 



ROMANISM A POLITICAL CORPORATION. 




their beauty, grandeur, and successful triumphs ? 
And here in the United States, where free institu- 
tions and liberty are best enjoyed, have not these 
developments been most gratifying and surprising ? 

The records of the world respond. Nowhere be- 
side. Place not only the United States, but free 
England, Holland, or Scotland, in contrast with 
Catholic Italy, Catholic Spain, Catholic Germany, 
and Catholic Ireland, and what a striking contrast 
immediately presents itself! When Luther blew 
his trumpet, nations started up from the slumber 
of ages, burst the iron fetters which had chained 
them, and came forth into the light of heaven, 
and, rejoicing in its beams and the energies of 
their new manhood, stood erect, and commenced 
their march to national and individual independ 
ence, and the free enjoyment of the rights which 
God and nature gave them. 

Who can estimate the value of this deliverance ? 
It is beyond all price. Its magnificent results 
over Protestant nations are known and felt in free 
government, free conscience, free speech, free 
press, the diffusion of knowledge, the expansion 
of the human faculties, the happiness of families, 
the triumphs of peaceful arts and industry, and all 






s. 



ROMANISM A POLITICAL CORPORATION, 



275 



riumphs ? 
e inRtitu- 
not these 
rprising ? 
where be- 
but free 
rast with 
jrermany, 
I contrast 
:her blew 
) slumber 
1 chained 
heaven, 
ergies of 
mmenced 
ndepend 
its which 

verance ? 
t results 
It in free 
ch, free 
xpansion 
families, 
, and all 



the prosperit]' and glory which are shed on nations 
and their members. 

' America we hold to be Bible ground, and her 
institutions and principles are suited to all religious 
sects who do not claim to be infallible ; but the 
system of Rome, by its own documents, avov^s its 
plan to alter and prohibit books, and yet keep their 
TITLES ; to change the ideas of authors ; to educate 
a political influence, which, *' in ten, or, at most, 
twenty years," they have said, was to wield or con- 
trol the destinies of this country; and, in a word, 
** to dictate to the souls of myriads of immortal 
BEINGS," and chain down the human fticulties. 

Our fathers declared in the Coi ' mental Congress 
that '' THE CATHOLIC RELIGION HAD DEL- 
UGED England IN BLOOD ; " and they rose, in 
the might and spirit of unconquerable patriots, for 
the defence of their religious rights, that you, 
Americans, might be able now to vindicate and 
perpetuate them. Wait not till the Rubicon is 
passed ! The Jesuits are within our lovely en- 
closures. What countries, where they have gained 
a foothold, have they not ruined ? What monster 
errors do they not promulgate ? What insidious 
plots do they not contrive ? They are already 



l<»11: 



f")^. 




276 



KOMANISM A POLITICAL CORPC RATION. 



fey 






1 1 I 




combined with certain political leaders to distract 
this country. They are in our state politics. 
They are in our Washington counsels. Have they 
not already shocked the community by burning our 
Bibles ? Have they not ejected it from our schools? 
Have they not defaced our school-books, and de- 
nounced our beautiful system of education, and 
American schools, as the ** nurseries of hell'*? 
Have they not attempted to gag free speech, — to 
seize the ballot-box, and assault our citizens in the 
exercise of their legal franchise ? Have they not 
demanded the public funds, to support their secta- 
rian education ? And, with astonishing boldness, 
has not their leading prelate, acting in concert 
with all the popish bishops in this country, dictated 
to his political partisans in the legislature to alter 
the laws to suit his Jesuitical and ambitious de- 
signs, to divert to his personal use, and in his legal 
right, the whole property of the church ? Are not 
these men busy, and do they not act as spies in all 
our state and federal elections ? And yet how 
feeble is the voice of Americans ! how silent are 
many of the presses of the country ! While these 
foreign agencies are at work ; while dangers 
threaten from foes open and secret, alert and sub- 



ROMANISM A POLITICAL CORPORATION. 



277 



distract 
politics, 
ive they 
niiig our 
schools? 
and de- 
on, and 
hell"? 
ich, — to 
ns in the 
they not 
3ir secta- 
boldness, 
concert 
dictated 
to alter 
ious de- 
lis legal 
Are not 
es in all 
yet how 
ilent are 
lile these 
dangers 
and sub- 



tle, bound by oaths to make every interest, civil, 
political, and religious, subserve one grand end, 
— the supremacy of a foreign hierarchy in our 
midst, — these presses lift up no voice, speak in 
no indignant spirit of liberty. They are like a 
dead weight to the majestic wheel of the republic. 
They breathe not a whisper of warning against the 
designs of Catiline. They refuse to repel his 
insidious and impudent treacheries. They affect 
not to see, either through fear or through parti^- 
sanship, the footsteps of the foreign intruder 
within the bowers of our happy homes ; or the 
wily serpent coiling among the pleasant flowers, 
and stately foliage, and magnificent cypress, of 
our virgin scenery. They wink at the stratagems 
of Sylla, but condemn the merits of Fabius. They 
spurn the patriotic indignation of the Gracchi, and 
take to their embraces the plotting Tarquins. AVith 
the calculations of the political chess-board, their 
fame and independence are nicely balanced by a 
successful move, or aristocratically interwoven with 
the price of stocks in the market of the highest 
bidder. No?i tali auxilio. 

The patriotic heart of the nation demands no 
questionable Gloucesters, but maguanimous Syd* 

24* 



ir% 



278 ROMANISM A POLITICAL CORPORATION. 



m 



•I', 1 



L' 



r 



neys, and licroic Ilampdcns, to dufeiid the proud 
battlements of our liberties, Jind to stand in the 
breacb on the invasion of the enemy. In every 
community, and often in responsible and prominent 
stations, there are men who either will not or can- 
not sec danger till their house is in flumes over 
their heads, or the assassin has ellected his pur- 
pose. The time is approaching when no dubious 
action will be tolerated ; when the love of country, 
and the calls of patriotism, will awaken the most 
sluggish apathy. The field is chosen by the pa- 
pacy. The plans are laid. The agents are com- 
missioned not to faint or halt. America is to be 
the field on which the last great battle of the world 
is to be fought. The struggles of Rome will be in 
proportion to the value of the object, and the 
greatness and majestic splendor of the prize. 
Never were motives more impulsive and command- 
ing ; never was an issue when the victory will be 
more coveted and magnificent, and the results so 
striking and extensive. But let this foreign influ- 
ence beware ! The spirit which animated our 
ancestors glows with unabated fervor. In the 
words of the great orator of Yale, ** Their sons 
scorn to be slaves/' nor will they be circumvented 



if. 



ROMANISM A POLITICAL CORPORATION. 



279 



ho proud 
(1 in the 
In every 
ironiinent 
t or can- 
ines over 
his pur- 
• dubious 
country, 
the most 
'' the pa- 
are com- 
1 is to be 
;he world 
v'ill be in 
and the 
e prize. 
)mmand- 
Y will be 
•esults so 
2;n infiu- 
ted our 
In the 
eir sons 
invented 



or repelled in the background l)y monks and 
priestcraft. Let not the calm forebode the storm ! 
The American ** sky is charged with lightnings 
fiercer than ever flashed over that which canopies 
us all.'* Let not the fatal step be taken, nor the 
hand of the papal tyrant dare to press too closely 
on the American heart ! While the '* light of free- 
dom is glowing with undiminished fires," may we 
hope to succeed in this grand battle of light 
against darkness, — of liberty against the com- 
bined forces of priests and despots ! 



( .- . 



!v 






THE AMEllICAN NAVY. 



♦•« I, 



CHAPTER I. 



" !i 









The honor of the country is borne by its good 
men; — they who dishonor these dishonor their 
country. 

The Navy of the United States, as a question 
of international policy, was never so important to 
the American people as now ; and it is lamenta- 
ble to have seen the PresideuL of the United States 
strike a blow at this great arm of the public ser- 
vice, and, so far as he could, destroy the interest, 
the glory, and the moral strength, of the United 
States, in every ocean and clime. 

For years, foreign governments have been steads 
ily increasing their navies, and menacing Ameri- 
cans who have sought to maintain the dignity of 
their nation abroad, Nothing but this superior 



:s 



its good 
Lor their 

question 
ivtaut to 
lamenta- 
d States 
blic ser- 
interest, 
United 






• I* ♦ 



■\ 




"^t 



"■';,. 



in stead- 

Ameri- 

bnitv of 

isupevio? 



\./ .- /-•• 



•uhov of t'lP -'.'ju 




rr.--C^po-»^: iMnisnTT^erU in the ^J.SIlJVc/v 



>!«';i;!(.\> jvAvr. 




1 : I 



TrfK h'»iu)r of th<3 countrv Is borne f>v ifs ''T.o 
The Navy oC ih'; r;,;f<r^ >*fah*s, m a (jae^ruv 



unpoi'hiiu 



'.<• 



bi 



u^ ' > '(;:V(.; sM-}i ;Ik- I'r' ^i(U.ur '>(' thf I'nitiii Shit:; 



itr. 



IJVU 17. 



MCO 



il^*^ ::' 



I ' 



bl"\v \i\. Uii.s ^irciit arm «'l' the [)til)li<' >'«•? 



So !"ir ;i,- lie coil 



iv*, ;aiu til!' uira'nl -JronL:(h. <■! tl.r I tii:*'. 



>)(,:<V^, ii 



\ « \r'.rv ()*.*",i:i all'! < .iiuf- 



oi /*: Mi" 



;,,ivi':ii ir'>"\r 



t' i-U^C ' 'J'^ Ii' i)' 



." . 1 M fi 



»w ! 



s l!:^^■<: iiccii sto 



iri<; nif.'Uiw." 



i,'t 



.All! 



v;a!)S 



\ c b'.n 



M.'t 



"i >;!au;VMii; 



ii,'.i'ni 



their uali('t: ahrn-id. >>K>fiiiri^ \)i\t tlji. 



m;te 



'1 1. 



ifs U"00 



lor 



tl:'u 



nvK'srio' 



orhiiii ' 



;ii:i 



1 1,^^ !•<';• ' 



I t\l 




'V'"J'as''rj 



t -'■-''■' 



.v. I 



1^ 



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u;»e, 



/.•uhov 




tae li.S.';a.-i7, 



ppj 


W: I 


hIP^ 1 






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siHs.s- 




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n 
a 
tl 
h, 
m 
h( 



THE AMERICAN NAVY. 



281 



naval strength induced England to defy the 
proclamation of the Monroe doctrine by this gov- 
ernment, and establish the colony of the Bay Islands, 
which has since involved the United States in 
troublesome negotiations. But for this, Spain 
would never have attempted her outrages upon 
American steamers, nor France have treated our 
protest against her occupancy of Sonora with 
contempt. 

Our territory on the Pacific has since made the 
navy still more important to our commerce, in order 
to protect the shipping of our enterprising men, and 
give a new impulse to trade upon that coast. In 
the event of war, it is upon the navy alone we 
could rely to scour our seas, and prevent a foreign 
fleet from penetrating the rivers and harbors on 
our coast, 

The law which passed at the end of the session 
of Congress in 1855, in reference to the navy, was 
not only ex post facto, but a fraud upon legislation 
and the American policy. Senators have admitted 
that they knew nothing about it. If a few days 
had been given to its proper consideration, the 
navy would not now be bereft of its chivalry and 
honor, the families of gallant men would not 



'K 



282 



THE AMERICAN NAVY. 




n 



liP'''l 






now be reduced to penury, while the government 
would have been saved the thousands of dollars 
expended in the discussion of the outrage, and 
devising methods of reparation. More money will 
be thus expended, before this evil is rectified, than 
would have p'^.id the pitiful stipend of these two 
hundred and one officers the next twenty years. " 
The law which passed Congress, Americans, to 
reorganize the navy, on the 28th of February, 1855, 
had no more to do with our constitution than it 
had with the articles of our old Confederation. 
Does the sacred bond and covenant of our freedom 
allow a man to be punished prospectively for his 
inefficiency in times past ? Can it prevent a man 
from pursuing any honest calling, by cutting down 
his present means of support, and yet holding on 
to the right of his personal services ? It cannot. 
But, in the very face of this, this act, which the 
imbecility of the President and Secretary of the 
Navy has executed, does render an officer fur- 
loughed liable, at any moment, to be summoned 
on government duty, and oblige him to forfeit any 
other interest or engagement, by which he may be 
maintaining a helpless family. .; - > 

' The law is also unjust in not extending to the 



m' 



'■ t 



ill- ^ 



THE AMERICAN NAVY. 



283 



vernment 
)f dollars 
'age, and 
Loney will 
fied, than 
these two 
years, 
sricans, to 
iry, 1855, 
n than it 
ederation. 
r freedom 
ply for his 
ent a man 
ting down 
olding on 
It cannot. 
;vhich the 
ry of the 
icer fur- 
ummoned 
orfeit any 
e may be 

ng to the 



board of fifteen, the sunjeons, pursers, and chaplains, 
the same provif-ions it applies to other officers. 
Why were these classes privileged, and exempted 
from the same rigor as others? — these men, who 
even at sea lead a life of ease and idleness, Avhilo 
those who are subjected to all the peril of active 
sea service are made to forfeit their places ? 

Americans^ if you wish to know the iniquity of 
this law, turn to the Navy Register ! You will 
there find pursers credited with but seven years 
tind nine months' sea service, who have been forty- 
one years and nine months in the navy, and re- 
ceiving all the time their eighteen hundred dollars 
from the government. Is this right, is it honest, 
Americans ? 

There are surgeons, too, who have been but 
three years and six months in the service, out of a 
period of forty-six years and eight months, re- 
ceiving their eighteen hundred dollars ! Chap- 
lains, waiting orders, who have performed religious 
services at sea but two years and four months, and 
been receiving from the government a thousand 
dollars, annually, for twenty-six years and three 
months ! 

The law, too, set out to reform the navy ; — now 









Pi 



ii 



284 



THE AMERICAN NAVY. 



look at its execution in that view ! It has made 
ninety-nine captains, one hundred and thirty com- 
manders, and three hundred and ninety lieuten- 
ants ! And, out of this number, the government 
had sent to sea on the first of the present year 
but fourteen captains (including commanders), 
nineteen commanders, and one hundred and fifteen 
lieutenants ! All this is the result of having an 
incompetent Secretary of the Navy, Avho allowed 
the board of ^* fifteen '* all the latitude they 
wanted. They dictated to him, and he, Mr. Dob- 
bin, dictated to the President, who issued his 
rescript confirming theii corrupt action towards 
American men. Our foreign stations are now 
all disgraced by the want of an efficient navy to 
represent our nationality abroad, while the ex- 
penses of the nation are increased to support a 
pack of idlers. 

There was no need of any more legislation what- 
ever, for what this law of February 28th, 1855, 
meant ostensibly to do. The Secretary of the Navy 
had the power before to furlough; and there are, at 
least, three instances on the register, to show that 
right had been exercised, and these men thus put 
out of the pale of promotion. The President, too, 



THE AMERICAN NAVY. 



285 



has made 
lirty com- 
T lieuten- 
)vernrnent 
sent year 
manders), 
Lnd fifteen 
having an 
[0 allowed 
:ude they 
Mr. Dob- 
ssued his 
a towards 
are now 
it navy to 
the ex- 
support a 



/ ". ■ : • 



;ion what- 
.th, 1855, 
the Navy 
re are, at 
show that 
1 thus put 
dent, too, 



if he chose, could then have renominated those 
officers for promotion, or continued to discredit 
them, as he pleased. And the whole proceeding 
in reference to the late Navy Retiring Board has 
been a sham affair, from beginning to end ; the 
product of base personal malignity, on the part of 
certain officers of the navy, aided by the efforts of 
weak but high government officials. The facts, in 
this connection, have the authenticity of the rec- 
ords from the navy department of the government, 
and are submitted to the consideration of the 
American people, who are eminently able to make 
their own comments. 

In the first place, the Secretary of the Navy knew 
that the names of the victims were marked upon 
the register, in his office, before those who con- 
stituted that board were known to the people ; 
and he informed Capt. Smith, one of the '* re- 
tired," that he knew the reason why every man 
was dishonored. Weeks before the board assem- 
bled, Commodore Skinner found a register with 
similar marks in his office ; they were seen in other 
places where these clubs to dishonor American 
officers congregated. 

Dupont, Shubrick, Magruder, Pendergrast, 
25 . 



V 



mi 



V: 



W' 



\ 



i^ 



i' 



1, 



Ik I 






286 



THE AMERICAN NAVr. 



Jenkins, and others, were the leading actors in this 
business. Mr. Mallory, the bill-framer, in consult- 
ation with Dupont, had designated one hundred 
officers on the register for this late, before the pas- 
sage of the laWf ninety-nine of whom are now vic- 
tims. Fifty-seven of the officers thus dismissed 
from the service of their country were afloat upon 
duty at the time, by order of the Secretary of the 
Navy ; some of whom were, at the very moment, 
in the performance of deeds of braveiy^ under the 
American flag, which have added new lustre to our 
national glory, Lieut Rolando here furnishes a 
distinguished illustration. He volunteered to res- 
cue the perishing crew of a Chinese junk, when all 
others feared to offer assistance ; and not only saved 
five hundred and thirty out of six hundred from 
instant death, but, in the two successive piratical 
fights, won, for his courage and noble daring, such 
admiration from European governments as should 
send a thrill of pleasure through the heart of every 
true American. .,,.... 

The prohibition of the increase in the navy, by 
this law, shows clearly that neither the author 
nor the executioners knew what they were about. 
Congress never intended to interfere with the rights 



THE AMERICAN NAVYi 



287 



rs in this 
: consult- 

hunilred 

the pas- 
now vic- 
tlismissed 
oat upon 
ry of the 
moment, 
mder the 
bre to our 
rnishes a 
ed to res- 

when all 
nly saved 
red from 

piratical 
mg, such 
as should 

of every 

navy, by 
e author 
e about, 
he rights 



nor to injure tlie reputations of upwards of t o 
hundred American citizens, no more than it meant 
to make three hundred promoti is in the service, 
which has actually been done. Of tho thirty five 
new captains made by this board, three only are at 
sea, and but six on shore duty ; leaving the bal- 
ance to enjoy their new dignity in idleness. There 
is, then, bat one more captain at sea to-day than 
there was a year ago ; while there are three com- 
manders less than there were at that time ; so that 
thirty-six of this grade are also idle. 

In the selection made by the Secretary of the 
Navy, of capttiins for important posts, he has, in 
every instance of w^hich we have heard, passed over 
the absolute claims of the efficient captains, and 
named, for important sea and shore duties, the new 
captains or commanders made by the board, whose 
commissions as such were not then even confirmed. 

The withdrawal of so many gallant officers from 
the active service, to promote young and inexperi- 
enced men, has left the navy, at this moment, with 
but sixteen midshipmen in all parts of the world. 
There are, therefore, twenty-six American ships 
now commissioned in the service, without a single 
officer of this rank upon their decks ; and, while 



;.K 



) 



288 



THE AMERICAN NAVY. 






Kil. 



i?a 



r 



'A 




■i .'i ) 



it 



the law authorizes sixty masters in the navy, there 
are but eighteen of these, because none can be 
made so until after they have become passed mid- 
shipmen. 

President Pierce and Mr. Secretary Dobbin 
thougiit the appointment of upwards of two hun- 
dred new midshipmen was at stake when the inqui- 
sition was engaged in the decapitation of ofhcers ; 
but a clause, in defiance of the common treachery, 
was discovered in the bill, which, to the eternal 
honor and wise forethought of the author, pre- 
vented the fruit, which they all thought so ripe, 
from being plucked, even to save the nomination, 
or preserve the succession. ^. 

We see now thiit by the act of the administration 
they have absolutely left the navy without a cap- 
tain whom the)/ deem qualified for the head of a 
bureau. In this dilemma, Ingraham, of Koszta 
memory, was brought on to the seat of government 
for that purpose, when the Senate refused to appoint 
a man to a captain's place wdio had never been 
commissioned. But, in spite of the Senate 
'* tabling" him, he was kept there by the Secretary, 
while Capt. Smith, a "retired" officer, was of 
necessity at the head of two bureaus at the time. 



K; 




THE AMERICAN NAVY. 



289 



-y, there 

can be 

jcd uiid- 

Dobbin 
wo hun- 
lio inqui- 
ollicors ; 
•each cry, 
i eternal 
lor, pre- 

so ripe, 
nination, 

listration 

a cap- 

lead of a 

Koszta 

ernmcnt 

appoint 

ver been 

Senate 

ecretary, 

was of 

) time. .? 



Thus we discover that the navy has been so bereft 
of its orif]!:inal strength as to be without a ((ualified 
captain to fill the post, not excepting tlie notable 
Shubrick, respecting whom, as president of the 
immortal ** Council of Fifteen," it is proper, 
Americans, you should know more. 

He, with McCauley, also a member of the board, 
was declared guilty of insubordination by the offi- 
cers of the Mediterranean squadron, in 1817, who 
memorialized Commodore Chauncey to cause their 
removal from the serAice. Commanders Crane, 
Creighton, Rogers, Gamble, and Nicholson, signed 
this memorial ; and it stands without mutilation still 
upon the records of the department. They state 
that Shubrick and McCauley had incited contempt 
for the service and discipline of the navy, its repu- 
tation, order, and good government ; that they held 
secret meetings to create disaffection, and went so 
far as to threaten Congress that if their imaginary 
grievances were not redressed by that tribunal, they 
Avould resort to arms for their own protection ! — 
that no reliance, for these reasons, could be placed 
upon the fidelity of Shubrick and McCauley, in the 
service of their country, while they had forfeited 
all claim to their confidence, and endangered, by 
25* 



> 



' ir 



FY'^ 



I 



i 



III 




I i'^'" 



290 



THE AMERICAN NAVY. 



tlioir cxiunpl;jj the vessels iiitriisted to their 
charge. ... 

After the war closed with England, in 1814, it 
was decided to phice an American sc^nadron in the 
sight of Europe. This squadron was sent, properly 
equipped, to the Mediterranean, under the coninuind 
of Commodore Chauncey, eminent as a disciplin- 
arian. Shubrick and McCauley were then attached 
to the ship of Capt. Oliver Perry, of that squad- 
ron ; who, ambitious of having it perfect in all its 
appointments, exercised also increased discipline 
among the lieutenants and other subordinates. 
Heath, a man belonging to the marine corps, was 
among these ; and, in a braggadocio spirit, showed 
resentment for himself and associates, by di? 'espect- 
ful and insubordinate language to Capt. Perry, 
in his cabin, who, high-toned and high-spirited, 
knocked the marine officer down, and afterwards 
confined him. He soon saw, however, that he had 
committed a military offence, and magnanimously 
offered, through a friend, to make reparation by an 
apology to Heath. ' 

The terms proposed in this apology by Heath and 
his comrades were not honorable ; and Capt. Perry, 
waiving his rank, consented to receive his propo- 



THE AMERICAN NAVY. 



291 



sitlon to ri<3^ht hiui. J loath bucked out. Sluibrick 
and McCaulcy wore tlic instigjitors of IFoath. 

Whoii the S([ujnln)n rotiiniod to tho United States, 
C'apt. Perry stated all the eircunistaiiees to the Presi- 
dent, Seeretary of the Navy, and Connnodores Rog- 
ers, Decatur, and Porter, and oflered to submit to 
trial, or any other punislunont tlioy might sec fit to 
inflict. The President and Secretary submitted the 
matter to Commodore Porter, who, in view of Capt. 
Perry's honorable action in the promises, decided it 
settled, and advised that Shulirick, McCaulcy, and 
other officers of he squadron, who were guilty of 
this insubordination, be reprimanded ; which was 
done, by Commodore Chauncey. 

Hence we see the provocation fcr the insubordi- 
nate conduct of Shubrick and McCaulcy, and which 
was so outrageous as to oblige the distinguished 
officers of the squadron to ask for their dismissal 
from the service. This board have dropped from 
the navy Capt. John Chauncey, the son of the 
commodore, an 1 laid aside the sons of Commodores 
Perry and Porter, — a singular coincidence, and 
worthy of comment. 

But this is not the only instance in which Shu- 
brick has show^n that no cheerful submission engaged 



;f 



;i 



/*>" 

l^ 



292 



THE AMERICAN NAVY. 



1 






J'V 




his affections to the government. In 1847, he be- 
trayed the same spirit at the expense of his patriot- 
ism, lie was ordered to the Pacific squadron by 
the Secretary of the Navy, to be under the com- 
mand of Biddle, on joining him at that station. 
Two months after reaching Mexico, he asked leave 
to return to the United States, before Biddle had 
even received the information from the department. 
This was at an important crisis in the war, and we 
needed more material and power to meet the enemy 
than could then be concentrated ; yet he noi only 
insisted that the Columbus was not needed, but actu- 
ally directed all his influence to prevent the Sara- 
toga from uniting with the squadron ; and in sight 
of the enemy, in time of w^ar, commanding a gal- 
lant and well-manned squadron, was anxious to 
desert the national flag and return home, at a mo- 
ment of doubt and peril in his country's history. 
This w^as not enough. He demanded that a frigate 
of the squadron should have the distinguished honor 
of shipping him back to the United States. The 
reason was, as he confessed, that the Secretary of 
the Navy had dampeci his ardor by disappointment, 
and had acted in an uncandid manner. Hence, to 



Mil* 



THE AMERICAN NAVY. 



293 



t7, he be- 
is patriot- 
uadron by 
the com- 
t station. 
;ked leave 
idclle had 
partment. 
r, and we 
he enemy 
) noi only 
but actu- 
the Sara- 
in sight 
g a gal- 
ixious to 
at a mo- 
history, 
a frigate 
led honor 
s. The 
retary of 
(intment, 
lence, to 



gratify his personal revenge, he was ready to sacri- 
fice his country's glory. . 

Was this the conduct for a military man ? Was 
this the conduct of a servant of that government 
Avhich had constituted the Secretary his superior in 
authority? In the Brazilian squadron, 28th Oct., 
1846, Shubrick also acted in violation of the 
Secretary's orders, by writing a Jesuitical letter to 
the commander of that station, which induced him 
to send the Saratoga, bound to the Pacific under 
governmen;. orders, back to Norfolk for repairs, 
although jflicers stood ready to take her to that 
destination. 

He is afterwards found claiming fresh laurels on 
the Pacific, in the taking of Mazatlan and Guaymas. 
The latter was taken by Capt. Laval ette, and not 
even by orders of Shubrick ; while he represented 
Mazatlan as taken by superior force. Now, it is 
well known, that Lieut. Halleck and two American 
men took it without resistance, and raised our 
stars and stripes ; and when ninety men did 
attempt, under Lieut. Selden, to march into the 
interior, the most of Shubrick's men ran at the 
first fire of the enemy, except one who was shot. 
Selden was wounded, and seventeen men killed, 



294 



THE AMERICAN NAVY. 






I 



f.„ ,. 




before the forces from Shubrick's ship, the Inde- 
pendence, were rallied by their officers, and came 
back. Selden is now a victim of the board. 
Ileywood distinguished himself, with his gallant 
band of modern Sanduskijs, at San Jose, and 
won a niche in the temple of fame equal to 
Croghan and Stevens, who, when all others had 
fallen by his side, stood firm to the guns. He is 
broken by this hero of peace, Shubrick, and his 
brothers, Stanley, Lewis, &c. &c., share no better 
fate. Why ? Because they fought the enemy, in 
spite of Shubrick's non-resistance ! 



h. • 







■ : • • V ' ' ' 



I ■ ■ • . 



.!• 



■iW 



CHAPTER II 



Now, remembering that Shubrick is the man who 
has spent thirty-two years of his life in land activ- 
ity, we proceed to his confederate in the 1)oard, 
Stribling. He has written a letter recently in 
laudation of himself, in which he has committed 
robbery upon the dead. He stated that he com- 
manded the barges "Mosquito" and " Gallinipper," 
in the West Indies, in 1823 ; that he attacked and 
captured the " Catalina," under command of the 
famous Diaboleto, wdiom he killed with his own 
hand, thereby ending the piratical war. 

Now, Stribling had no more to do with that 
engagement than he had with the discovery of 
America. It Avas the brave achievement of Lieut. 
Wm. II. Watson, who, with but twenty-six men, 
effected almost the total destruction of a crew of 
seventy or eighty, without the loss of a single 
American. This gallant act is modestly set forth 
in his despatches to Commodore Porter, who com- 



i\ 



m 



296 



THE AMERICAN NAVY. 



m 



m 



IK-.- 



(It 



■•* 



N*,.. 



m 



■ Jii I' 

■■'4 ' 



mends them to the department, and asks for Wat- 
son's promotion in the service. *' 

Stribling, in the previous April, did take a small 
scliooncr Pilot, in which his official report stated 
that one man v>- as found dead, and that several were 
supposed to be wounded ; but he did not think it 
prudent to pursue them. He had, too, double their 
number of men ; but he spoke with some horror 
of their amount of deadly weapons, especially of a 
*' double fortified six-pounder," — quite an anomaly 
in modern warfare. 

And now, when Watson's nephew writes to Capt. 
Stribling, in defence of his uncle's reputation, 
Stribling replies that he only wrote from memory. 
A remarkably defective organ, surely, and should 
not, therefore, have been relied upon for data ; 
particularly when it could have been so easily re- 
freshed by the records at hand. It will take more 
credulity than Americans possess to convince them 
that memory had anything to do with the matter. - 

This is the same gentleman who, instead of hav- 
ing the San Jacinto in readiness to repel the enemy 
in the West India seas, in 1855, when she was sent 
to Cuba to protect the American flag, brought her 



'• • 



fii-*-- 




THE AMERICAN NAVY. 



297 



back to New York in a worse condition than any 
ship ever before in the service of the government. 

Dupont, like Stribling and Shubrick, has also 
elaborated his glory on paper. lie states that he 
killed many hardy Mexicans in California, in the 
battle of San Jose, the only ivcrlike engagement 
in which he ever participated in his life ! But 
Lieut. Hey wood, who came to his assistance and 
rescued him, says not one was killed. Lieut. 
Heywood was left in Southern California by Shu- 
brick, with but eighteen or twenty men, without 
the means of subsistence, and surrounded by the 
enemy, without the possibility of succor within a 
hundred miles. But for a whaling-ship, he and 
his brave comrade Stevens would have perished 
from famine. Stevens, whose gallant conduct has 
had so much eulogy, has been dropped from the 
service. ' 

Dupont, Godon, Pendegrast and Missroon, 
were the four of the board who had been long 
styled ** mutineers " in the navy. When the Sec- 
retary of the Navy sent them back to the Mediter- 
ranean squadron, and Commodore Hull had, by 
his orders, reprimanded them for their bad conduct, 
he was afterwards obliged to write to Dupont and 
26 



V'J 



■ i. ■;''■- 



li^ 



I 



298 



THE AMEKICAN NAVY. 



1^'^ , 







^j" 
' ^ I 



his confederates, Goclon, Pendegrast, and Miss- 
roon, that one of three things he should do : either 
to dismantle the ship and shut her up in a Spanish 
port until lieutenants could be procured from the 
United States fit to restore her to her position ; to 
take them to sea, with all their disrespect, discon- 
tent, and disaftection, and trust to better things ; 
or, to make then such changes as his means would 
allow. " Who can go into battle," said he, *' with 
confidence, surrounded by disaffected officers ? 
Who, of those ordered to the ship as her sea-lieu- 
tenants, can I confide in ? " 

On the 21st of March, 1841, Commodore Hull 
wrote to the Secretary of the Navy that " Dupont 
was the leader of the difficulty on the Ohio ; and 
that the pernicious influence he exercised had 
effected more serious injury to the service than 
he could ever repair." Commodore Hull specified 
acts, made definite charges of the official miscon- 
duct of these four men ; and, to the close of his 
life, he expressed regret that they were ever re- 
turned to the Mediterranean, when they merited 
the severest punishment known to the service. ' • 

Dupont was the author of that remarkable arti- 
cle which appeared in the National Intelligencer 



THE AMERICAN NAVY. 



299 



on the 21st of May^ 1855, and foreshadowed the 
action of himself and conirados, in the following 
June. Mr. Seaton> the respected editor, is suffi- 
cient authority for this fact. Commodore Skinner, 
on ascertaining from him that Dupont had asked its 
publication, carried it to the office, and was respon- 
sible for its sentiments, informed the Secretary of 
the Navy, without delay ; and told him that in 
that article Dupont had insulted every captain in 
the navy. The Secretary, instead of doing his 
duty, as an upright ofl&cer would have done, and 
keeping Dupont out of the board, to which place 
he had already assigned him, kept him in it, with 
this evidence, in all its baseness^ right before him. 
There is every reason to believe, as we do, that 
the Secretary had seen the article before it was 
printed. 

Dupont acted, in defiance of authority, under 
Captain, now Commodore Smith, of the navy ; and, 
according to the Secretary, was one of the *' cabal* ' 
in this ship, to create disaffection and dissatisfac- 
tion at the accommodations assigned him by orders 
of the department. And he indignantly rejected 
other apartments when tendered to him through 
Capt. Smith, who says, in his official letter to 



300 



THE AMERICAN NAVY. 



la,:'' 




i:f'^\m 





il 




Hull, ** the true military course for me would 
hava been to have compelled him," &c. 

From the time of the difficulty in the Mediterra- 
nean scjuadron, under Hull, Dupont and his asso- 
ciates have zealously labored for the passage of 
just such a law by Congress as was obtained at 
the last session. 

No one of the four mutineers, Godon, Dupont, 
Missroon, or Pendegrast, of Hull's ship, could 
have been induced to have entered that board 
alone ; they had not the individual courage to 
carry out the plan they had devised. It required 
the collective courage of all four to support each 
other in their dark actings. As Dupont said in 
his article on the 21st of May, '' the sharper appe- 
tites of juniors whose interest would coincide with 
their duty.'' 

Not long since, a board composed of Commo- 
dores Morris, Shubrick, Skinner, and Dupont, 
were constituted to prepare a code for the better 
government of the navy. Du]^ont seems to have 
appropriated the whole of that duty pretty much 
to himself, according to the confessions of his asso- 
ciates. The work was referred to the Attorney 
General, by the Secretary of the Navy, for his 



THE AMERICAN NAVY. 



801 



legal opinion ; and ho docidod it **null and void,'* 
having transcended its rightful jurisdiction. This, 
too, after a cost of many thousand dollars to the 
government. 

The thirty-fifth regulation of this code deserves 
conmient, from the fact that it had singular signifi- 
cance upon the council of "fifteen." It forbade 
the court to receive evidence of the previous good 
character and former services of the accused in 
mitigation of the punishment to he awarded, while 
it allowed evidence of previous had character to be 
adduced. The board acted on this principle : it 
received and entertained every accusation, and ad- 
mitted no evidence, however abundant, in defence 
of the accused. It ransacked the shelves of the 
department for musty old documents, from which 
they hoped to find charges against those they had 
already condemned ; and, according to Shubrick's 
statement, they made /rcc use of these. They used 
its archives to abuse the government. When the 
country loses its true men, what else is there to 
save? 

Hence, Dupont's system, after being pronounced 
in derogation of the powers of Congress, still made 
shining marks for it§ full efficacy in the operations 

26^' 



U 



i : 




1. t 




302 



THE AMERICAN NAVY. 



of the council of fifteen. During the cruise of the 
Delaware, coninijuuled hy Coiiunodore Hull, Lieut. 
Boyle was nttached, with Dupont, Barron, and 
Godon. At nii(hii<iht, when Boyle retired from 
the watch, Dupont took her deck. The foreyard 
and all her sails were soon carried away. Boyle 
was called, and found Dupont agitated and con- 
fused. He put the ^hip in trim, and she went on 
her cruising-ground. Here were three members 
of the board present ; but Boyle alone proved him- 
self an officer. This efficient man is now laid aside, 
a victim of the veiy men w^ho had proved them- 
selves incompetent in the service. 

Some time after, Dupont was placed in command 
of the ** Perry," for the East India squadron. He 
reported himself sick, on reaching Rio de Janeiro, 
of a chronic disease, and came home. Lieut. 
Ringold, also, once suffered from disease ; and, 
although he had recovered, in the opiniorx of medi- 
cal men, it was, in Dupont's judgment, a valid 
reason for putting him upon the shelf. 

The gravest charges are on file in the depart- 
ment against Pendegrast, preferred by Lieut. May, 
February 13th, 1S54. He complains of the in- 
efficiency of Pendegrast in eveiy particular. That 



THE AMERICAN NAVY. 



303 



ic of the 
, Lieut, 
on, and 
ed from 
foreyard 
Boyle 
ind con- 
went on 
members 
^ed him- 
id aside, 
d them- 

ommand 
n. He 
I Janeiro, 
Lieut. 
; and, 
f medi- 
a valid 

|depart- 

:. May, 

the in- 

That 



at the very moment when the dirTiculties growing 
out of our aftairs v/ith Cuba rendered the Saranac 
liable to a naval engagement, she was wholly un- 
fitted for fighting. Iler guns even had not been 
exercised but once in six months ; and they never 
mustered at fire stations, one single time, until the 
officers of the ship had been alarmed by fire, seven 
months after sailing. And, w^ith this unprecedented 
and culpable neglect, being indifferent to the con- 
dition and efficiency of the ship, he sailed from 
Pensacola to San Juan de Nicaragua, to investigate 
the difficulty with the Prometheus, which was for- 
tunately settled without an exposure of the ship's 
inefficiency. 

Pendegrast has never been tried upon the charges, 
and they stand on the record disproved. Lieut. 
May is an officer of character and reputation, and 
is retained on the active list. 

With these facts before him, the Secretary of the 
Navy, instead of acting under a high sense of official 
responsibility, and bringing Pendegrast to trial, 
and punishing him, if the facts were sustained, saw 
fit, with all the guilt upon him, to give him a seat 
in the " Navy Retiring Board," while officers have 
beeft dismissed or disrated in the nav^ , who have 



(■. 



I ; 



! 1- 



''A, 



% 



304 



THE AMERICAN NAVY. 



received swords and medals as the grateful appre- 
ciation of Congress for their fidelity and zeal in tlie 
service of the country. 

Misroon, also a member of the inquisitorial 
council, has made misstatements under oath, before 
the naval committee, in reference to Lieut. Bartlett; 
and, with the complicity of Dupont, this valuable 
officer has been degraded in the service. Lieut. 
Bartlett, who had been detailed for active duty at 
the time of this infliction, was the first to introduce 
the great temperance reform in the navy, and was 
covered with eulogium for efficiency in duty by 
every distinguished official of the government with 
whom he has been connected. 




^5 i 



; K 



..:.,,- f. 



Am 



ul appro- 
}al in the 



[uisitorial 
th, before 
Bartlctt ; 

valuable 
. Lieut, 
e duty at 
introduce 
, and was 

duty by 
nent with 



1 i' 



';. K 



i. 



■* si* J- 4 M 



CHAPTER III. 

And now with what dilTercnt emotions can wc, 
Americans, recur to the name of Commodore Perry, 
though he is found among the list of that board of 
** fifteen"! There is a moral sublimity in the 
defiant and manly manner with which he has, in the 
frankness and candor becoming a gallant officer of 
the navy, disclaimed to other officers, both in and 
out of the navy, all participation or sympathy with 
the proceedings. ** I wash my hands forever of 
the conduct, proceedings, and action, of the Navy 
Retiring Board," was the language of Commodore 
Perry to a prominent officer of the navy. Perry's 
achievements in the Mexican w^ar, which rivalled 
those of his distinguished brother on Lake Erie, 
command our praise ; his Japan Expedition, in 
which he effected a treaty with that nation, whose 
ports, for more than a century, had been sealed to 
all but the Chinese and Dutch, commands our 
praise ; but the moral and physical bravery which 






I 



^^'^l^: 



^.''^'^* 
|-"*,\,?*^^ 



306 



THE AMERICAN NAVY. 



he has displayed on this occasion challenges the 
gratitude, as well as admiration, of all honorable 
men and women ; and the press everywhere com- 
mends the magnanimity, while the people, appre- 
ciating his merit, gladly take him out of thio l:\qui- 
sitorial council, to reserve him for higher honors at 
their own hands. 

Commodore Perry's own son was put out of the 
navy by that board. Since its action became his- 
^ tory, it is astonishing to learn how its members 
threaten and defy otficers to breathe suspicion 
against its exactions, lest they who are laid aside 
be dropped altogether. And Shubrick, we learn 
from reliable authority, wrote to Commodore Perry 
to know whether he had not severely censured the 
board. Perry replied very briefly as to his ques- 
tion, but denied the right of the hero of Mazatlan, 
Guaymas, and Craney Island, to inquire into his 
private conversation with gentlemen. Biddle, too. 
Perry's junior, the hater of science and learning, 
as his letter to Lieut. Maury shows, writes to the 
same import as Shubrick, when Commodore Perry 
despatches that gentleman by saying he wished no 
further correspondence with him. And the subse- 
quent silence of Mr. Slidell, the relative of Com- 




THE AMERICAN NAVY. 



307 



iges the 
Lonorable 
;re com- 
;, appre- 
lib l:\qui- 
[lonors at 

Lit of the 
ame his- 
members 
suspicion 
aid aside 
we learn 
re Perry 
ured the 
is ques- 
azathm , 
into his 
die, too, 
earning, 
s to the 
[e Perry 
ished no 
subse- 
)f Com- 



modore Perry, after he came to New York and 
conversed with Perry, furnishes the true version of 
the case in the United States Senate. 

We are tohl that dismissed and disrated uOicers 
are not suitable to represent their own cases. That 
men, whose reputation and honor liave been deeply 
wounded, deprived of their living, and prevented at 
the same time from embarking in any other pur- 
suit, are not to be believed. Americans, we all 
know very well that such doctrine as this is polit- 
ical heresy of the vilest character. It is anti- 
American, anti-republican, and only fit to emanate 
from an emperor or autocrat. 

These men, free from the obligations of oaths or 
conscience, have, under the direction and conniv- 
ance of the Secretary of the Navy, tried their supe- 
riors, and exercised upon them their hate or their 
love, irresponsible to law, and in violation of the 
constitution. The President acted as they willed 
and directed. He endorsed the action of that 
board with as much zest as he did the contemptible 
action of Ilollins upon the people of Grey town. 
And the redress that can be had from him you can 
very well decide. Never before have the rights of 




list'.; 




}M 



308 



THE AMERICAN NAVY, 



our citizens been so hazarded by public men, who 
indubit.ibly proved that they were not to be trusted. 

The family rehition that board sustained was 
another odious influence in its clumsy mtinoeuvring. 
The promment actors w^re either connected by 
blood or marriage, and took excellent care to dis- 
tribute the spoils through their own social circle. 

Formrdy three years were regarded as the 
shortest cruise for an efficient officer in command. 
Recently three officers have been appoir^ted in six 
months to a single ship • — a beautiful comment 
upon the efficiency of the service. Capt. Latimer, 
confessedly one of the most accomplished officers in 
the service, has had applications for sea duty con- 
stantly before the department. The highest among 
his peers declare him unrivalled in all the duties of 
the profession to which he has been devoted from 
early life, and say that his ship w^as ever equal to 
any emergency that could arise. lie has been 
neglected and disrated, to give place to incompe- 
tent men, and the blow was struck by Stribling and 
Pendegrast, who are eminently notorious for want 
of discipline and efficiency. Capt. Latimer was 
never known to ask to be relieved from duty, but 
always for it ; and upwards of twenty- eight years of 



HI i« % 



THE AMERICAN NAVY. 



S09 



?. men, who 
be trusted, 
itained was 
cinoeuvring. 
nnected by 
care to dis- 
al circle, 
ed as the 
command, 
^xted in six 
d comment 
)t. Latimer, 
d officers in 
duty con- 
hest among 
e duties of 
oted from 
r equal to 
has been 
incompe- 
['ibling and 
for want 
Itimer was 
duty, but 
t years of 



active employment are replete with the richest 
memorials of his distinguished ability. 

Capt. John 11. Graham, now '* furloughed,*' 
served in the memorable battle of Black Rock, 
opposite the enemy's frontier, in 1812. He was 
wounded in the leg while entering the burning 
barracks, and Ava? saved by a sailor, who threw 
young Graham upon his shoulder, and carried him 
across the river, while his clothes actually froze to 
the boat. Nine of the twelve naval officers were 
killed and wounded. Gen. Porter, in his report 
of that battle,, says : ''If bravery be a virtue, — 
if the gratitude of the country be due to those 
who gallantly and desperately asserted its rights, 
— the government will make ample and honorable 
provision for the heirs of those brave tars who fell 
on this occasion, as w^ell as for those who survived." 
Graham afterwards fought gloriously, upon his cork 
leg, at the battle of Lake Champlain. 

Capt. Wm. Inman, retired, is also eminent for 
efficiency in the navy, and rigid in his exactions 
of duty. 

Lieut. Gibson, the executive officer of the St. 
Louis, was nearly paralyzed by this unexpected 
blow of the board. He had seen about as much 

27 



4*- 



310 



THE AMERICAN NAVY. 




i' 1 



I ' 1 




I ! 



sea service as Shubrick, the president of the 
board, though born after he entered the service ; 
and more than twenty-six post-captains, and 
seventy-nine of the commanders, had seen, who 
are retained on the active list. >--,;« 

Lieut. Brownell, who fought through the war of 
1812, axid was seven times victorious in engage- 
ments with the enemy, has had a like fate. 

There is one other case — that of Capt. Uriah 
P. Levy — to W'hich w^e must advert, as it is one 
of the most scandalous outrages in connection with 
the action of the Navy Eetiring Board, and de- 
serves the severest reprehension from every Ameri- 
can citizen. As a reformer in the service, Capt. 
Levy deserves the gratitude of his country, and of 
humanity. He is the father of the system abolish- 
ing flogging in the navy ; and through him that 
inhuman barbarity, which so long disgraced its 
annals, has been made to yield to reason and moral 
suasion. 

This act was in consonance with American lib- 
erty, and with the progress and intelligence which 
belong to a free people. Without resort to that 
antediluvian means of enforcing disQipline, Levy's 
ship was eminent for its order, neatness, and efi&- 



'•'.■'*' 



THE AivIERICAN NAVY. 



311 



)nt of the 

he service ; 

tains, and 

seen, who 

the war of 
in engage- 
ate. 

Japt. Uriah 
IS it is one 
lection with 
L'cl, and de- 
rcry Ameri- 
rvice, Capt. 
try, and of 
em abolish- 
h him that 
|sgraced its 
and moral 

lerican lib- 

jnce which 

)rt to that 

Ine, Levy's 

, and eflBi- 



ciency to duty ; and when the Vandalia returned 
to the United States, after a long and perilous 
cruise in the Gulf of Mexico, in 1840, it was the 
boast of its crew that there had been less personal 
chastisement in the whole cruise than the records 
of any other ship of war ever had in a single 
month ; and, w^hile seamen were deserting Shu- 
brick's and other ships, Commander Levy found 
no difficulty in retaining those under his control, 
simply because he respected character, and did not 
lose sight of the fact that he was dealing with 
American men. The Secretary of the Navy, then, 
was so gratified by this first essay of Commander 
Levy towards reform, that he ordered quarterly 
returns to be made to the department by all the 
navy, upon the principle adopted by Levy for the 
abolition of the "cat" and *' colt." 

Capt. Levy — whose biography is given else- 
where in this volume — is also distinguished as 
being the first to enforce upon his ship religious 
duty, without the aid of a chaplain, by instituting 
the custom of reading the Old and New Testament 
of our blessed Lord. Time would fail, to refer to 
all the patriotic and gallant men who have thus 
been outraged. 




312 



THE AMERICAN NAVY. 



'.« •( 





"What relief can be procured for the suffering 
ffimilies of those officers who have been reduced to 
want by the action of the President of the United 
States, the Secretary of the Navy, and the Navy 
Board ? > , i 

Another serious fjucstion is presented in rehition 
to this matter : What is to be done for the inno- 
cent wives and children of some forty-eight dis- 
missed officers, who are reduced to penury ? What 
for those fifty lieutenants and masters, who, Avith 
six hundred dollars, and three hundred and seventy- 
five doUars, per annum, are left with large and 
helpless househohls depending on their mainte- 
nance, and without means of other employment ? 
What for those brave men who have served their 
country thirty, forty, and fifty long years ? Is 
there no arm of mercy to rcacli their impoverished 
and stricken homes ? Will not the people hear 
their cry for justice ? " W^ill they not flee to their 
succor? Will the American nation sufter snch 
injustice ? Can AmericKus hear, without lively 
indigaation, that such oppression has been inflicted 
upon the naval chivalry of the country ? 

Will Americans believe that two hundred and 
one " skulks " have been dropped or disrated from 



THE AMERICAN NAVY. 



313 



e suffer in g 
reduced to 
the United 

[ the Navy 

. in rehition 

ir the inno- 

-eight dis- 

ry? What 

, ^vho, with 

nd seventy- 

i hirge and 

}ir m.'dnte- 

ipk)ynicnt ? 

Icrved their 

years ? Is 

poverished 

eople hear 

e to their 

uf!er such 

out lively 

n inflicted 

Indred and 
:ated from 



the navy, as the ** wise reformer," Mr. Secretary 
Dobbin, has been pleased to call these officers ? 

The law was really a govei'ninent hill, and the 
board was designed by Congress to protect their 
brother officers, — to act as a conservative body 
between them and the President, who was to inflict 
the degradation. The board, therefore, instead of 
performing the trust assigned by Congress, and 
shielding their brothers from unmerited disgrace, 
became the subservient tools of the Secretary of 
the Navy, who, like themselves, was a relentless 
persecutor, and who, to carry out his own caprice, 
adopted their views, and ordered the sittings tc be 
secret, in defiance of every principle of jusace and 
law. 

• Without complaint, it had long been known that 
the '* board" had, by intrigue, sought and ob- 
tained more favors, more full pay, more pay for 
extra service, than all the victims they have made 
ever did together. But they still wanted " more ; " 
and, to obtain their end, they took the places of 
their modest, meritorious seniors. Intoxicated 
with this power, they forgot their country, to make 
a navy to suit themselves. 

The authority to remove military men, even by 
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THE AMERICAN NAVY. 



the President, is a very delicate and dangerous 
exercise. It is rarely necessary to do so, particu- 
larly in the navy, without impartial trial, and a 
formal finding of a court-martial. Unlike the civil 
service, there are always others ready to discharge 
the duty temporarily. But, more than this, the pro- 
fes on I naval officer is the business of his entire 
life, onsiiiored and adopted as an honorable tenure 
in the service .>f his country, and secured by law. 

Dismission always implies disgrace, which is, in 
the judgmont of all sensible men, greater by arbi- 
trary decision than when flagrant wrong, by a fair 
trial, has proved the necessity for such sentence ; 
and in this act not only have officers been subjected 
to an arbitrary and tyrannical action, but have also 
had it inflicted, in many instances, by juniors and 
inferiors in the service. 

The precipitate and feeble conduct of President 
Pierce, devoid of dignity, discretion, or justice, in 
confirming the sentence of unmerited disgrace upon 
American officers, of whom he knew nothing, and 
was without the means of being correctly informed, 
ought to servo as a solemn warning to this people. 
Neither Congress, who passed the law, nor the 
President, nor the Secretary of the Navy, were 



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THE AMERICAN NAVY. 



315 



imbued with that military and national pride which 
belong to those educated in the navy of their coun- 
try, whom they have ingloriously set aside. And 
thus have consequences arisen, I'rom the conduct 
of civilians, which must fire the spirit of every 
patriot in the land, especially wluai the nation 
takes into consideration the further proof of the 
efficiency and worthiness of these oflicers, which 
time will soon develop, and who . Justice shall 
have vindicated and restored to tl )ir ','hts, when 
the people shall have made an A. cc'i:a?i President. 
A chief magistrate is needed wL^ can comprehend 
the wrong in a national as well as individual char- 
acter, and will consider it an imperious duty to afford 
these two hundred and one officers all the protection 
and redress which lie within the compass of the 
constitution and law\s. That man is Millard Fill- 
more. 

It may be well to remark that all these officers, 
endorsed and approved by Commodore Perry, be- 
came victims of the board. 

Suppose, Americans, you should go to the 
department at Washington, and look into the records 
for charges against those officers now promoted in 
the service, we tell you that you could find them. 



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THE AMEillCAN NAVV. 



And, while we cast no reflections upon any of these 
government oflicials, and wish to see thcni all ele- 
vated to distinction in the service of their country, 
we say, fearlessly, that there are many officers re- 
tiiined a)id promoted, who, if the records be true, 
are much more entitled, by every consideration of 
justice, to the same sentence which has been passed 
upon their more unfortunate brothers in the service. 




CHAPTER IV. 



The question also arises, wliy it was that such 
officers as Capt. Wilkes, who had seen no duty 
afloat for twenty-eight years, and had already had 
fifty or sixty thousand dollars from liie government 
for his contributions to science, should be re- 
tained on the active list by the board, when Lieut. 
Maury was retired because he had seen so little sea 
service. It was possibly allowed by Biddlc as a 
monument of mercy to learning ; but more proba- 
bly for some personal predilection, which did not 
operate in the cases of other scientific officers. 

When it is remembered with how nmch difficulty, 
and at what dear pecuniary cost, many of these offi- 
cers procured tlieir original connnissions in the navy 
of their country, the present case will seem pecu- 
liarly appalling. The hard earnings of their parents, 
the cost of years of sacrifice, deprivation, and toil, 
have been given, and given freely, to members of 
Congress, as a bonus for the midshipman's warrant. 










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THE AMERICAN NAVV. 



The pride of country, the desire of luimo in its 
service, for that son on whom Ihcy liiid fixed their 
hopes for distinction and exaltation, lias, in many 
instances, inihiced parents in onr land, in humble 
circumstances, to fore^-o comlbrt, and, oftentimes, 
the education of the other children, to minister to the 
grasping desire and cornii)t exactions of members of 
Congress, in order to obtain this boon for a meritori- 
ous s(m ; and which wouhl readily have been ten- 
dered, without soUcitation, to the wealthy and influ- 
ential of their districts, whose favor their selfish thirst 
for power and place would lead them to propitiate. 

How much benefit, how nuich relief, Avould this 
money now be to the suH'ering families of the coun- 
try reduced by the " Navy Retiring Board " ! Will 
not members of Congress, who voted blindly for the 
bill, feel it a moral duty, at least, to redress the 
rights of these officers now, if tlicy will not restore 
to them this unlawful pecuniary gain ? Let such 
remember that the condition upon wdiich the pur- 
chase-money was paid has been abrogated. The 
contract w^as for life, unless proved, by a fair trial, 
unworthy to serve under the national flag. 

A member of Congress from New York State 
was asked for his influence in behalf of a promising 



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THE AMERICAN NAVV. 



319 



young niJiii in advorso circuni.staneos. llo said (liat 
he would interpose if ho were paid five hundred 
dollars. The case thus hulked hopeless ; lor the ap- 
plicant was poor, and such a demand was too much 
to exact of his father. The matter was laid hef'ore 
the family circle for discussion, and decided favm- 
ahly for the son. The only five hundred dollars the 
father had in the worhl was paid this mend)er, who, 
pulling out the ])lank warnint from his pocket, 
where it was at the first interview, fdled it with 
the young man's name, and took his money. lie 
is now a victim of the executive vengeance. 

Has the remedy been provided by Congress to 
restore to healili this paralyzed arm of the public 
service ? It has not. The Senate passed a bill 
which gives these injured officers the benefit of a 
court of inquiry, wliich shall decide upon the action 
of the Navy Retiring Board ; and this court is to 
submit to the President of the United States its 
findings for his approval. If the sentence of the 
N; vy Board is decided to be unjust, the President 
can ivMiomiuate those dropped officers to the Senate 
for restoration, and place on the active list oSncers 
retired by the unjust proceeding of the board. Pi' 
a dropped ofiicer shall not be restored within oao 



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THE AMERICAN NAVV. 



year from the passage of the law, he shall be 
entitled to one year's pay of the grade to which he 
belonged. The President, also, is empowered by 
this act to transfer any furlonglicd oificcr to the re- 
served pay-list, and make him, as before, eligible 
to promotion. To the President, therefore, the 
power will be given, by and with the consent of the 
Senate, to restore, within one year after the act 
shall have become law, any dropped, retired, or fnr- 
loughed officer to the same grade he would have 
occupied had the Navy Board never had an exist- 
ence. 

The objection to this Senate act is, that it calls 
an officer to trial for mental, moral, or physical 
incompetency, upon unconstitutional grounds, after 
he has been convicted a^ d punished. It allows 
officers to submit to an investigation into their past 
lives, simply because a cabal of designing men saw 
fit, without the authority of law, and for private 
reasons, to destroy them, and then fill their places. 
But it has other advantages, which no high-toned 
officer should overlook. It will, if made a law of 
Congress, oblige that Navy Board to appear before 
the court of inquiry, and compel them to expose 
the reasons which influenced their individual action. 



THE AMERICAN NAVY. 



321 



In this point of view, we say, honorable men, who 
have nothing to fear from public scrutiny, would 
rejoice at the prospect of bringing tlieir ilefamers 
to trial. And, with an American President, like 
Fillmore, who will not dodge responsibility, the 
navy of the country would be reinstated, the honor 
of brave men vindicated, and some redress afforded 
for their past suffering. 

But, Americans, that Senate bill we believe to 
be a mere pretence, which never will be passed if the 
same influence continues to prevail in the House 
which did in the Senate. Why? Because its 
ostensible friends know it to be such. The Presi- 
dent has the same power noio to nominate that he 
would have after the passage of the act, — so said 
Mr. Mallory to Mr. Bell ; and who believes Mr. 
Pierce would stultify himself any more than he has 
done by nominating the very men he has con- 
demned ? Mr. Bocock, of the naval committee of 
the House of Representatives, is the pliant friend 
of Mr. Mallory and the board, and introduced the 
amendment to the Senate bill, to destroy the court 
of inquiry, by giving the President the power to 
nominate (which he already possessed), purposely 
to defeat its passage. He did it to protect the 

28 



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THE AIMERICAN NAVY. 



board from public exposure before the court of 
inquiry, and had ah-eady di^itinguished himself as 
the author of the clause in the law to drop officers. 

Mr. Mallory, the person who devised the deep 
and villanous scheme to destroy our American men, 
is a foreigner, a West Indian, and his wife is a 
Spanish woman. What a commentary upon our 
nationality, to have a foreigner come and exercise 
the privilege of tearing our navy to pieces, and 
adding to the weeping and wailing of this people, 
"who, four years ago, were laughing with national 
heartiness at the sure prospect of peace and prog- 
ress ! 

A navy that has had a Stewart, — the Nelson of 
the service, — a Decatur, a McDonough, a Law- 
rence, and a Perry, of Lake Erie memory ; a navy 
that for seventy years has braved the breeze in 
distant ^eas and in foreign climes, to be now over- 
slaughed under our own flag, and by a foreigner, 
is enough to make the nation ring. Are all our 
heroes dead? 

Another of the follies of the late Senate bill is 
the introduction of flag-captains, by Messrs. Mal- 
lory, Shubrick, & Co. Capt. Shubrick, the insti- 
gator, it is said, craves the admiralty, for which 



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THE AMERICAN NAVY. 



323 



L'lcun men, 



he is as unfit as he is unscrupulous in his eftbrts 
to obtain it. 

Shubiick, then, by his own act, put himself in 
the safe line of promotion ; and Commodore Morris' 
death has made him, Avith all his unfitness, heir 
apparent. Hence the ridiculous idea of the flag 
captaincy in the American navy. The material 
of our navy bears no comparison with that of other 
nations ; and this is the reform we need to exalt the 
nation, instead of ruining its personelle. We want a 
navy to progress with our country's growth, in the 
quality of our ships and efficiency of our men. 
For a whole year there was but one single ship 
bearing our national flag in the Baltic Sea, w^hile 
so much of our commerce needed to be protected. 
And, while our resources, properly managed, could 
make a navy to meet the world, we have but 
little improvement in naval construction in the last 
forty years. Why? Because the navy commis- 
sioners and navy bureaus have ruined the navy. 
These men, put in places which properly belong to 
civilians, have squandered millions of the nation's 
money, without benefiting the country or service 
in any sense whatever. Where is there any evi- 
dence of originality, any evidence of benefit, by 








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THE AMERICAN NAVT. 



the enormous outlays of these hureaus ? "We chal- 
lenge these men to point lC any improvement iu 
naval architecture originating with them. All the 
improvements of any importance have heen ob- 
tained from other nations ; and were the United 
States to go to war to-morrow, we should find our 
men-of-war thirty years behind the advancement 
of all otlier maritime nations. 

Thus, my countrymen, you have before you the 
history of the transactions of the Eetiring Navy 
Board, which, like a dark cloud, hang over the 
proud and gallant navy of your country^ which has 
reaped so many triumphant laurels, enkindled the 
fire of patriotism in the breasts of so many noble 
officers and aspiring youth, and spread the glory of 
her achievements and emulous prowess over the 
whole globe. The injustice, the stigma, of these 
transactions' will forev'^r blot the annals of Presi- 
dent Pierce's a<lministration ; because they are not 
for a day, but will go down, on the stream of time, 
to posterity, to tell the ignominious story of the late 
Navy Board, and to raise a blush on the cheek of 
our patriotic countrymen, who scorn such inglorious 
deeds, while, at the same time, they honor with 
increased estimation, and renewed plaudits of ap- 



L 



THE AMERICAN NAVV. 



325 



probation, the sufTering but noblc-hcartcd and high- 
minded victims of a false policy and a cruel oppres- 
sion. 



NoTR. — Tlic object of tlic anthov, in "writing tl»e chapter on the navy in 
tlie" Great American Battle," one of lier former publications, was to 
render some service to meritorious ofHcei's, who hatl l)een retired or dropped 
by the action (>f the late Naval Retiring Board. At that time she was not 
sufhciently acijuainted with the details of the suliject, and relied upon the 
information of officers whose zeal so far overcame their discretion as to 
lead her into several inaccuracies, Avhich she now takes pleasure in cor- 
recting, as she trusts, to the satisfaction of all parties concerned. 

At page 273, in the "Great American Batu-?," it is said the act of 
28th of Feb., 18-Jo, was attached to the appropriation bill, ami passed 
unobserved. It was a separate and independent bill, and not connected 
with any appropriation bill whatever. 

At page 284, Commodore Shubrick is represented as being at Coney 
Island. It should have read Crancy Island. 

At page 285, Commander Barron is said to have been sent home by 
Commodore Hull. He was never attached to tlie sh.Ip. 

Godon was never dismissed from the navy, lie was suspended under a 
court-martial, but the sentence Avas subse(iuently remitted under Presi I'.'ut 
Tyler. Nor had Godon any connection with the case of Capt. W. K lAif' ■ 
mer. It was, therefore, a mistake, that Latimer pi'eferrcd charges a^ inst 
Godon. It was done by the Secretary of the Nivy. 

At page277, Godou and Dupont are represented as Romanists. Thi:^ 
was a misrepresentation made to the author, and v ich she tinds, from 
credible evidence, to be untrue. 

There appears also to be a discrepancy in regari i to the statement of 
Commander Gerry's action towards Lieut. Riell, page 295. Commander 
Gerry's conduct, as a brave and gallant ofTicer, and a Inuuanc ajul Chris- 
tian gentleman, has been established to the entire - itisf iction of the author, 
both from ofhcial documents and the testimony o his brother officers, liigh 
in the naval service ; and she could not consent to do injustice to sucii a 
man, nor to forget the fitlier from whom he descended, — Hon. Klbridge 
Gerry, one of the immortal signers of the Peclaration of Independence. 

On the other hand, Lieut. Riell bears an exemplary chancter, and the 
letters from his associates upon the Albany, after his dismissal from that 

28* 



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THE AMERICAN NAVY. 



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ship, not only attest this fact, but also that he possessed all other requi- 
sites to tit him for cthciency to duty ; and the Secretary of the Navy 
says, in his oflioi.il letter of the 8th June, 1851, " I have no desire to pun- 
ish or censure you, but consider it best for yourself and the service that 
you should be detached from the AlV)any." And, privntclyy Mr. Dobbin 
adds, " Mr. lliell, T have perused the letters, and think you have cause to 
be gratified at tne kind expressions of friendship from your messmates." 




CAPTAIN LEVY, U. S. N. 



Capt. Uriah P. Levy, whose portrait appears at the 
head of the chapter on "The American Navy,'' and who is 
mentioned there as the author of the abolition of flogging, 
&c., in the service, presents a record so honorable to him- 
self and the country, that, in consideration of the high post 
he occupied, his case furnishes one of the strongest illustra- 
tions of the disreputable action of the Navy Retiring Board, 
and the executive of the country. He is to be remembered 
for the act of heroism at the dreadful tornado at North 
Inlet, South Carolina, in 1822, which, if he had done no 
other deed in a long life, would in itself have entitled him 
to the lasting gratitude of his country, and of everj^ friend 
of humanity. 

What are the facts ? It is one of the most memorable 
events of the age. The sea and river mingled into one. 
and swept off nine hundred souls, destroying houses and 
lands, and causing other damages which time cannot repair. 
Lieut. Levy, after saving the flimily of Mr. Colien, as their 
house was being washed away, by carrying the helpless 
females on his back to a place of safety, supposed he heard 
the cries of women in distress; and alone, in the dark hours 
of the night, he dashed into the hurricane, and between the 
heavy sea and floating timber, by which he was liable every 
moment to be crushed, he succeeded in reaching the spot in 
time to rescue from a watery grave Mr. Withers and his two 



328 



CAPTAIN LEVY, U. S. N. 



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servanta, whom he brought to the shore. For tiiis act of 
heroic dariiii;, hoiiorin,> ami eimoliliri;; to the cliiinicter of 
man, the fetsite of ISoulh Carolina gave liini a civic crown ; 
and tlio city of New V(»rk presented liiuiwith the '• freedom 
of the city " in an elegant goM Sox, — an honor never con- 
ferred but upon three otlier individu:ils, namely, General 
Andrew Jackson, Commodore Dectitur, and Martin A'ari 
Buren. 

Capt. Levy wag eminently distinguished, in the war of 
1812, for his services under the iiag of his country, and for 
his destruction of British property in the English Channel. 
He was taken prisoner of war by the British, and for two 
years retained as such in England. He is now the only sur- 
viving officer of the A/rjifs^ the ship commanded by the ever- 
lamented Capt. Wm. II. Allen, to which he belonged when 
taken prisoner. 

No officer of the navy has served his country in active 
sea-service for thirty-two years with more usefulness, zeal, 
or pride of national character. He has, like all great men 
in the military service, been ever proud of his rank, and 
tenacious of his rights. And when they were invaded he 
has asserted them as became an officer and a gallant man ; 
but honorably submitting to such infliction as the rules and 
regulations of the navy prescribe for the same. But no act 
or record of Capt. Levy's life has ever impugned his moral, 
mental, or physical efficiency. If it be asked, then, why has 
he excited the prejudices of many of ids associates, who, 
perhaps, have escaped all difficulties, and whose names are 
not enrolled upon the records of the department, we 
answer, because he is a man of mark, endowed by nature 
to improve upon the experience of the past : and, introducing 
salutary reforms in the service, he clashed with that largo 



j illil!;!! 



CAPTAIN LEVY, U. i?. N. 



329 



conservative class, Avho love their own ease, and allow no 
iuvasiou upon their own selfish enjuynionts. 

Twelve years iigo, Capt. Levy was tried for instituting 
lenient })unisiMnent in place of brutal treatment in the 
service, and the court-martial decided tliat he should be 
cashiered. When President Tyler was informed of it, ho 
pronounced the sentence to be disproportioned to the oflence, 
declared it unjust, and refused to allow its execution, upon 
the ground that such a precedent would involve every other 
officer who had departed from the rigid dif^cipline of the 
navy. He therefore commuted it to the loss of pay and 
emoluments for one year ; in which Capt. Levy cheerfully 
acquiesced. 

After this, Capt. Levy's nomination for post-captain was 
sent to the United States Senate. The opposition from 
without zealously labored to defeat him: and the Senate 
having a political majority to wiiich Levy was known to be 
opposed, there was every reason to expect his rejection. 
Then it was that Senator Bayard called for every record 
of the department concerning Lieut. Levy, from his first 
entrance into the navy; and his character underwent a 
strict scrutiny by senators for some weeks. What was the 
result? He was unnnimoiisly confirmed by that body; 
which was as glorious a vindication of his character, as great 
a triumph over designing men, as was ever given to man in 
this or any other country. 

Now, Americans, mark the action of the Navy Retiring 
Board ! Mr. Dobbin, the Secretary of the Navy, tells 
Capt. Levy, in his letter, that there arc- no diarges upon tiie 
record against him since he became a captain. The board, 
therefore, have tried Levy upon the very i<lentical charges 
for which he had already been tried, and dropped this noble, 



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CAPTAIN LEW, U. S. N. 



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gallant man for the same alleged offence for ^vliich ho had 
paid the penalty twelve years ago. 

Was there ever a more palpable, wilful effort to destroy 
an American citizen, thus to try him, in the very teeth of 
the constitutional prohibition, twice fur the same offence? 
0, shame, shame ! where is thy blush? 

There are on the records of the department not less than 
eighteen or nineteen applications for duty since Capt. Levy's 
promotion in the service, and one only a few months before 
he was dropped from tlie navy. When the famine prevailed 
in Ireland, ten years since, h^wy also offered to take the 
command of a shi}) to that country, and give all his emolu- 
ments for that duty to the cause of humanity. 

lie presented, at his own expense, to our government, the 
statue of Jeflcrson, in the President's grounds at Washing- 
ton, for which he hiul the thanks of Congress. And, to 
save the tomb of Jefferson from a second sale, he purchased 
Monticello, at the reciuest of President Jackson, and in Capt. 
Levy's possession it continues to remain, although frequently 
solicited to sell at more than double its cost. 

In the year 1833, Capt. Levy, then a lieutenant, at- 
tended, in his official capacity, a grand banquet at Paris, 
given by Americans, (li the Fourth of July. Among the 
distinguished guests .vere General Lafayette, Count de 
Moille, General Bernard, Mr. Harris, Charge de AfRiires, 
and Mr. Washington Irving, minister to Spain. When the 
third toast was given, " The President of the United States," 
Lieut. Levy proposed nine cheers, and almost every Ameri- 
can present refused to respond, and indicated the most 
marked displeasure, by groans and hisses. It so happened 
that one of the vice presidents was a glove-merchant of 
New York, and to him Levy threw the glove from his hand, 
as a challenge for personal satisfaction, next morning ; which 






: ■----_ -^-y-r.^-^-'JltgiaiiflJi 



CAPTAIN LEW, U. B. N, 



331 



which lio had 

►rt to destroy 
very teeth of 
nine offence? 

not less than 
} Capt. Levy's 
months before 
mine prevailed 
1 to take the 
all his emolu- 

)vernment, the 
iS at Wash ing- 
ress. And, to 

he purchased 
1, and in Capt. 

gh frequently 

lieutenant, at- 
uet at Paris, 

Among the 
;e, Count de 

de Affiiires, 
When the 

ited States," 
|every Ameri- 
;ed the most 

so happened 
Imerchant of 
•om his hand, 
irning; which 



being declined. Levy at once denounced him as a coward 
and poltroon, and continued to romonstiate against this 
national insult. We have seen several apologies from Amer- 
icans to Capt. Levy, who were also chalk'n;/(Ml for their act. 

Tiie next toast was the '' King of France," which was 
received by the company with enthusiasm. Gen. La- 
fayette then arose and proposed '-Old Hickory," but was 
immediately hissed down. Gen. Bernard then gave "The 
President of tlie United States;" this was also rejected. 
Mr. Harris now i)ro[)Osed tlie "llcio of New Orleans," 
but without better eft'ect, and the company dispersed. 

General Lafayette called to Levy to follow him, as he 
passed out. •' I will not leave," said the true American, 
"as long as there is a man here the size of my thumb." 
And he then arose and expressed his astonishment that 
citizens of the United States could so far forget themselves 
as to dishonor the head of their government al)road, no 
matter what might be their political prejudices. This exas- 
perated the Americans present, who proposed to tear off 
Lieut. Levy's epaulets, and throw him out of the window. 
But the gallant man, steadfast in defence of his nationality, 
defied that threat, and, rising in his place, uttered, as though 
to show his perfect coolness, the following quotation : 

" Como one, come all ! This rock shall fly 
From its firm base as soon as I ! " 

Mr. Washington Irving then addressed the company, and 
restored peace, when Lieut. Levy, after twice renewing the 
effort in vain to have the toast, " Andrew Jackson, Presi- 
dent of the United States," drank, took the bust of that 
great hero under his arm. and was the last man to leave the 
room. 

0, Americans, if the voice of Washington, Jefferson, 
Madison, and Jackson, could be heard to-day from their 



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tombs, tliey wouM sound their deep in<lignation through the 
land at the dishonor cast upon the man who has .'ver been 
true to the American thig. and stood firm in defence of the 
nation's honor and glory at liome and a1)road ! 

There are otlier instances in which Capt. Levy lias mani- 
fested the most sterling patriotism and the most exalted 
national pride in foreign lands. In the year 1838, he was 
in Lon«lun and invited to dine with the oldest naval club in 
En<i;land, hchm established in 1705, and including; amontj 
its members admirals, captains, and commanders. The 
occasion of the cntert;»inmcnt was to commemorate one of 
t leir most important naval victories, that of Rodney over 
he Grassc, on the 12th of April, 1782 ; and a very extraor- 
dinary interest was exhibited in the letter of Sir Jenkin 
Jones to have Capt. Levy participate ; and he o.Tcred him 
the attention of their mutual friend, Admiral Wormley, to 
accompany him to the Piazzas Coffee House, on the ap- 
pointed day. 

This highly flattering and complimentary invitation was 
declined by Capt. Levy, in an appropriate and dignified 
note, expressing his regret that a circumstance in its con- 
nection compelled him to forego the honor on that occasion, 
but would be happy to meet them when that impediment 
did not exist. Now, the cause of Capt. Levy's refusal was 
purely a national and patriotic one ; he remembered we had 
once a Revolutionary War, and that this very victory of Rod- 
ney's, which he was then invited to celebrate, was achieved 
over DeGrasse. who was assisting Americans in the vindica- 
tion of their independence. And Levy regarded too sacredly 
the honor of his country, to countenance an act which re- 
joiced over the defeat of one Avho had assisted it to freedom. 

How manv Americans would have declined so eminent a 
personal compliment from patriotic pride, as did this na- 



CAPTAIN LEVY, U. S. N. 



333 



on through the 
has .'ver been 
defence of the 

iiivy lius niani- 
( most exalted 
' 1888, he was 
t naval club in 
.'ludinjj amonfj 
nanders. The 
?morate one of 
f Rodney over 

I very cxtraor- 
of Sir Jenkin 
he oJered him 

I I Worm ley, to 
30, on the ap- 

invitation wag 
and dignified 
ice in its con- 
that occasion, 
t impediment 
's refusal was 
bered we had 
ictory of Rod- 
was achieved 
n the vindica- 
d too sacredly 
act which re- 
it to freedom, 
so eminent a 
did this na- 



tional man, who is now dishonored by the government of his 
couritry ? 

He subsequently met these Eiiglisii officers, by invitation, 
when a national monument to Lord Nelson, in Trafal;i:ar- 
sc^uare, London, was about being erected. Contributions 
were made to this object by all present, when, to their aston- 
ishment, the American ollicer, Levy, gave five guii:cai», 
which the chairman, Admiral Sir (Jeorge Cockburn, de- 
clared was alike com})limentary to the English service and 
the American captain. " AVliy should I not add my dona- 
tion to such an object? '' asked the chivalrous Levy. '• Was 
not Nelson admiral of all the seas, and a benefit to the ser- 
vice in all the world ? "' 

The correspondence, on the occasion to which we refer, 
the writer has seen, as well as the remarks of the EnfjUsk 
pjcss upon this international comi)liment Uy this accom- 
plished officer of the American navy, who understands, upon 
all occasions, at home or abroad, when, and how, to put 
honor upon the American flag. 

Why, O, why has he been so vitally injured by the Navy 
Board and the executive of the country? Because he 
opposed the institution of that board, and had earned the 
re[)utation of a salutary reformer in the navy, which they 
did not like. When first lieutenant of the Cyane, under 
command of Commodore Elliott, Lieut Levy was superin- 
tending the repairing of the ship tops, boats, and bowsprits, 
at the dock-yard of Ilio Janeiro. The Emperor Don Pedro, 
being constantly in the yard, fitting out his fleet, generally 
passed an hour or two in conversation with Lieut. Levy on 
naval affairs, and asked him if it was p.ut of the duty of a 
first lieutenant in the American service to be an engineer. 
Lieut. Levy replied, '• No, sir, but, having served an ap- 
prenticeship in the merchant service, where you are com- 

2y 



1 


ii 


! 








334 


CAPTAIN LEVY, U. S. N. 



h ■ 






1 -• n, 



pellcd to learn everything connected with a ship, I have 
this advantage over the oificers of the navy. Commodore 
Elliott, knowing this, requested me to superintend and 
direct these repairs." It was in conse(iuence of these qual- 
ifications that Lieut. Levy afterwards learned tlic emperor 
was so desirous of having him in his service. 

About this time the emperor's officers were pressing men 
to man his fleet, and had impressed an American seaman, 
who, on seeing the American officers and carpenters, claimed 
their protection ; thoy rushed on tlic soldiery with their 
axes, and Lieut. Levy arrived just in time to save the life 
of Midshipman Moors ; the only means of saving him wits 
by receiving on his ,own hand the blow intended for the 
head of Mr. Moors. Lieut. Levy's hand was broken by 
this act of Spartan daring and disinterested friendship. 

Some days after, to Lieut. Levy's astonishment, a post- 
captain's commission, ^vith the conmiaud of the beautiful 
frigate Caroline (which had just arrived from the United 
States), was tendered to him by the Emperor Don Pedro. 
Lieut. Levy gratefully declined it, saying, '• that as an 
American, he would rather serve as a seaman, under his 
own stars and stripes, than accept the highest honor within 
the gift of a crowned head." 

Suppose, Americans, Capt. Levy had divested himself of 
his national feeling then, do you believe he would now be 
enduring the disgrace from which he suffers ? No, no ! 
The most exalted position in the service of a foreign govern- 
ment would have been his desert ; but this he spurned, for 
an humbler sphere, under the stars and stripes of his own 
dear native land, only to be thrust aside by the base cor- 
ruption of governmental action. 

Hear what Capt. Sands, who is on the active list, and an 
example for all that is commendable in the officer or gentle- 



l.. 



CAPTAIN LEVY, U. S. N. 



335 



I ship, I have 

Commodore 

perintend and 

of these (jual- 

1 the emperor 

pressing men 
erican seaman, 
.enters, claimed 
3ry with their 
save the life 
javing him was 
itended for the 
was broken by 
friendship, 
shment, a post- 
f the beautiful 
om the United 
ror Don Pedro. 
' ' that as an 
nan, under his 
t honor within 

sted himself of 
would now be 
}rs? No, no! 
foreign govern- 
lie spurned, for 
t)es of his own 
the base cor- 



mnn, snys of this inicjuity : " The law, as I understood it, 
applied to tliose who were not • eflficicnt,' afloat or on shore." 
"You appeared, in M:iy, (piite etjual to both. I fear, then, 
that prcjndicc, which I know you had ever to contend 
against, — a prejudice unworthy the age and the land we 
live in, which, like the sun, God made for ti»e benefit of all, 
of every sect, condition, or country, — lias weighed in a ma- 
jority, though I am far from thinking in the minds of all 
the board, and has been too much for you. I take it for 
granted you will use measures for restoration. So far, 
then, as my humble name can possibly serve, I ask you to 
use it. T/iotff/h, like most viilitanj men, jeahms of my 
rank, J never wani it at the e.rpense of of hers. ^^ 

Capt. F. 11. Gregory, also on the active list, says to 
Capt, Levy : '• The dignity and virtue of good men always 
shine brightest under persecution ; and what you have expe- 
rienced from the envy and malice of the disciples of the 
' cat-o' -nine-tails ' only serves to render you more worthy 
in the estimation of those who know you rightly. A little 
more patience, good friend, and your trium{)h is certain." 

" I thank you," said Millard Fillmore to Capt. Levy, 
" in the name of humanity, that you have secured the abo- 
lition of flogging in our navy." 

Thus, from the records, my countrymen, you have some 
account of the relentless persecutions {practised by the Navy 
Board and executive of Franklin Pierce towards a post- 
captain in the American navy, against whom no charge 
whatever can be found in the department. 



[ve list, and an 
icer or gentle- 






I 









1 



J ■ 



CONVENTS AND THE CONFESSIONxVL. 



CHAPTER I . 

When once a proposition has been demonstrated 
in mathematics, no one ever after rises to contest 
it. It is as purely demonstrative, Americans, as a 
proposition in Euclid, that nunneries or convents 
have been devised to strengthen the entire system 
of the polity of the Romish church, and arc a dis- 
tinguishing feature in that political corporation. 

It is by the revenues derived from the Avhole 
system of Rome's imposture that the Jesuits have 
built their costly churches and cathedrals in this 
country, and so enriched the treasury of Rome as 
to facilitate the founding of nunneries, monasteries, 
schools, academies, and colleges. 

The priesthood, by these means, have advanced 
their power and wealth, and revelled in luxuries at 
the expense of the poor Roman Catholic laity, and 



ESSIONAL. 



i 



% 




1 demonstrated 

rises to contest 

Lnievicans, as a 

03 or convents 

entire system 

and arc a dis- 

orporation. 

oni tlie whole 

c Jesuits have 

cdrals in this 

vy of Rome as 

|s, monasteries, 

lave advanced 

in hixuries at 

lolic laity, and 



V 







■(■•". 



m 



WW J 



jm. 




/ 






y 



W'KNT,- A.Ni) rnr i'OiH'KSSlUXAl 



;■• 



Til A V T l-: \l { 



U FiKN once {I pro|io,-iUi(.)ii hns l»o<:. i ilfmoiistial*. 

ft 

in maniein:itk'.:t, no uiio rver .•■'(•H" l^»'?. to c.nK 
It. I; i:-' jjs [Ml Tilly d(/iuoii-t.i alive, / iiorionir^, :i> 
pru^itt-iMoii til ^ii'Ji'*. ^' = M.^ (uu\ii< rji • or (;'ji'\('r 

M.'\f ImmhJ J< vi<v<l tri rllTllli'tlie}! IIh: 'tUil'C <^V>[' 



i'.V o 



uniiiu^'uii!^ t 



!-..■ i: 



1 



on-r-h ••; iircii, \'\ nrc 'i * 



n-(^ in fa.'- [>'»jau'a! <• jiori'liiui. 
li" i> )>v \]r icvtMnu.'.- ill rivf'^ ii'n tin \\\v 

ft 



ouniitrv, a wl ^.) en 'u li.'fi ISk; t i>(' , ;:it 



1 i 



I 



iO]!r.' 



■• . . < 



\» t";'v.iiir.!i.(' tilt' iVriji <lin,u' '>i 'niiin- rio 



iiast 



eri' - 



n 



H prio': 



*»v JiJcsc iiiojnv?, h:\\ u]var--.;i 



tl 



leii' power and ^Vf -'JJi, and revelioil in viri 



OS 



the cxpen.',e of uic poui Roman Catholic iy, iwJ 



ESSIU.XAI, 



iUMiionstiMtr 
;-•"-■•. to (;u!it(- 

tu'ij "^V^t' ■ 

•-In wir 



"uiUliV 



uasterj' - 



!i -.uries :: 




•':.'; Ml-. ! Iv ' 'Tii:t 







i>e I 



>\ic 



> , ill i 



11! 







^ 



. I. 



CONVENTS AND TIIK CONFESSIONAL. 



:J37 



\]w (l.iu;;]if('rs of wciillliy Prolcsfauls, wlio liavo 
1)0011 sodiicoil l»y piit'sis and J«'Sni(ossos to smroiL- 
der proporty and oonsoioiico to thoir liniids. 

Nuinioi'io.s liavo boon iiilrodiiood into our oouidry 
iindor tlio iianio of " schools," — " s(doct schools," 
— *' boarding schools " ! 

The Sisters of Charity first start these schools at 
their mission stjitions. These women jire foreign- 
ers, — tools of the piiesls in other countries, and 
sent from the nunneries of Europe to ensnare the 
daughters of American Protestants. Michelet, a 
historian of France, says: *'They are bland and 
adroit Jesuitesses, who always go ])efore the Jes- 
uits, and put everywhere oil and honey, smoothing 
the way." This is fully proved in America. 
"The Jesuits," says he, *' have employed the 
instrument of which Jerome speaks, — poor little 
women all covered with sins." He alludes to the 
"Sisters of Charity," " Si.sters of Mercy," and 
" Sisters of the Sacred Heart," abbesses, and 
nuns. 

At first, everything looks very disinterested, and 
very kind! These "sisters" propose to teach 
Protestants at a cheaper rate than their own insti- 
tutions can afford to do ; and, having resources 
29* 



I ', 



3:i8 



CONVKNTS AND TIIK CONFKSSIONAL. 






liiniislKMl IVom ahrojid, iioiio cun .stand in opposi- 
tion to tlitir prices. Their aim is to i^ain the 
women (»r America IVom (he ricii ami powerl'ul 
classes. They hegin with charity scholais, hut 
these soon (lisa[»pear lor " [)ay scholars," or a 
aclcrt school lor wealthy lamilies. They (hen ad- 
vance to a hoarding school, and gradually and 
secretly, through priestly art, slide iido the euu- 
vent ! 

They conceal from the i)uhrK; all within their 
walls, and even the fad of their existence, as lar 
as possihlc. These "Sisters of Charily," "Sis- 
ters of the Sacred Heart," "Sisters of Mercy," 
are also the priests' spies in America. They come 
here at their dictation, and to ohey their direction. 
Protestants have heen wont to call them "angels; " 
yet the brutality of tlieir conduct to pious suppli- 
ants, who have heen found in prayer to God with 
an open Bible in their hands, wouhl be revolting, if 
made known, to a pagan or ^Mahometan ! They 
teach that the priest is the only way to salvation ; 
that the conscience must be intrusted in his hands, 
who keeps the secret mind and will of God. This 
abominable doctrine is carefully inculcated in their 
seminaries and nunneries, while heralds are ringing 



k^ 



)NAL. 



CONVENTP AND TIIK CONFKSh«rONAL. 






1(1 111 (»}»[)().si- 
l(» iiaiii tilt' 
jiiitl powcrlul 
scholars, but 
liolars," or a 
.'licy llu'ii a»l- 
^radiially and 
into llio coii- 

witliiii their 

islciu'o, as lUr 

aritv," ''Sis- 

s of Mc'ivy," 

. Thoy come 

icir (liroctioii. 

m "angels ; " 

pious suppli- 

to (jiod with 

[) ivvolling, if 

[I'tau ! They 

to salvation ; 

in his hands, 

I' (^,od. This 

ated in their 

Is are ringing 



their good deeds in the ears o? our Pridcslant, 
republican country. The horriltl.' cahndar ol' con- 
cealed ( h'rieal lur[)itude oi' these dark, disgusting 
pest-houses (d' inlaniy is thus explained. 

By our laws, no citizt'is ol the countrv can 
change his nann' without ap[dicalion to the legisla- 
ture. IJut these convents, establislied u[)(Mi our soil, 
destroy the entire ba[)tisnial name of every woman 
who enters them, in order to avoid detection and 
recogniti(ui ]>y her friends, and to elVaco vs^wy tra(!0 
of their former association with J?rotestantism. 
They are mad(! to renounce all natural ties whi(di 
God made sacred, such as father, mother, sister, 
brother, husband, or friend, and take the superior 
for nujther, the priest lor lather ! AVhen death 
occurs in their family circles, the fact is announced 
in a general way, and each one is left to vain con- 
jecture as to whom the alllictiou belongs. It is 
not even their privilege to know when death has 
sundered their family ties Incessant and most 
severe labor is performed l)y nuns who were reared 
by parents in luxury and ease. They are made to 
eat food that ])ea'gars at their fatliers' kitchens 
would reject. AVheii ill, the physician prescribes 
for them through a grate ; and they never arc 











340 



CON\JNTS AND THE CONf ESSIONAL. 



allowed to eat meat, unless in such a case as he 

■ 

declare^: necessary to support lifu. 

0, Protestant parents, be warned from sending 
your daugliters to pnpal or Jesuit seminaries, to 
which they zx'aiously solicit you, all over our land ! 
Whoe\cr studies tlieir interior actings w^ill find but 
one meaning, and that is, the death of personal 
liberty ! 

A criminal in our jails or penitentiaries is pro- 
tected in his rights and interests beyond what is 
extended in these Romish prisons. The vows 
moke the nuns slaves, the convents rich. Take 
Maryland and the District of Columbia, for exam- 
ple. There arc two hundred and forty-four pro- 
fessed, beside one hundred and thirty-seven sisters, 
at Emmetsburg, near Frederick City. These pro- 
fessions average a thousand- wdiile some pay ten, 
some twenty thousand dollars ! These kidnapping 
establishments are engaged in receiving dowries, 
and farming the sisters out upon wages. 

The ncadem . of the Visitation Convent in Bal- 
timore is now, Avith a million of dollars, about to 
purchase the residence of a Jesuit father, and aban- 
don the school for more diabolical purposes. This 
was the convent which petitioned the legislature of 



..^ \ 



CONVENTS AND THE CONFESSIONAL, 



341 



. case as he 



)oses. This 



Maryland for the right to rim a subterraneous pas- 
sage from a rliapel to ji luinncry ; and, ])eing 
refused, tluy dL'teriiiiiKMl to huAO their own hind, 
and build all tlie dungeons they wanted. 

This is but a speeiinen of wliat is done in all 
parts of the country. These nunneries and mon- 
asteries get possession of millions by making slaves 
of their victims, and they hold this property as the 
trustees of the Pope of Home ! Is this riglit ? 
To what use is this innnensc revenue devoted ? 
For wdiat ai'e the designs of tliese establishments? 

The twenty-fifth session of the Council of Trent 
made the decrees concerning regulars and nuns 
which are now in full force in every nunnery in 
our country : 

Giiiss. XXV. Chap. I. — - In order to a perfect pro- 
fession, obedience, poverty, and chastity, with whatever other 
peculiar vows, rules, or precepts, may 1)0 essential to the 
order, * * are to be absolutely observed."' 

Chap. II. — " No nun shall have any goods, personal or 
real, of any kind, nor possess or hold then; in her own 
name, or in the name of the convent; but immediately they 
shall be delivered up to the supc-ior, and incorporated to the 
convent." 

Chap. IV. — " She shall not go from her convent to any 
other place, under pretext of a pious work, without permis- 
sion from a superior ; nor go from the convent to her supe- 




fife,.). 

\ 




I 



lit" 



342 



CONVENTS AND THE CONFESSIONAL. 



riors, unless called by them ; and, if so found without a 
written permission, let her be punished as a descrtor from 
the institution." 

Chap. V. — " The council commands all bishops, under 
pain of divine punishment, and dread of eternal ^vrath, to 
take special care for the cloistering of the nunneries, dili- 
gently to restore the disobedient by ecclesiastical censure 
and other punishments, invoking the secular power, and 
declaring that it shall not be lawful for any nun, after pro- 
fession, to go out for a short time under any pretext, unless 
some lawful cause, without a written permission from a 
bishop." 

In an expository note we read : "It shall not be lawful 
for the bishop to give permission to a mother or sister to 
enter for the purpose of seeing a daughter or sist'^r that is 
very sick; " and Pius V. says they shall not go out from 
any other caase, unless a fire or leprosy, &c., prevailing in 
the convent. 

Chap. XIV. — " Wiicre a nun is guilty of any delin- 
quency out of *he convent (such, I suppose, as speaking to 
a father, mother, or sister), let her be {severe jniniatur) 
severely punished by the bishop, and deprived of her office 
by her superior." 

The note on the v/ords "severely punished" is, ''that no 
nun shall be cast out of a convent, however incoiiijijilde; 
but, offending, she shall be castigated by the supeiiors with 
the ignominy of imprisonment (the dungeon), and (ucrius) 
onore sharp! ij according to the offence." 

Chap. XIX. — "If a nun s;jys that she took her vow 
under the inlluence of force or fear, or before the age 
appointed by l;n\, or airy like cause, she shall noc be heard 
unless within five years of her professing, and then not 
unless the causes which she pretends induced her have been 



CONVENTS AND THE CONFESSIONAL. 



343 



brought before the superior; and if she laid aside the 
hahit (if Iter own accord^ she shall not be permitted to 
coin/dtnii, bat be cotn/ieiled to retani to the convent, and 
2)Uiiished as an apostate, and deprived of all the privileges 
of her order." 

From the work called " Tlie Nun Sanctified," 
by St. Alphonsns Ligori, wlm.se works the Romish 
church dechires and endorses as hohj^ we quote the 
following, for your better understanding, Ameri- 
cans, of the odiou.^ pri.-ons made for your daugh- 
ters : 



"It is true that, even in the cloisters (nunneries), there 
are some * * =^ -who do not live as a rolitj^ious ouo;ht to 
live. To be a good religious, and to be content, are one and 
the same thing. * * ""^ • I have been accustomed to say 
that a religious, in her convent, enjoys a foretaste of para- 
dise, or suffers an anticivtation of hell. To endure the pains 
of hell is to be separated fjom God; to be forced, against 
the inclination of nature, to do the ■will of others; to be 
distrusted, despised, reproved, and chastised, by tlioso Avith 
"whom "we live; to be shut V}) in a place of confinement 
from which it is i/njiossible to escfcpe ; in a "woid, // is 
to he in coiitinnal torture, iritliout a tnonienl' s pcarc"' 

" Now that vou have entered a convent, and that it is 
impossible for yon to escape,"' * * * '• You must make 
a virtue of necessity ; and. if tlie derll has broiajht yon 
into a nvniury for yoiir destntction,' &c. 'Francis de 
Sales, being asked his opinion concerning a person u/to 
had become a lafn a^jainst her icill,'^ said: "It is true 



".V"'- ■ 






I 



'it ! r 






i!ii 






1/ 




1 






mil 



344 



CONVENTS AND THE CONFESSIONAL. 



that tins child, if she liad not hccn compelled by her pa- 
rents, would not liiive left the world," kc. kc. 

''Keep a^Yl^y from the r/rates,'^ bays Ligori, "to be 
Avholly remoctd from their relatives,*' — "to lose their 
aifectioii for tlieir friends," — *'• to guard aguinst all aflec- 
tionate expressions with those that are seculars," — '• to be 
careful not to make known what may tend to the discredit 
of the superiors or sisters." 

" In obeying the direction of superiors she is more certain 
of doing the will of God than if an angel came down from 
heaven to manifest his will to her." 

" It may be added that there is more certainty of doing 
the will of God by obedience to superiors, than by obedience 
to Jesus Christ, should Lo appear in person, and give his 
commands ; because, should Jesus Christ appear to a reli- 
gious, she would not be certain whether it was he that spoke, 
or an evil spirit, who, under the appearance of the Redeem- 
er, wished to deceive her. * * * In a loord, the only 
way by which a reli(jions can become a saint, and be 
saved, is to observe her rule ; for her there is no other 
way that leads to salvation.^^ 

" The fourth and last degree of perfect obedience," says 
he, " is to obey with simplicity. * * St. Mary Magdalene 
de Pazzi says that perfect obedience requires a soul without 
a will, and a will without an intellect. * * ^ To regard 
as good whatever superiors command, is the blind obedience 
so much praised by the saints, and is the duty of every 
religious. =* * * To try tlie obedience of their subjects, 
superiors sometimes impose commands that are inexpedient, 
and even absurd. St. Francis commanded his disciples to 
plant cabbages with their roots uppermost." 



1. 



CONVENTS AND THE CONFESSIONAL. 



345 



to the discredit 



bedience," says 
ary Magdalene 



If even Romish countries have been obliged to 
destroy these prisons on ticcoimt of their enormity 
in immorjility, >vill Americans allow them to be 
fastened upon their territory by unscrupulous denui- 
gogues and a Jesuitical priesthood ? Is the liberty 
our fathers gave, after they fled to these shores from 
the persecution of the Papal See, to be used now 
to make menials of their children, and rob them of 
their just inheritance ? Had even one of these 
convents been established in their dav, our consti- 
tution would have had a salutary provision for their 
eternal expulsion from the soil. This great Magna 
Charta, which is the bond of our freedom, does de- 
clare that no freeman shall be imprisoned but by 
the judgment of his peers under the laws of the 
land. Nunneries imprison and punish ; deny free- 
dom of thought, freedom of speech, and are, there- 
fore, in direct conflict with our recorded funda- 
mental law. 

If American women are to be worthy descend- 
ants of the mothers of tl^ Revolution, they must 
sustain no institution which ilyjiconsistent with the 
American constitution. The only obedience to 
which our mothers subscribed was th?i! of the Bible. 

This convent system, by which young girls are 
30 







'fii; 



346 



CONVENTS AND THE CONFESSIONAL. 



deceived and imprisoned, has now a deep hold upon 
our soil. Lands have been purchased and edifices 
reared in our cities and rural districts for thi'j object. 
And, under the direction of Dominicans, Benedic- 
tines, Redemptionists, Franciscans, Cistercians, 
Carmelites, Jesuits, Sisters cf Mercy, Sisters of 
Notre Dame, Sisters of Providence, Ursuline Sis- 
ters, the Sisterhood of St. Joseph, Ladies of the 
Sacred Heart, Lorettines, or some other order, three 
hundred of these religious communities are estab- 
lished and in operation among us. 

Popery encourages the breaking of the inviolable 
law of marriage, by entering a monastery or nun- 
nery, and dishonors that state which St. Paul calls 
'* honorable," which Christ sanctioned by a miracle, 
and the whole Bible teaching approves. The conse- 
quence of this is the most unbounded licentiousness 
in the Vatican of the Popes, the pala'^es of cardi- 
nals, and the nunneries and monasteries, the domes- 
tic abodes of the bishops and priests in our country. 

Until the time of Pope Gregory VII., nearly 
eleven hundred years after Christ came for man's 
redemption, priests married, and lived, as other 
honest men, with their families. Protestants are 
told by these imported nuns that there is no inter- 



CONVENTS AND THE CONFESSIONAL. 



347 



s are estab- 



ference with religion ; yet their one great aim is 
to interfere and destroy the influence of the Bible. 
Protestants are deceived by a pretence of learning, 
while their system of instruction is of the most 
superficial character. No woman ever lel't tlie 
instruction of these *' sisters "with a mind expanded 
or a heart elevated. 

Doting parents, for the sake, as they suppose, of 
bestowing a better education upon their daughters, 
have, in most instances, sacrificed them to the seduc- 
tions of Popery. And yet, being proselyted to 
Popery, these daughters have afterwjirds voluntarily 
abandoned their parents in old age, when every 
comfort seemed concentrated in their love. The 
pleasures of home and the duties of filial affection 
are made disagreeable by this Romish system. 

Our American firesides are thus invaded by spies ; 
the children are ensnared from their natural pro- 
tectors ; death-beds are insulted by priests ; and 
property, through their sleek caresses, is wheedled 
out of its lawful hands. 

The case of Mary Ann King, a little girl, most 
cruelly and forcibly detained in Norwood Convent, 
in England, is but a specimen of what occurs at the 
convents in New York, Baltimore, Georgetown, 





M* 



* II 



348 



CONVENTS AND THE CONFESSIONAL. 



St. Louis, and other places, constantly, in the 
TInited States. The report says ; 

" Tlic aflldjivit of the inotlicr, who is a Koinnn Catholic, 
stated tliat, wlien her hiisl)aiid died, in 1850, she consented 
to place her cliild, then ten years of ago, in the nunnery at 
Norwood lor two years ; that she had heen in tlie hahit of 
seeing her child, from time to time ; but. 'svhen tlic two years 
had expired, there -was an intimation of her being sent 
abroad, to which tlie mother strongly objected, and the child 
also said slie liad no wish to go away from her mother. A 
request was then made to allow the child to remain six 
months longer, to Avhich the mother consented. The child, 
after that, sine her mnllter \u the presence of a nun; 
and, at length, when tlie mother began to express her deter- 
mination to take the child home, she was only allowed to see 
her throudi a lattice-work, or gratinir, and at leno;th the 
mother was refused the ri^ht to see her dauo;hter at all. 

" The latter end of last year, the mother met one of the 
priests, and she asked iiim concerning her daughter ; and 
the priest informed her that her child had been sent to France 
some months since. The mother, in great distress of mind, 
applied to a magistrate ; but he said he could not assist her. 
She was then recommended to apply to her attorney, Mr. 
Clarke, who went with her to the convent, and demanded 
her daughter. The nuns replied that she was not there, 
but had been sent to France twelve months previously ; and, 
in reply to questions, the nuns said they neither knew where 
she was, how she went, who took her, or to whose care she 
was confided ; nor did they keep any register of the particu- 
lars of sending away girls from the nunnery." 






NAL. 



CONVENTS AND THE CONFESSIONAL. 



340 



iiitly, in tho 



oninn Catholic, 
), she coi»sentc«l 
the nunnery at 
1 in the habit of 
'n the two years 
lier being sent 
d, and the child 
ler mother. A 
1 to remain six 
ed. Tlie child, 
'ticc of a nun ; 
[press her deter- 
ly allowed to see 
d at length the 
hter at nil. 
met one of the 
daughter ; and 
In sent to France 
istress of mind, 
id not assist her. 
ler attorney, Mr. 
and demanded 
Nvas not there, 
reviously; and, 
Iher knew where 
whose care she 
I' of the particu- 

J5 



One day, this poor niotlior met ono of llio priests 
■who hjive custody of the ladies at Norwood Con- 
vent ; and, 111)011 iiicpiiry, b arned that licr ebild 
had been sent to France. The nuns (';»ubl not, or 
would not, even disidose anylbin^Li-. Ibit of what 
avail Avas tliis infonnation? The mother is torn 
forever IVoni her ollspring, separated by bars and 
prisons, land and sea, and none on earth to restore 
her incarcerated child to its nniternal bosom. 

When the petitions of our fathers were spurned 
at the foot of an English throne, Patrick Henry 
said : ** If vv'c wish to be free, if we mean to pre- 
serve inviolate these inestimable privileges, if we 
mean not basely to abandon the noble struggle in 
which we are engaged, we must fight." 

So we say, it is the duty of all sects, all parties, 
all creeds, and every civil government, to be united 
against these institutions, and to seek out, legis- 
late out of every neighborhood, city, and village, 
any school or retreat which is not in accordance 
with our free institutions. The voice of Jehovah 
heard in the garden of Eden, six thousand years 
ago, echoes and recehoes this great truth, that 
God, and God alone, ruleth the nation to which 
we belong. Shall the women of America be a 
30* 



1^' 



l» > 



850 



CONVENTS AND TME CONFESSIONAL. 



u 

h'.' 



I ■ 11? 



m% 



^^ 









prey, and none to deliver? — a spoil, and none to 
restore ? Are foreif^i infiuisitors to reduce them to 
the coiKlitinu of slaves?- — to torture thoni to death 
if they desert their tyrannical government, to re- 
turn to the liberty they were born to love ? Is 
this land to be made a penitentiary, like the tribu- 
nal at Rome ? 

The powerful exhibition of the immorality of 
nunneries has been made in the case of Maria 
Monk, and supported by facts, which, to this 
hour, have never been refuted. An ofler by her 
to go with any responsible men into that nunnery 
in Canada, where she was incarcerated, and prove 
her statements by examination, or disprove them, 
w^as not accepted until after six months' work in 
filling up, tearing down, and rebuilding. And for 
three months Protestants of New York city chal- 
lenged through the press any three Eomanists to 
meet them for the same end, w^hicli they did not 
ever dare to accept ! 

It went forth to the ends of the republic in 
these words : 

" Challenge. The Roman Prelates and Priests of 
Montreal ; Messrs. Conroy, Juarter, and Schneller, of New 
York ; Messrs. Fenwick and Byrne, of Boston ; Mr. Hughes, 






Ml 



CONVENTS AND THE CONFI>.'^IONAL. 



351 



of Philailelpliia; the Arch Prolate of r>ulliin()rc, and his 
suhonlinatc Priests ; and Cardinal Knu^land. of Charleston, 
with all other Roman Pvit-sts and every xS'un, from lialFin's 
Bay to the (iulf of Mexico, are hercl)y eliallen;i;ed to meet 
an invcsti;:^ation of ]\[aria Moid-c's ' Awful Disclosures,' 
before an impartial assembly, over which shall preside seven 
gentlemen ; three to be selected by the Roman Priests, 
three by the Executive Committee of the New York Prot- 
estant Association, and the seventh, as Chairman, to be 
chosen by the six. 

" An eligible place in New York shall be appointed, and 
the regulations for the decorum and order of the meetings, 
with all other arrangements, shall be made by the above 
gentlemen. 

" All communications from any of the Roman Priests or 
Nuns, either individually or as delegates for their superiors, 
addressed to the Corresponding Secretary of the Neio 
York Protestant Association, No. 142 Nassau-street, 
New York, will be promptly answered." 

Archbishop TTughes, then a priest in Philadel- 
phia, was challenged ; but backed out, as did all 
the Romish hierarchy of the country. 

Maria Monk gives an account of the horrid mur- 
der of a young nun, between two feather beds, with 
a gag in her mouth, trampled down by other nuns, 
until dead. She tells of the incarceration in a 
dungeon, from two to three years, of several nuns, 
who had gags used upon them to stifle their 
screams. Their crime was a natural resistance to 



1 I 



I ' 



p. 



If i ' * 










362 



CONVENTS AND THE CONFESSIONAL. 



tho inlmniMnity of thoir rules, or rcfiisjil to sign 
away llu-ir pnipcrty, hi'lng iR'irevsses ! 

Miss lleud, ill litr Six Months in a Conv(Mit, in 
Massaclmst'tts, overheard tho conversation hetween 
tho superior and the l)is]iop u^xm her ease ; and 
tliiis learned their decision to .send lier to Camuhi. 
She I'elt it the seal ol' her eternal doom, and it led 
to her efforts to flee, which resulted in her safety. 
The penance inflicted upon her was making a cross 
on the floor with her tongue, until it was so lacer- 
ated as to mark tlie floor with her hlood ! 

Dr. De Sanctis, who heard confessions in con- 
vents for tor years at Rome, says : '* Those in 
the United States are altogoih(^r similar, except 
that 'they are more rigid and severe than in 
Italy. A nun here gives up all her property, and 
enters into iron bondage. They are, soul and 
body, the property of priests and superiors. With- 
out a moment's notice, the nuns are ordered from 
Maine to Texas, from New York to Paris or 
Canada, without the slightest regard to the will of 
tho poor, misguided creatures." In the name of 
all dear to you, Americans, can you see the daugh- 
ters of your country, as a drove of beasts, placed 
under the jailers of other countries, who have kept 



[)NAL. 



CONVENTS AND THE ( ONFEisSIONAL. 



353 



.»riis;il to sign 

• 

a Cunvout, in 

-iatiou between 

ler ease ; and 

ler to Canada. 

oni, and it led 

in her safety. 

naking a cross 

t was so laccr- 

)od ! \i 

isions in con- 

: ''Those in 

inular, except 

verc tlian in 

)roperty, and 

re, sonl and 

riors. With- 

ordered from 

to Paris or 

the will of 

the name of 

!e the daugh- 

)easts, placed 

ho have kept 



the Pope's su])jects hound in dungeons, for the 
wish to he free? They come here, and, in the 
name of convents, huihl prisons for American 
women ; take their property, thrir souls, their 
bodies, and are exeni[)led from taxation ! 

The humblest American citizen pays his taxes 
upon the first acre of land or otlier pr(>perty his 
hard labor may have accumulated. Think of these 
fiicts, — for heaven's sake, think of them ! — how 
Jesuits come here from Italy, (jcrmany, Austria, 
Portugal, Spain, and Ireland, to hide American 
daughters from the sight of their native land ! 



•*ii|jiiii 






CHAPTER II. 

Suppose France, or England, or Russia, were to 
send here their legions to buy up the most eligible 
sites in and around your cities and towns, raise 
their huge walls, with grates and cells, dungeons 
and bars ; and in this secret and insidious move- 
ment they were to draw into coiiperation American 
citizens, compelled to renounce all allegiance to lib- 
erty, the Union, and the constitution ; to be loyal 
to the tyrant of Austria, Bonaparte, or Alexander ; 
suppose, too, they wxu'e treated Avith kindness, and 
all possible consideration for their comfort, until all 
their property was secured to the prison ; then 
should be put to death, for wishing to get out, by 
lashing, torturing, and chaining them in the dun- 
geons ! Presently, some one escapes, and shows 
the rules which govern them, and tells of the 
screaming and wailing which are heard inside of 
them. What, Americans, would you do, but rise 
up as one man, and, with one heart, strike down 



CONVENTS AND TIIR CONFESSIONAL. 



355 



the foe of your country, empty tlicir prisons, and 
lay tlicni in tlio dust ! 

The Pope of Ilonie, by establisliing these convent 
piisou-liouses, lias provoked tliis dcM^p indignation. 
It is all so, in this outrage upon our IVee institu- 
tions, a, id you, Aniericans, must exert your wills. 
Now, why do you lbrl)ear in this case, more than 
in another? Coh)nel ]jemanouski, now a Lu- 
theran minister, living in our country, when in 
command of Na[)oleon\s troops, in 1801), took Ma- 
drid, and destroyed an Inquisition. The Inrpiisi- 
tors, according to their maxim, positively denied 
they had a phicc lor punishment. But, not being 
believed, an oflicer called for water, and, pouring it 
on the floor, it was seen to run through a crevice, 
when, a soldier striking one of the slabs, a spring- 
door was detected. They then opened it, and went 
down with a candle, ui the presence of these holy 
fatliers, who grew pale and trembled. There were 
found men and Avomen, without raiment, chained to 
blocks; some mouldering, some dying, others dcivd, 
with the chains hanging to their bones. The in- 
struments were then brought out, and the infuriated 
soldiers, as an act of justice, put every Inquisitor 
to death with their own weapons. About one hun- 



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356 



CONVENTS AND THE CONFESSIONAL. 



drecl, buried alive for years, were then brought out, 
and those Avho wish to see this " picture of hell " 
can find it fully described in tract 4G0 of the Amer- 
ican Tract Society. 

At the period of the Revolution in Italy, 1848, 
dungeons of tlie same kind were opened in Rome. 
Since then, the prisons have overflowed wdth vic- 
tims, who have been proscribed by the Pope for 
entertaining sentiments of republican freedom ad- 
verse to him. ^ 

Who can doubt that the same spirit exists in our 
beloved country to-day, wdiich, had it tlie power, 
would put to torture and to death every voter wdio 
opposes Popery ? Every officer in the papal church, 
below a cardinal, is liable at any moment to be 
called from any part of the AvorUl, and imprisoned 
by the Pope. 

The memoirs of the Bishop of Tuscany, and the 
petition of Borginsky, of Bohemia, show the cruel- 
ties and immorality of convents to have been so 
outrageous, that the latter called upon the Pope to 
interpose. He did, by ordering Borginsky imme- 
diately to Prague, and shutting him up in a dun- 
geon ! 

Bishop Reze, of Detroit, an American citizen, 



CONVENTS AND THE CONFESSIONAL. 



357 



rinsky imme- 



can citizen, 



was ordered to Rome from the United States, for 
the exereise of free speech. In tlie face of the 
fact, before the American charge at Rome, he re- 
mains there still incarcerated. The officers ^vho 
guard these pkices are bound to inviohible secrecy, 
and by a death penalty against all disclosure. 

The editor of the American Sentinel,, at Washing- 
ton, states that he called to see a sister-in-law at 
the convent of the '' Sacred Heart," near New 
York city, some years since. The nun thought- 
lessly followed him a few yards, to make a single 
request. Since then she has not been seen, and 
he presumes she has been removed, possibly to De- 
troit ; but all is conjecture. 

Rev. Blanco White relates the cruel servitude 
of his sister, at the age of twenty years, leaving an 
aged mother, and brought to an untimely grave 
from consumption. 

It is very usual to announce to a nun, in New 
York or Baltimore, that the stage will call at an 
early hour to convey them to Oregon or Wisconsin, 
or some distant place, which is a final farewell to 
all on earth. '' What I most dislike," said a mis- 
guided father, whose beautiful daughter was buried 
alive in a nunnery of our country, ''is, that I can 
31 





% 



'"'H, 



358 



CONVENTS AND THE CONFESSIONAL. 






never know even Avhcre my child is located ; she 
may bo now in Paris, for what I know/' 

But, Americans', we must, we will, hold these 
priests accountable for American women. 0, will 
you not grant liberty, safety, protection, to them? 
They scream now, in their recesses, from these con- 
vents, *' Help, 0, help us ! " AVill you not, by all 
that is hallowed and dear in hope, and home, and 
life, hear them, Americans? "What ])ut the prin- 
ciples of justice and humanity which characterize 
our people should control our legislatures? Are 
not these principles Protestant and American ? 

When the English consul at Lisbon was seized 
and imprisoned for disobedience to Popery, by the 
Inquisitors of Rome, Cromwell commanded him to 
return home, but the King of Portugal refused to 
release him, on the ground that he L.id no control 
over the Pope's action. Cromwell sent his repvosen- 
tative directly to tell the king *' that he must either 
declare war against the Inquisition, or stand by the 
results." The consul was immediately set freo, but 
would not leave the prison without a public libera- 
tion. The Inquisitors and king w^ere alarmed, and 
yielded to his demand. In this same spirit of a 
Protestant Cromwell, let Americans demand the 







CONVENTS AND THE CONFESSIONAL. 



359 



is located ; she 



release of American women, and the destruction 
of these prisons, or make Home's legions tremble 
at the result. 

It is time this cruel, unjust buying, selling, 
specuhiting, for that foreign despot, was stopped. 
And once do it, and Protestants will find popish 
editors, politicians, officers and agents, priests and 
priestesses, upon their knees, to avert the fierce fire 
of American cannon, which can penetrate the dun- 
geon of St. Angelo, or shake the foundation of the 
Vatican. 

Suppose the officers of a state-prison in America 
should refuse to release persons entitled to their 
freedom, and they should appeal to the legislature 
in vain for redress ; what would the press do ? 
Why, unitedly and in trumpet voice, it would make 
public opinion ready to annihilate legishiture and 
prison in one week. 

Now, what other enormous evil is connected with 
the institution of convents ? We answer, the Con- 
fessional. It is the priest who teaches that the 
salvation of these poor, deluded women depends 
upon their entering on a convent life. They get 
the conscience of their victims, and then find it 
easy to take their persons. Their liberty is then 




f^S 

<«*!l 




t*. 



am 



360 



CONVENTS AND THE CONFESSIONAL. 



surrendered, their property secured, their princi- 
ples are undermined, their hope has fled ! A letter 
from a nun in one of the convents of Tuscany, ad- 
dressed to Leopold, exposes the scandalous ahuses 
of the convent system which existed there in 1775 ; 
the same system which exists in the United States 
to-day, and wherever Romanism prevails. Said 
this nun to Leopold, ** If what I write were known, 
I should be poisoned by my companions, who arc 
given up to vice." She states that the confessor 
is selected from the monks, who occupies a dwell- 
ing near the convent ; that the nuns who con- 
formed to the wishes of their confessor were always 
released from unpleasant duty, and, to gratify him 
by their society, penance and the sacraments would 
be forgotten ; while the old nuns and superior 
would occupy themselves in difl'ercnt employments, 
or remain in their cells. 

Pierre Pacchiani, a papal confessor, was so un- 
scrupulous that he often compelled the dying to 
make ivills in his favor, or refused the sacraments. 
That he had used his endeavors to prevent Cath- 
arine Barni, whom he had injured, from making 
any confession on her death-bed. 

These atrocious crimes, committed within the 



CONVENTS AND THE CONFESSIONAL. 



361 



walls of these coivents and monasteries, became so 
revoltiii'i^ at that time that tliey were diminished 
in number in many of the Roman Catholic countries, 
and the guilty priests expelled from some, as they 
were from the Protestant states. It was then that 
the Pope and the priesthood looked to our yourg 
republic ; and, seeing its climate, its territory, its 
resources, its facilities for commerce, and its outlets 
and inlets, decided to secure here what was then 
lost in the Old World. And here they come in 
crowds, and are now attempting to blast our pure 
and beautiful land. 

Look at the history of Europe for twelve hundred 
years ! Sec how their unhallowed ii luence spread 
over Europe, and how they triumphed in the over- 
throw of all ttiat was sacred, and virtuous, and 
ennobling to the character of man ! The history 
of convents cnlls upon Americans to awake to sus- 
tain, while they can, their liberty and their religion. 
One great object of the Romish hierarchy, in the 
erection of monasteries and nunneries in the United 
States, is to proselyte the influential and wealthy 
classes, especially the females, and to acquire 
property, which enables the priesthood to exert 
their political power. When they secure the 



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,1 








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362 



CONVENTS AND TlIK CONFKSSIONAL. 



Avoiuon, llicy mnko (lie conscieiKH^ for Iho country ; 
and wliou they get llic conscience, lliey rule tlie 
country. 

We allirni, tlicn, by inclubital)lc evidence, tliat 
their literary institutions are mere masks to prop- 
agates on our soil su[)erstiiion and abominations 
which would be insulting to the Hottentots oi' New 
Zealand or Catlraria. They are a dangerous novelty 
and invasion in this free republic. 

The " Key of Paradise," in constant use in the 
Romish church, has a chapter headed '* Preparation 
for Confession." We find in it '* a table of of!enccs 
to assist the preparation." In this table, their 
sixth commandment is placed by the Romish church 
in the room of the seventh commandment. In these 
mortal offences, the character of the inquirer and 
the confessor may be learned. Archbishop Ken- 
rick, of Baltimore, particularly recommends this 
book. 

In their Douey Catechism, on .*' penance ex- 
pounded," recommended and approved by the Jesuit 
bishop of Boston, we find these solutions : *' Ques- 
tion. W^iat is con^ossion? Answer. It is a full, 
sincere, and humble declaration of our sins to a 
priest, to obtain absolution. Q. What are the 



r*'- 



CONVKNTS AND THE CONFESSIONAL. 



303 



Ihsit are the 



renuisitos of ji good conlVs.siou? A. Tlmt it ];o 
short, dili;;^out, hiini])lo, sorruwl'ul, .sincoro, jiinl 
entire, Q. JIow entire? A. V>y ('unfessinf!; not 
only in ulnit \\c, hiiva sinned morlally ]nd nlso 
liow oCien, us near as wv. can reniemher." 

See Iiere llie wily arL ol" I Ik* priest to ^et posses- 
sion oi* tlie conseionee ! iSnthing must be withheld. 
Not only every act ol" lil'e, but every lli(ni(jht, must 
bo divul^-ed — the whole heart emptied into the 
car of the priest ! And he is at liberty to add to 
the (|ucstions as suits his i'ancy or his passions, to 
extort from females the mos( indelicate an<l rev(dt- 
ing answers ! And they must answer, or the priest 
tells them their confession is of no avail. Think, 
Americans, of the power of the priest in the confes- 
sional ! think of it, and repress your deepest indig- 
nation, if you can! Is it not, from its very nature, 
awfully demoralizing in its eil'ects ? It is horrible 
to contemplaie the results of the confessional upon 
tlie female character, and upon the best hopes of 
America. If ever there was a race of men tliat 
robbed and spoiled countries, desecrated sacred 
things, blunted the moral perceptions, poisoned the 
fountains of virtue, ruined female modesty, and, 
like rapacious, remorseless beasts of prey, destroyed 




364 



CONVENTS AND THE CONFESSIONAL. 



the peace and happiness of families, that race is 
the Romish priesthood. 

Protestant eyes and Protestant intelligence re- 
strain them in our country ; but the system is the 
same, and leads to the very same results that have 
been acted out and occasionally exposed in other 
countries. And, could the nunneries and the con- 
fessional in America be but now uncovered, and the 
truthful tales be told of their interior doings, one 
loud and stormful burst of inlignation would be 
heard, not from Protestants alone, but also from 
the Roman Catholics of this land. 

With all the mystery and secrecy with which 
the priests guard these walled cloisters, their vile 
pollutions and crimes are sometimes discovered to 
the world by a nun who escapes in peril of her 
life. These records of priestly immorality must, in 
some degree, in this chapter be exposed, for the 
sake of the author's own sex, and of our beloved 
country, and for the sake of the Roman laity, who, 
indeed, know nothing more of their interior, secret 
deeds than Protestants. 



-• .. , - i ..' 



ONAL. 

s, that race is 



iitelligcncc rc- 
system is the 
jiilts that liave 
posed in otlier 
s and the con- 
wered, and the 
)r doings, one 
ition woukl be 
but also from 

y with which 

;ers, their vile 

discovered to 

peril of her 
ality must, in 
30sed, for the 

our beloved 
n laity, who, 
iterior, secret 



CHAPTER III. 

The confessor of Ferdinand the Seventh, of Spain, 
said he had known the best of the priests, — been 
among them, heard tlie confessions of botli sexes, — 
and he declared that virtue cannot safely come in 
contact with these men ; that females jire constantly 
liable to become their victims. How can Ameri- 
cans shut their eyes to these truths, confirmed by 
all sorts of the most credible testhnonies ? 

Mr. Ewbank, in his work on Brazil, says, no 
stranger, unless in a similar position with himself, 
could suspect the depth of the priests' polhitions. 
A native remarked to him that it was impossible for 
men to be worse than tlie priests, or to imagine 
worse men. In the churches they appear respect- 
able and devout, but their secret crimes have made 
this city (Peru) a Sodom. There are, of course, 
exceptions, but they are few. 

" Women," says Mr. Ewbank, "constitute the chief part 
of the church's charge, and they are taught to believe, and 



r ■ 




I 




I t 



La i 



3GC 



CONVENTS AND TIIK CUNrESt?IONAL. 



tlioy do believe, tliut the eiiincs of si priest do not afiect \\'\s 
eflieieiicy as one, nor the <luty of eonfossing to liini. 1 have 
heard scN'eral native hidies maintain thi.s ; — for the priest 
so teaches. " 

Rev. rierce Coimclly, furnicrly an Episcopal 
minister, wont ovor to Ronio, and Ids ^vi^o to a, 
nunnery. Hut, hy a [»c»rsonal insi;»lit into the 
abominations oi' ro[)ory, lio loll in di>gust, and 
rcturnod to his lonnor I'ipiscopal oonununion. Tho 
following is a, part of his tostiniony : 

" I have known a hushatid taught and directed to deal 
dou!)le in the sacred matter of reli^^ion with his own hi;'h- 
born Avife, a brother with his own high-born sisters, Avives 
with their husbands, and daughters Avithout number ^vith 
their trusting parents. 

"I have had poured into my cars Avhat can never be 
uttered, and what ought not to be believed, but was only too 
plainly true. And I have seen aU that is most deplorable 
is not an accident, but a result, and ,.i inevitable result, and 
a co)ifessedlij inevitable result, of the ^vorking of the prac- 
tical system of the Church of Rome, with all its stupendous 
machinery of mischief; and the system is ihuevucadle, 



IUREMKI)rAI3LE 



, 11 



The Freeman's Journal^ Bishop Hughes' organ in 
New York, in a recent article praises the " ?nora/ 
power" of Pope Gregory YTL, who w^as as noted 
for iniquity as Judas Iscariot for treachery ! lie 
caused the mother of a woman to be strangled, that 



CONVENTS AND TIIK CONFESSIONAL. 



867 



the (lau^ilitcr midit reiiin in the Valionn withuut a 



(llrcctcil to (Iciil 
h his own Iiigh- 
rn sisters, -wives 
ut number -vYitli 

it can never he 
but was onlj too 
most deplorable 
tal)le result, and 
in<5 of the prac- 
l its stupendous 

S IRUKVUCABLE, 



riva 



1. 



Kvoiy rcnialij dcvoteu at the loiilc s^ional knows 
that ([iit'stiuus are asked too personal to l)e niade 
known to the world. No faniilv in America is safe 
which harl)ors nnder its roof a liomish [)riesl, or 
permits around its fireside any one who resorts to 
priestly eonlession. 

Arehhishop l\enrick, oC ]>altimore, recom- 
mends the "Christian's Cnith; to Jleaven," where 
it says, on pa.i>;e Si^, " Consult the taijic (f sins to 
help your mi^i.murv," and i:(nnrwn(ls the most secret 
kind of mortal sins to be confessed, as indispensable 
to forfjiocncss. Anion;;' others, a woman is asked if 
she loves any priest. Suppose she answer 



a V. 



I love 



U<^ 



u 



! " 0, eitizen and Cliristian, trenihhi for 



the fate of American dau<^hters who look to the 
priest as the for^iver of all sin! 

Mr. Ilog'an, wlio was the pastor of St. Mary's 
Church, in rhiladel[)hia, for twelve years, says: 
" The wile wlio irees to the eonfessional \i more 



the wife of tlie [)riest than of her marrM'd husband ; 
for the priest has her vnrcvealed thouyhts and soul, 
as well as body." 



iii|| 

?l;lil 



!! 



mm 





368 



CONVENTS AND THE CONFESSIONAL. 



''It is a fact," says r. writer, ''true to a proverb, and 
proclaimed by the best of the Romisii v.riters, that from the 
days of Gregory VII. monasteries and nunneries were vast 
extended Sodoms, and the priesthood in every respect like 
the inhabitants of the cities of the plain. The temples of 
Astarte and of Babylon, and of the Greek and lloman 
Venus, were really decent and moral amid all their pagan 
pollution, compared to the dens of the monks, and nuns, and 
priests ! It is impossible to tell the millionth part of the 
horribly impious doings of these men ! " 

The only thing which seems to be forbidden by 

the priests, and of which they have such a holy 

horror, is the circumstance of marriage. Once 

annul the decrees respecting the celibacy of the 

priesthood, and nunneries and monasteries will go 

down. 

" In the fifteenth century the overwhelming flood of 
priestly pollution swelled to such a height, and became so 
universal in Spain, that Popes Paul, Pius, and Gregory, 
were compelled, in self-defence, to issue bulls against the 
priests. ' These bulls commanded the Inquisition to take 
the matter up; and the holy Inquisitors summoned the 
attendance of all the frail fair ones who had been assailed by 
these sons of Belial and of Sodom. Maids and matrons, 
nobles and peasants, flocked in numbers incredible to lodge 
information. All the Inquisitors and their officers, with 
twenty notaries, were employed for thirty days in taking 
down the depositions. The number crowding m was not a 
whit abated; they took thirty days more, three several 
times ! But there was no end to the business. The 



ONAL. 

a proverb, and 
r3, that from the 
in cries were vast 
:ery respect like 
The temples of 
ick and lloman 

all their pagan 
s, and nuns, and 
3nth part of the 

) forbidden by 
i such a holy 
rriage. Once 
elihacy of the 
pteries will go 

elming flood of 
and became so 

and Gregory, 

uUs against the 

uisition to take 

summoned the 

3een assailed by 

and matrons, 
redible to lodge 
ir officers, with 
days in taking 
ng in was not a 
, three several 
business. The 



CONVENTS AND THE CONFESSIONAL. 



369 



Inquisitors were like a man on the ocean casting a lead and 
finding no bottom ! What was the result ? Why. just 
what might have been expected when iiupiiiy on such a 
subject was committed to priests and bishops.' Says 
Gonsalvo: 'They finally gave it up. The ])enc]i of priests 
and bishops was deserted. The multitudes of fair criminals, 
and the jealousy of husbands, and above all the overwhelm- 
ing odium thrown upon au/icular confession and the popish 
priesthood, caused the holy tribunal to quash the prosecu- 
tion, and destroy all the depositions! ' " 

Such, Ikthers and husbands, such, Americans, 
was the character of the confessional then ; and is 
it not, in the nature of the case, so still ? 

The theology of Maynooth College, where most 
of the priests in this country are trained, teaches 
the doctrines and rules of the Jesuits, Liguori, 
Escobar, and Dens, and imparts instructions respect- 
ing the confessional, in which the most immoral 
and obscene questions are enjoined to be put to 
every wife, and sister, and daughter, who attends 
confession, in every Romish church in this country. 

These moral theologies are also the standard 
works for all, in that sect, who are now training for 
the priesthood. 

If the priest is asked as to what he hears in the 
confessional, their theology says : "He ought to 

ANSWER THAT HE DOES NOT KNOW IT, AND, IF IT BE 



b.< 



NECESSARY, TO CONFIRM THE SAME WITH AN OATH. 

32 



»» 









'■ i 





iW 




370 



CONVENTS AND THE CONFESSIONAL, 



RgjuI tlic following language of the Church of 
Rome, as a part of her instructionrf to the priests, 
and reflect on the danger of these emissaries of the 
Pope in our midst, who are bound by an oath to 
obey them ! 

" AUliou^^h tlie life or stdvation of .1 man, or the ruin of 
a state, should depend upon it, what is diseovered in confes- 
sion cannot bo revealed. The secret of the se(d — confes- 
sion — is more binding; than the obli<]ration of an oath." 

Husbands of America, ye who regard the sacred 
bonds of social and domestic peace, the honor and 
fidelity of your wives, behold the confessional ! 
Parents, the authority of the priest ir the con- 
fessional is far more than your own. Think of 
the interviews in these lonely recesses, and tremble 
for your children ! 

Popish bishops send out the priest '*to convert 
Americans from the error of their ways." He is 
received with politeness, and, fixing his eye upon a 
fascinating daughter, soon persuades her to the con- 
fessional. He gives her the '' Key to Paradise," 
and with his clerical pretences gains her confidence, 
and finally w^ins her over to the cloistered life. 

" Can a certain archbishop somewhere in the 
latitude of New York tell what became of the 



CONVENTS AND THE CONFESSIONAL. 



371 



throe yonnp^ ladies, sinec 184r), with whom he was 
pai'ticuL»rly acquainted ? Can he tell wliere the 
tomb of the Baltimore lady is located, whose pre- 
mature death was only witnessed by the conies- 
sional, and sanctified by mummery? Answer, ye 
holy fathers ! " 

A case occurred in Bardstown, Ky., several 
years ago, wdiich shows the tenacity of the priestly 
influence. Milly McPherson entered a nunnery 
near Lebanon, Ky., as a pupil, and afterwards 
took the veil. Soon after, she came home, when 
her unnatural parents relused to listen to her state- 
ments respecting the injury inflicted upon her by 
the priest ; and, under his authority, they refused 
her admission to the house. She fled to a neigh- 
bor's for refuge. A suit was brought in behalf of 
the priest, who was implicated, and testimony 
given of his guilt, which could not be disproved. 
Immediately Milly, as is their custom, was declared 
insane by the Jesuits ; and, being the only witness 
to prove an important fad in the case, she was 
forcibly abducted, so as to force the jury to find 
for the priest ! Twenty years have passed away, 
and no trace of that girl has been seen ! The sup- 
position is, she was secreted and murdered. 



I* I 



W: 




s 



*H 




li 



372 



CONVENTS AND THE CONFESSIONAL. 



McGrindeirs " Convent," published by Carter 
and Brothers, New York, gives the atrocious case 
of a married wouum, at Palermo, whom the priests 
sought to separate from her husband. They suc- 
ceeded in getting her into the Convent of St. 
Rosalia, without the husband's knowledge ; and 
exerted every kind of art and cruelty to induce 
her to renounce him, without effect, lie finally 
learned that she was incarcerated, and, through a 
friend, sent her a note, enclosed in a fig, promising 
to rescue her. Suspicion Avas awakened in some 
manner, and the whole plan for her escape was 
revealed by the confessional. But the deluded 
wife was left to enjoy the anticipated reiinion with 
her husband until in the very act of escaping, when 
she was seized, and dragged to the dungeon of the 
convent. Her husband outside w^as taken to a 
dungeon of the Inquisition, from whence he never 
returned ; while the wife was brought from the 
prison in delirium, to undergo the solemn mock- 
ery of a trial before bishops and superiors of the 
island, in one of the subterranean apartments of 
the convent ; and, in the presence of the whole 
sisterhood, she was condemned to be buried alive, 
and bricked up in a niche of the very cell in which 



':,.i.::t' 



CONVENTS AND THE CONFESSIONAL. 



373 



they were assciuMcd ! ^lasons ])( rfonnod the terri- 
hle work, sworn by tlie awful oath <»!' sci \wy ; while 
the 3'Oiiiig woman, in the ])looni of youth, was [)ut 
unresistingly in hei living tomb, Ibr the crime of 
h)ving her own husband, and wishing to enjoy life 
with him ! 

The escape of Anuria Monk, in Montreal ; Louisa 
Wortman, at 8t. Louis ; Miss Harrison and Miss 
Reed, in Massachusetts ; Milly ^IcPherson, in Ken- 
tucky ; Ann Fallen, at Providence ; Olivia Neale, 
at Baltimore ; Miss Bunkley, from Emmetsburg, 
Md. ; and other cases, in which similar statements 
are made of the cruelty, deception, and immorality 
of the convents in this country, each without the 
knowledge of the other, — settles conclusively the 
question that it is a duty Americans owe to God 
and their country to exterminate them. 

These American women are ensnared by the 
representations of the religious perfection which 
they are taught to believe can be attained nowhere 
else. Why, then, have grates, and bars, and pris- 
ons, if it is all so sweet and pure ? AVhy debar 
their fathers and mothers from their altectionate 
interviews ? Why interdict a physician to pre- 
scribe only through a grate, but, at the same time, 

32* 



I,' 



i I 

w 



374 



CONVENTS AND THE CONFESSIONAL. 



I.i< 



ti:^ 





give the priests access to their cells, and their 
secret chambers, at any hour, day or night? The 
priest, according to the statement of escaped nuns, 
often lodges within the convent, where apartments 
are reserved for him ! 

*' An affecting ceremony," says a Baltimore 
paper, " took place this week in one of the Roman 
Catholic churches of this city, on which occasion 
two beautiful young girls took the white veil, and 
became Sisters of Mercy." 

*'An ailecting ceremony." Yes, affecting, in- 
deed, to see two beautiful young women throwing 
themselves into a literal prison, where their bloom 
of health, ere twelve months have passed, will be 
changed to pallid cheeks, and their beauty to 
wasting deformity ! Affecting, indeed, to see young 
women, who might adorn society, and cheer their 
once happy home, and bless the world Avith their 
companionship and influence, blindly rushing into 
moral pollution and speedy death, — to see them 
shut themselves out from the fresh and liealthy 
atmosphere, from the light of the pleasant sun, 
from the green hills nnd flowery fields, the open 
heavens, the endearments and joys of home, the 
kindly intercourse to which they have been accus- 



i& ■ I 



CONVENTS AND THE CONFESSIONAL. 



375 



tomcd, the glad greeting's of Irieiids, and all the 
thousand innocent delights for which their Creator 
designed them, and reason and nature open to their 
use and possession ! Affecting, indeed, to see 
two American girls so unconscious of what they 
are doing, — so unsuspecting of the fatal trap 
which has been set for them, and of the dark 
devices of wily priests to secure them safely within 
the doors of their sombre jail, under iron bars, and 
lock and key, where they take possession of their 
conscience and body, to lacerate and torture their 
feelings, and to make them the mere instruments 
of their intrigue, their pleasure, and their tyranny ! 
Had those lovely young ladies parents ? Where 
were they ? Had the papal system in which they 
were trained dried up the fountain of their sensi- 
bilities, and closed the sluices of pity ? Had they 
never read the history of Popery, — the lives of 
the heartless priests, and their instruments, the 
nuns, — the immoralities and polluted develop- 
ments of nunneries? Ah, how blind! how deep 
the veil which shrouds them in darkness ! how 
unaccountable and amazing the ignorance, in this 
land of light, and Bible intelligence, and freedom, 
that the power of the old fiend of Rome, and the 



Ill 



376 



CONVENTS AND THE CONFESSIONAL. 



mW'ip 



S 







1 1 if 

lit 



.u: 



crafty, libertine priests, should so deceive and 
betray them, in the very season of youth, and h)ve- 
liness, and beauty, as to induce them to ])id an 
eternal farewell, and yield tliemseives up to bo 
buried alive in a worse interment than a destruc- 
tive avalanche ! > 

Ah ! had these young women known the ini- 
quities of convent life ; had they experienced 
the cruel impositions, the extortions of labor, the 
painful and degrading punishments, the puerile 
and stupid tediousness of pretended devotion, the 
vulgar annoyances, and scandalous treatment ; had 
they seen the decaying health, the sickly visage, 
the numerous skeletons of consumption, and the 
victims often in tears ; liad they heard the groans 
of the poor, unpitied sufferers, the shrieks which 
fell occasionally upon the ear ; had they witnessed 
the insanity and numerous deaths ; had they, we 
say, passed through the merciless tyranny and 
cruel horrors of that unnatural dungeon of moral 
pestilence and living death, — they would not 
have done so suicidal an act as to sacrifice life, 
hope, and happiness. They would have shrunk 
aghast both from the vile blandishments and spe- 
cious arts of the syren Jesuitesses and Jesuits, and 



CONVENTS AND THE CONFESSIONAL. 



377 



from the most distunt ai>proach to the gates of that 
horrihle odilice. 

The quest ion now solemnly put is, shall the 
personal liberty ol' American lemales be wrested 
and Wasted by foreign Jesuits and assassins? Shall 
the name of religion be perverted to tliese vile pur- 
poses, and religion itself become a cloak for these 
unnatural dens of iniquity ? 

In the reign of Jjimes I., of England, monas- 
teries and convents had ])ecome such intolerable 
nuisances that a decree was made to destroy them 
from the land. Papal Sardinia has iuippressed the 
convents and confiscated their property, ivhich 
amounted to more than one half of the real estate of 
the whole kingdom, all of which was exempt from 
taxation. Spain, the most devoted to Home, has 
suppressed them, and ordered the sale of a large 
portion of their property. And sliall they fix their 
plague-spots here ? Shall these Jesuits diffuse their 
pestilential vapors, and draw into their noisome vor- 
tex innocent but unsuspecting victims, and become 
a general curse to the country ? Shall our laws, 
which secure liberty to all, be thus trampled down? 

There are more than three hundred nunneries in 
the United States, and how many more we know 





I' - 



♦ 11 







378 



CONVENTS;^ AND THE CONFKgSIONAL. 



not. It inakes us sliuddcv to think liow many 
youn^' women nrr, this mcMncnt, pinin;^' and groan- 
ing away in thu (liingoons of this country, the shives 
of priests, wlio prol'ane the very name of morality, 
and gloat on tlie ruin of virtue in tlie nmltiplication 
of these prisons of death. Tlie priests of Rome 
num])er now more tlian two thousand in this coun- 
try ; and the arrival of almost every emigrant ship 
adds to their nund:)er. Every one of these priests 
is hostile to our holy Protestant Christianity, bound 
by a solemn oath to the Pope of Rome, and an 
insidious plotting enemy against our free institu- 
tions. And, short as their history is in this coun- 
try, the public ear has been frequently startled by 
their violent and licentious crimes. 

What father or mother can peruse the mirrative 
of '^ Lorette," the history of the daughter of a 
Canadian nun, without seeing fulfilled the declara- 
tion of Bruy, Tom. iii., p. GIO, that to ''veil a 
woman or, a nun, is to destroy her." '' Show me a 
house of a Protestant in the United States where 
there is a Roman Catholic, male or female, who 
goes to confessional and communion in the Romish 
church, and I will show you a watch, a spy upon 



►NAL. 



CONVENTS AND THE CONFESSIONAL. 



379 



[k how iiuiny 
ig' and grojin- 
ti'v, the shive.s 
2 of inoralifcy, 
multiplication 
csts of Home 
[ in this coun- 
cmigrant ship 
these priests 
iianity, bound 
loniQ, anil an 
free institu- 
in this coun- 
ty startled by 

the narrative 
lughtor of a 
the declara- 

to ** veil a 
" Show me a 
States where 
female, who 
I the Romish 

a spy upon 



every act, miuI deed, mikI muveilient, of that family," 
savs Mr. Ilouan, fonncrlv a Komish priest. 

We here give a s[»ecimen of the secret instruc- 
tion of Jesuit priests : 

5. " Tlio confessor must mnnngc his matters so tliat tlic 
■widow may iiavc sucli faith in liini as not to do the least thing 
■\vitliout his advice, and his only, which he miiy occasionally 
insinuate to he tlje o.dy basis of iier spiritual edification." 

6. " She must be advised to the fretjuent use and celebra- 
tion of the sacraments, but es})ecially that of penance ; be- 
cause in that she freely makes a discovery of her most secret 
thoughts and every temptation. In the next place, let her 
freciuently communicate and apply for instructions to her 
coid'essor ; to the performance of which she nuist be invited 
by promises of some prayers adapted to her particular occa- 
sions ; and, lastly, let her every day rehearse the litany, 
and stricily examine her conscience." 

7. " It will be also a great help lo the obtaining a perfect 
knowledge of all her inclinations, to prevail with her to re- 
peat a general confession, although she has formerly made 
it to another." 

8. " Discour.se must be made to her concerning the advan- 
tages of the state of widowhood, tlie inconvenience of wed- 
lock, especially when it is repeated, and the dangers to which 
mankind expose themselves by it; but, above all, such as 
more particularly affect her." 

9. "It will be proper, every now and then, cunningly to 
propose to her some match, but such a one be sure, as you 
know she has an aversion to ; and if it be thought that she 
has a kindness for any one, let his vices and failings be 



380 



CONVENTS AND THE CONFESSIONAL. 






« 



represented to licr in a proper llglit. that she may aMior tlio 
tli()U;^lit,s of altt'rini^ liur condition \villi any purson wljatso- 



cver 



>) 



10. " "When, therefore, it is nmnifest tli:\t sl»c is well dis- 
po.sed to continue a widow, it will then he time to reeonnnend 
to her a .spirilu:il life, l)ut not a recluse one, the incon- 
veniences of which must he miignified to her; hut such a one 
n3 Pdnhis or JlushivliKis. kc. ; and let the confessor, 
having as soon as pt.'ssihie prevailed with her to make a vow 
of celihacy, fur two or three years at least, take duo caro 
to opj)ose all tendencies to a second niarri:ige ; and then 
all conversation with men, and diversions even with her 
near relations and kinsfolks, must bo forbidden her, under 
pretence of enterin;^ into a stricter union with God. As 
for the ecclesiastics, who either visit the widow or receive 
visits from her, if they all cannot be worked out, yet let 
none be admitted but what are either recommended by some 
of our society, or are dependants upon them." 

8. " Let women that are young, and descended fron^ rich 
and noble parents, be placed with those widows, that they 
may, by degrees, become subject to our directions, and accus- 
tomed to our method of living. iVs a governess to these, 
let some woman bo chosen and appointed by the family con- 
fessor. Let these submit to all the censures and other cus- 
toms of the society. But such as will not conform them- 
selves immediately dismiss to their parents, or those who 
put them to us, and let them be represented as untractably 
stubborn, and of a perverse disposition." 

3. "Let us, now and then (as if by divine inspiration), 
exhort them to religion in general ; and then artfully insinu- 
ate the perfection nnd conveniences of our institution above 
others. Therefore let confessors of princes, and noblemen, 



CONVENTS AND TIIU CONFKSSIONAL. 



381 



widows, nnd others (from wljom our expectations m.-^y rcnson- 
iilily be large), with great seriousneys iiieulcate tlii.s notion, 
that while we administer to them in divine and spiritual 
things, they, at lea.st, should, in return, contrihute to us of 
their earthly and temporal ; jind let no opportunity ever ho 
slipped of receiving i'roni theiu whatever is oflered : for wc 
liavc lately been informed that several young widows, being 
snatched away by suthlen deatii, did not be(|Ueath to us their 
valualdo effects, through the negligence of some members 
who did not take care to accept of them in due time." 



So poisonous to morals nnd so dangerous to 
governments and lil)crty had these Jesuits become 
in France, in the roiun of Louis XIV., that the 
parliament of France caused their e.\[)ulsl()n. And 
here they come, swarming over our country, from 
the propagandas of Europe, to erect their schools 
and nunneries, and to demoralize and endanger the 
whole structure of our educational system, and to 
seduce, by every hypocritical art, unsuspecting 
Protestant parents to patronize them with their 
wealth, and to show their gratitude by inveigling 
and entrapping their daughters into their convents. 

On this subject, involving the highest interest to 

personal liberty, we appeal to the Legislatures of 

the land. Is it congenial with the free laws and 

liberties of this country that there must be prison- 

U 




382 



CONVENTS AND TIIE CONFESSIONAL. 




houses, under secret and impenetrable bars and bolts, 
where innocent females, unexpectedly and awfully 
deceived, are kept in forced restraint, and in tor- 
tures of mind and body, and all access or egress 
forever forbidden ? Is not here a frightful Inquisi- 
tion in the heart of this country? Is not every 
citizen entitled to his freedom ? Is there a spot in 
this broad American land where the protection of 
the American flag may not reach ? Why are bolts 
and bars necessary in these Romish houses ? Why 
force the inmates within grated walls, and keep 
them strictly confined there, with profound secrecy, 
unless there were some improper and criminal de- 
sign ? The very act is its condemnation. Hence, 
they are guarded with a rigorous espionage ; spies, 
with the fierce surveillance of a despot, are set to 
watch their motions night and day. Read the ever 
uniform stories and honest disclosures of those who 
have been so fortunate, by some unexpected and 
wonderful contrivance, as to escape from the hated 
incarceration. We call upon you, then, legislators, 
to enact a law that shall open these inhuman vaults 
of compulsory disease and death. No less than 
fourteen deaths, says a female writer, occurred in 
the nunnery at Emmetsburg within the ten months 



;t: 



CONVENTS AND THE CONFESSIONAL. 



383 



that she was there. The Rev. Mr. Seymour, of 
England, from an official report made to him by 
the Cardinal Vicar of Rome, states that more than 
half of the young nuns admitted into the convents die 
deranged before they arc twenty-five years of age ! ! 
Shall these alarming facts meet with no response 
and sympathy ? Shall the blood of these victims 
cry from the convents in vain ? Will you not legis- 
late this deep and damning blot of illegal despotism 
from the face of this soil ? Then will you act out 
the true beneicence of our institutions, and confer 
one of the highest boons upon suffering humanity. 



rv >" 




A PROTESTANT EDUCATION FOR AMER- 
ICAN CITIZENS. 




iiii: 





CHAPTER I. 

Americans, do you know that every time you 
unfurl the banner of your country, and rally to 
the defence of your republican school system, you 
insult the sensibilities of the anti- American party, 
foreign and native ? Remember, the debt of grati- 
tude has been fully paid to those who have aided 
you in cutting down your forests, levelling your 
mountains, opening your highways, digging your 
canals, settling your lands, and even in the 
blood shed for the common defence of the country. 
It is paid in the prosperity, the happiness, the 
success, of their posterity, for whom they labored, 
suffered, and endured. They looked to the good of 
their children ; — you, Americans, have now to do 



R AMER- 



.«,' 



m- 



ly time you 

ind rally to 

system, you 

rican party, 

3bt of grati- 

havo aided 

relliug your 

iggiiig your 

en in the 

he country. 

piness, the 

ley labored, 

the good of 

I now to do 






/ 



A' 



/ 



/ 






X 



y ■> / / v y ^ 



i 



I* 







'¥■ 



UIXMM FOE :IMER^ 
irAN CiTIZKNS, 



■ (1 H A P T E B, I . 

A.M.KiUi A^s, do you know that every ^.inie vod 
unfurl Hie banner <)f y; ui v^-nh-.-^ ^qJ ^.!|I^, j^, 
fcbc dv:lv:u t? of youf vepiiblirHu *eiiOi»l :-^;'hM)U yon 
ii];-ult Mio Mt^ri^.iM!ilt^'« uC rht^ niiti- American pimy. 
f*)r';'«rrf :md nnxis:'' HmMHimv^ th*- debt of p-ati- 
tudf' lias K<:nt iVdly pjiid u* lh(:--i' who 'kivc- jiidfi* 

you ill CUitil);L: (iv.vil tv»Ji ]cMV.-t-^, h;Vf'ULI"i;j^ you; 

muiiutidn^^, o]>rr)ln;.: y-ur liighways. digginir yoi. 
canul:^, ^:(jl:i;liu;a: youy Inids, aU'- f;vop in I!- 
Moofl -ihcd tor Hie r:MLSfjon tI^.iV>^(;o ^f i\\r countr 
It i^ i'jtld ivi }tj«' 'y, Hic lia])j»ine>!S, Id ■ 

jjuc«.0,d^, of }h^■•li• p«'-i-' av, Ibt wiKMu I iu-y labors ■', 
sullVred, ard eu iufod 'ihii\ touki>d U> tlio i;::()od o\' 
their ciiiidrvi. ; >oi!, A-tiurl-.-ans, ba^'e now to Jo 



li :IM!'R. 



y tjnie yot) 

A k. 

M of irrat.i. 

;. ..ini!: vol. 
in U. 

(■A)\V,\{\ 

!ie5iS, ill ' 



^(M.H{ 0) 



o\v to lo 




..e'^^" 



■" " •' •iciTni^hr.V.-.ies?''' 






/ r//^e^^ 





y'^^ r/" /^ 



F .l.'J:W l\:r.r. 



PROTESTANT EDUCATION FOR AMERICANS. 385 

the same. It is the duty of the father to protect 
himself and family from injurious iiitluonces ; and 
it is a still more imperative duty for the nation to 
protect its people from the same. Then, shall we 
not be permitted to roll back the tide of priestcraft, 
and place in its way the great counter Avave of 
American common and free school education ? 
This is a question for wise men of all parties. 
This is the principle of that eclectic party which 
the people baptize in their own name to-day ! 

Remember, the greatest as well as the cheapest 
insurance upon this Union is its republican learning. 
You must educate those who are to make laws for 
yourselves and your children — who are to elect 
your judges and your rulers. The more schools 
you build, the fewer jails and alms-houses you will 
require. An extended and free education will give 
to America more private and public prosperity, 
more financial success, more political tranquillity, 
than all other means combined. And, if neglected, 
or surrendered into foreign hands, liberty cannot 
long linger upon your native soil. American citi- 
zens must be respected the world over ; and it is 
their education which secures the rights of con- 
science, and of religious worship, and is the main 

33* 







•KP 



386 PROTESTANT EDUCATION FOR AMERICANS. 

giiamnloe of intogrity and loyalty to tlicir own 
country. 

There is in the United States now an organiza- 
tion called *' Christian Brothers." It has its seat 
in Italy, and under a special bull of the Pope is 
found in every city and neighborhood of our coun- 
try where Popery has made a foot-print. This 
society obliges every *' Christian Brother" to 
renounce his native country, friends, ac(|uaintances, 
and even parents ! And thccO are the " Brothers " 
who conduct the schools, colleges, nunneries, and 
monasteries, of Romanists, all over our land. They 
infuse into the youth of the country the poison of 
religious and national enmity, and there are thou- 
sands of their pupils in New York and other states, 
who, though born upon the soil, will proudly 
declare they are Roman Catholics, and not Ameri- 
cans ! And, that there may be no mistake as to 
the rules and constitution of this secret society, to 
whom not only American Roman Catholics, but 
unsuspecting Protestants, commit the souls and 
bodies of their children, we give some of their 
'' directions," obtained from that little printed vol- 
ume, which is approved by the Pope, and sanctioned 
by all his bishops in our country, but concealed 



P110TI'>TA.NT KDUCATION FOR AMERICANS. 387 

from the public eye. The author is Joliii IJaptist 
La Salic, aii Abbo<, of Nonnaiidy, in J*' ranee, 
assisted by Father Boiidin, of the Society of Jesus, 
and rector of the Jesuits' Novitiate at Ilouen. 



stake as to 



Native Country. — " Fach brother is absolutely required 
to renounce his native country." (Pages 10 and 18 of the 
Rule of Government for the use of th(} Christian Brothers.) 

Depexdency. — "Absolute and blind obedience to the 
commands of the Brother Superior." (Ditto, page 43.) 

Self-denial. — "We liave to renounce our own judg- 
ment, because "vve are unable to judge tilings but in a 
worldly manner." (Ditto, page 91.) 

Diffidence. — "When the 'Brothers' converse with 
persons, strangers to the Order, tlioy will observe an abso- 
lute silence in all that regards tlie Institution. They are 
prohibited from letting anything transpire out of tlie So- 
ciety. They shall never say in what localities, and how 
numerous, are the ' Brothers, ' even if requested ; but, in 
case they cannot avoid an answer, they will limit themselves 
to speak only of the spirit of the Institution." (Rules and 
Constitutions, page 34.) 

Parents AND Friends. — "They will break all affec- 
tions which should bind them to the world, even with parents 
and friends. 

" The ' Brother' shall never speak of his parents, nor of 
his native country, nor of what he has done, unless with 
persons such as the bishop, in case he should be interro- 
gated." (Ditto, page 38.) 

"The 'Brothers' are warned not to attend the 
FUNERALS OF TUEIR PARENTS, Only in the church, in case 



I' 



rt { 







f!*^! 





388 PROTESTANT EDUCATION FOR AMERICANS. 

they reside in the same locality. But the Superiors 'svill 
Bee that even this do'i.s not occuii ! "' (Ditto, \y.\}r(} (J5.) 

Esi'iONAiiE. — " It* one of the fraternity sliould propose a 
new maxim, -wliieh was known to l)e fulde, or might cause 
serious consequences, the oilier ' Brothers ' will combat it 
with silence, and report it immediately to the Brother Supe- 
rior." (Ditto, page ?j'2.) 

IIypocklsy. — " The ' Brothers ' will ca^ry their heads 
always straight, inclining it only in front, never turning 
behind, nor incline it on one side or on the other. Should 
necessity compel them to it, they will turn the whole body 
quickly and with gravity. 

" They will avoid to show their forehead turned into 
ringlets, but the nose above all, in order that strangers may 
see in their faces an external wisdom, Avhich might be the 
sign of spiritual virtue. 

" They ought never to keep their lips neither too close, 
nor too open." (Ditto, pages 35, 36.) 

The books cf this society for the education of 
Americans arc published under the authority of 
Archbishop Hughes, of New York, and endorsed 
by other bishops thus : 

" I recommend the series of school-books compiled by the 

Christian Brothers, and published by ( ), New York, 

and wish them to be used in every school in the diocese 
where there are no other Catholic school-books in the hands 
of the children. 

"f J. B., Archbishop of ChicinnatiJ' 

" We heartily recommend for the use of our Catholic 



/ 



31UCANS. 



PROTESTANT EDUCATION FOR AMERICANS. 389 



irry their heads 



icither too close, 



schools the books of the Christian IJrothori^. puMished hj 
( ), New York. f JOHN, liis/mii of Alhrnnj:' 

" I cjirnestly recoiiuiiend the liuoks oi' tlie Christian broth- 
ers, puhlislied hy ( ), for the use of our Catholie schools 

in this Diocese. f J^^I1^^ lii^Jinp uf Duffalo:' 

The List great Roini.sli convention in Baltimore 
had for its true object nothing but to iurther the 
assault upon the education of the American masses. 

Soon after its session, eight states of the I" lion 
made a sinuiltaneous movement foi a division of 
the public school funds for this pur[)()se. In Cali- 
fornia alone, however, was the ellbrt successful. 

A pupil in a Roman Catholic school cannot, 
under the heaviest penalty, open the lids of a book, 
or look at a print or painting, wliich has not been 
sanctioned and approved by tlit church 1 Even the 
emblems on the tombs of masons in Jamaica have 
been effaced by stone-cutters, under the Jesuit 
priests, because that institution was hateful to the 
Pope. 

Long before the murder of the Huguenots in Flor- 
ida, under the Spanish Inf[uisition, the Pope had 
made disposal of the entire American continent. 
Pius the Fifth exercised this right to the monarchs 
of Spain ; and the only way to possess it is that 




hi 



390 PUOTKSTANT EDUCATION FOR AMERICANS. 

wisely adopted, in attempting to seduce the people 
through educational influences ; in plain English, 
to keep them ignorant, as they do the masses in all 
Romish countries. 

*' We want to make Rome the District of Colum- 
bia for all Christendom," is the l)old avowal of an 
editor of the Popish |)ress. In the District of 
Columbia no citizen can even vote for the President 
of their country, while the Jesuit college of George- 
town furnishes the education to many of the officers 
of the government. And in the state department, 
especially, nmch facility is thus aflbrded for man- 
agers of that institution to know the private trans- 
actions of our national bureaus. Even the lion 
loves the lair of its nativity, and the wolf seeks the 
cavern where it was born ; but here is a secret, in- 
visible influence, training Americans upon their 
own soil to curse country, family, and government, 
because these shelter and protect from all tyrant 
foes. ^ 

Americans, there is a voice calling you to action 
now, stronger than that of court, jury, or country ; 
it is the voice of God ! It is time to rise and fix 
a higher value to the education of all the people, 



MERICANS. 



protf:stant kducation for ameuicans. 391 



when iiieu arc ilLsuii.s.scd for Amorieaiiisiu from 
office. 

In Norfolk, Va., at the lato election of Gov. 
Wise, it was publicly and semi-onicially announced 
by the press tlnit no one in the navy yard at that 
station could vote the American ticket, unless at the 
expense of his i>lace ; and fifteen hundred men ,vero 
forced for their bread to vote against their senti- 
ments, after making an exjimple by removing 
three experienced mechanics, ^vho had expressed 
their partiality for American principles before that 
election. In the treasury department, whether in 
the custom-houses, light-houses, or the erection of 
new light-houses, the same system has invariably 
been pursued. So, also, of the employes con- 
nected with the post-office and the transportation 
of mails ; and all the patronnge of the general 
government, and of the states Avhich have sympa- 
thized with President Pierce's administr;ition, the 
greatest crime has been faithfulness to the princi- 
ples and policy of the government your fathers left 
you. They disclaimed all foreign interference in 
American affairs ; they declared the Union must 
be preserved ; thnt none but Americans should rule 
your country ; that national treaties were inviolate ; 



I*-'*' 




m-'-^:^ 



III 



1?^ 





392 PROTKSTANT EDUCATION FOR AMERICANS. 

that no union sliould exist bctweon oluirc]! and 
stato ; thai [XM'soual niorjilily wns iiidisjxMisjihhi tor 
oiUoi^ ; i\\u\ Ihat wo must havo opon lUbh^s in all 
our public schools. 

In the h\nislM(uro of Lowc^' Canada, N(n-uial 
suliools lia\o boon abolished by Ivonumists, and 
none but those under the eye of the priests exist; so 
that niass, e-onfession, the sacraments j»nd dogmas 
of the Jvomish church, employ the whole time of 
tlie pupils. So will tlu^y have it in all the states of 
our Union, as soon as a sullicient number oC Jesuits 
can be liad to cooperate with corrupt [)oliticians in 
our legislatures. Our public schools will be con- 
verted into jails for American women, and om* 
Normal schools into Ronush theological seminaries. 
Arc w^c a people, Americans ? Have wc a country 
and goYcrnment of our own ? If so, can we, as 
Anglo-Saxon Protestants, sanction or endure to have 
mass said over our national soul by these meddling 
Jesuits, who tluis insult our great nation with such 
worn-out Ibolery? Intelligence of the people is the 
foundation on which our institutions are based ; and 
a practical Protestant education, therefore, is the 
essential element of our democratic freedom ; hence, 
as a system of instruction, our Protestant free 



AMERICANS. 



PROTESTANT EDUCATION FOR AMMUICANS. 393 



Protestant free 



Hchoolfl arc iiiHopnr;i])lo from our libcrUcs. Tliin 
right to cducjilo ilio j)(H)i)l(i is th(3 ri;z;lit of solf- 
govornuiont, Jiiul our coniinoii scliools aro, in iliis 
sense, the means of self-[>reservaiion. No niaii is 
fit to be (considered an iiitelli^njni voter, ardess he 
is Jibk) to read the vote and tlie eonslitiition from 
whence lie deriv(;s the right ofsnlfrage. 

Americans l)oast of tlieir iree press ; but how can 
that save their liberties, unless they have a free 
and enlightened people to read its products ? What 
kind of an idea can wo expect the masses to have 
of freedom, when, without an education of the 
mind, it inijdies in their judgment to do as they 
please ? What kind of freedom is it which excludes 
the Bible from the people, and therefore forces the 
desecration of the Sabbath on the nation 'f In no 
country upon earth has liberty ever existed, where 
the Bible is hid from the education of the people. 
This has always kept republicanism out of France ; 
the people cannot be fit for it without an open 
Bible in their schools and families. Sixteen years 
ago, the assault upon the American system of edu- 
cation openly commenced in the State of New York. 
At that time the Bible was found in all the public 
schools, and some portion of God's holy word was 
34 






in 

m 




i.-.i 

'r- 



I 1 




'. > 






394 PROTESTANT EDUCATION FOR AMERICANS. 

reverently read at the opening exercises every day. 
The Romish hierarchy became alarmed, and Bishop 
Hughes determined to prevent any Roman Catholic 
from entering these free schools. He went before 
the Common Council, and demanded a portion of 
the school fund to establish separate Roman Catholic 
schools, where no Bible could be read, and no God 
served but the Pope and his priests. The Council 
of New York city of course refused the application. 
He then had a petition numerously signed by 
his subjects, and sent it to the Legislature, asking 
that the power be taken away from the corporation 
of that city. The report and bill found the warmest 
cooperation in the executive of the state, and had 
it been sanctioned by the Legislature, more than 
one half of the Jesuit priesthood in New York 
would have been paid out of the school fund of 
that city ! The rejection of this iniquity, by the 
people's representatives, exasperated the foreign 
hierarchy ; and Bishop Hughes, as their leader, 
called a public meeting at Carroll Hall, to nominate 
a ticket to the next Assembly of the state. His 
political speech was vociferously cheered, and, as 
Americans caught the sound, it revived the spirit 
of the heroes of our liberties, and the American 



MERICANS. 



PROTESTANT EDUCATION FOR AMERICANS. 395 



party, from that hour, was born to give salvation 
and deliverance to this people. 

Our countrymen, give us your attention while 
we consider this solemn subject, in which, more 
than any other, you are deeply interested, and we 
will embrace in the next chapter the Dangers of 
Education in Roman Catholic Seminaries. 





CIIAPTEK II. 

There arc now himdrecls of Roman Catholic 
seminaries and colleges in full operation, and mul- 
tiplying rapidly over our country. To monopolize 
instruction wherever they can, and to get the con- 
trol of schools, that the whole may be reduced to 
the pliant domination of the Pope, — to this end 
the order of Jesuits was established. That they 
will involve this land in troubles and conflicts, is 
just as certain as that they are swarming over our 
country. Where is the American parent, let alone 
the Christian under vows, who, knowing the aim 
of the Jesuits, will turn over his child to be trained 
up by men wdio will use that child afterwards as 
their tool to ruin the liberty, civil and religious, 
which our fathers transmitted, a priceless boon, to 
us? 

Will you lend me, therefore, Americans, your 
candid attention, while I present the dangers of 



PROTESTANT EDUCATION FOR AMERICANS. 397 

« 

intrusting your sons and (laughters to be educated 
in Roman Catholic seminaries? 

1st. Education in Homan Catholic seminaries 
IS dangerous, because tiik method of instruction 

IS SUl'ERFICIAL AND ANTI-REPUBLICAN. 

The character of the instruction imparted in 
these priestly schools is most superficial, and its 
whole tendency is anti-republican, and only cal- 
culated to weave around the mind tlie narrow 
and Jesuitical prejudices inimical to freedom of 
thought and expanded intellect. Their method 
can njver make good scholars, independent of the 
papal influence so sedulously thrown over them. 
They omit the modern improvements in some 
branches, and abridge to a narrow compass, to suit 
their purposes, some of the most important works. 
They emasculate every sentiment favorable to lib- 
erty, or our free Protestant institutions, — every- 
thing relating to the reformation by Luther, and to 
those heroic and noble founders of liberty who 
reared this beautiful and Protestant republic, or 
who have appeared at any time in the world ; or, 
if their deeds or names are mentioned, they are 
depreciated and misrepresented. Books have been 
brought out from the schools, and publicly exposed, 
34* 



398 



PROTESTANT EDUCATION FOR AMERICANS. 




in the city of New York, some pages of which had 
been bhickencil over, or defaced and stricken out, 
by the priests and their teachers. Their system of 
elementary and scientific instruction is narrowed to 
conform to their ecclesiastic-'d expurgation and 
repression of the youthful faculties. History is to 
them a dangerous subject, especially when the sons 
of Protestants are the pupils, and is, therefore, 
skimmed in a compend prepared hy means well 
adapted to the end. Philosophy, natural, moral, 
and mental, is studied very superficially. So are 
the mathematics. The whole system of education 
is adapted to make only counterfeit republicans. 
With a very plausible appearance, they advertise 
** fashionable schools," where the " manners of the 
young ladies wdll be polished after the most ap- 
proved pattern?," and where the young gentlemen 
will be '* educated in all manly arts and scientific 
attainments." With such professions and adver- 
tisements, they impose upon Protestants. It is 
the syren song of the sorceress, to charm the ear 
with seductive music, and beguile the unsuspecting 
listeners into their treacherous bosom. It is the 
white signal of a foe, — a trumpet blown from the 
Vatican across the Atlantic, to summon Americans 



JERICANS. 



PROTESTANT EDUCATION FOR AMERICANS. 399 



to adorn their banner with the papal cross, and to 
bayonet their own bodies. 

Unhappily, too many Protestants have contrib- 
uted already to build up these seminaries of deadly 
misch'jf, and dangerous weapons of destruction. 
lliwo not the Protestants, in their liberality, been 
totally blind to the artful designs of the Romish 
priests and " Sisters of Charity," who have taken 
all pains to wave before their eyes these false 
colors, and to spread out, in flaming capitals, these 
flattering and gilded cards of a *' solid and fashion- 
able " education? In this mistaken liberality of 
Protestants, they have only been made unwitting 
tools to advance the grand policy of Rome to gain 
a controlling influence in the states, and to add 
subjects, power, and wealth, to their hierarchy. 
* 2d. These seminaries are dangerous, because 

THOSE WHO preside OVER THEM, AND ARE TEACHERS, 

ARE Jesuits and Jesuitesses. 

Since the order of the Jesuits was established 
by Pope Paul III., in 1540, they have usurped 
and controlled education in all the domains of the 
Papacy. But who are the Jesuits ? They are the 
bodij-guard of the Pope. They poison the fountains 
of literature, and are everywhere the destroyers of 





400 PROTESTANT EDUCATION FOR AMERICANS. 

youth. Pretending to favor intelligence, tliey are 
the agents of darkness, the corru[)tors of female 
virtue in the confessional, the libertines of monas- 
teries, having the nuns for their concubines ; the 
bane of faniili^^s, society, governments, and the 
scourge u V- world. * * 

The Jes : fi;..3 are the tools of the priests or 
Jesuits. They always follow them, and are placed 
over the nunnery schools. An able and reliable 
writer says : 

''AH who have acquired any knowledge of the interior 
working of the papal system are well aware how much use 
that system has already made of tlie agency of woman. 
This has been the case very specially where it could not put 
forth any very large measure of direct power; and to this 
the Jesuits have always devoted their utmost skill and 
treacherous craft. Their great aim is to gain the confi- 
dence of females in every rank of life, and of every shade 
of character, and to employ them all as agents. They may 
be ladies of rank, wealth, and beauty ; and may use their 
personal influence in the very highest circles, around the 
throne, and behind the throne. They may be in the middle 
clatises, and may manage to become acquainted with all the 
affairs of the busy and engroo^ting events of political and 
commercial life. They may be governesses and nursery- 
maids, and may insinuate their plausible wiles into the 
unsuspicious minds of even young children. They may be 
the seeming benefactresses of poverty and wretchedness, and 
may thus gain ascendency over the compassionate and the 



PROTESTANT EDUCATION FOR AMERICANS. 401 



sentimental ; or tliej may even haunt the scenes of deepest 
infamy, and ensnare youth into passion and crime. What 
they have to do, and are trained to do, is to accjuire either 
an influence over men in all stations, so as to induce tliem 
to give countenance and support to Popery, or such a knowl- 
edge of all men's designs as to be able to betray them to 
their priestly and Jesuitical advisers. Tliis is done through- 
out all Europe, to an extent that scarcely any person can 
even imagine. By this secret, universal, and almost invisi- 
ble agency, Rome contrives to know everything that .. done, 
or said, or almost thought, by every man, in everv ci e ; 
and can counterplot and overreach every attcmp' it at can 
be made or framed against her wide enterpiise of t :.iblish- 
ing universal dominion on the ruins of all true ' ^erty, civil 
and sacred." 

These agents are far more powerful wlien they 
are employed in education. Here they act, as in 
every other department, with the most crafty de- 
sign, to captivate the young mind, and to attract 
young ladies into their seminaries, which are 
always an appendage to a convent or a nunnery. 
They are the spies of the priests. They are bound 
to carry out the designs of Romanism. With a 
bland and winning exterior, they conceal from the 
view of Protestants their real intentions. But 
behind this exterior, when Protestants and all out- 
ward responsibilities are withdrawn, they show 



Ik . 






402 PROTESTANT EDUCATION FOR AMERICANS. 

their real traits to be the most imperious, cruel, 
and tyrannical. 

The following testimony is from a competent 
witness, who has had good opportunities of watch- 
ing them in France : 

''A great number of Protestants speak of these Jesuit 
' Sisters ' as ' walking angels,' or representatives of the 
Virgin Mary. But I am convinced that, if many of the 
Protestant pastors of France were to contribute only a small 
part of the annoyances they have endured from those ' walk- 
ing angels,' a huge volume of facts might be published, 
which would prove that the words Protestant and demon 
are synonymous in the opinion of a vast majority of these 
* Sisters.' My dear departed friend, the He v. A. Le Four- 
drey, pastor at Brest, who visited the hospitals in that 
important seaport for twenty-two years, often told me that 
he never met with such an intolerant set of human beings 
as these ■ Sisters.' Many of them, he has said, attend their 
patient till tliey find out that he is a Protestant ; and then, 
unless they have some secret hope of converting him, very 
often their charity degenerates into brutality. It would, 
doubtless, open the eyes of Protestants, as to these • Sisters,' 
were they only to become a little better acquainted with 
them. Could they only, for a moment, look upon their 
wrathful countenance when they see a person with a Bible 
in his hand, they would then, perhaps, understand the dan- 
ger of these Jesuitesses ; " and, we add, of sending the 
daughters of Protestant parents to their schools in the 
United States. 

The daughters of Protestants who, unhappily, 



AMERICANS. 



PROTESTANT EDUCATION FOR AMERICANS. 403 



imperious, cruel, 



enter these nunnery seminaries, sec nutliin;^ but 
v>'h. ' is ngreeable, polite, and perhaps (lelif»htful, 
until they arc finally persuaded — for this is a 
constant end the Jesuitesses have in a iew — to 
take the white and black veil ; and then, when 
shut out and imprisoned, under bars, and lock and 
key, they find, when too late, their sad mistake, 
and the awful deception which has been practised 
upon them. They find that these Jesuitesses, who 
appeared as angels of goodness, full of heavenly 
smiles, arc but demure, unsocial, treacherous 
tyrants. 




11 





CHAPTER III. 

3d. TlIESR SEMINARIES ARE DANGEROUS, BECAUSE 

THE Bible and all Christian influences are re- 
moved, AND THE idolatrous RITES AND PAPAL MUM- 
MERIES OF THE Ro.A'lSII CHURCH ARE SUBSTITUTED IN 
THEIR PLACE. 

One of the first evidences that the pupil has 
passed from a Christian society and Protestant 
associations, after entering a Roman Catholic semi- 
nary, is the taking away of the Bible. This is 
invariably done to every pupil. Why is the Bible 
taken away ? Does it deserve this treatment ? Is 
it not the revelation from heaven to man, in which 
mercy, peace, and sfdvation, are made known to our 
world ; the treasure of wisdom and truth ; the only 
safeguard of man's rights, and of social, mental, 
moral, political, and religious liberty ? Is not that 
mode of instruction to be suspected which leaves 
out its pure morality, its salutary motives, its 
sublime influence and precepts? Can that system 



PROTKSTANT EDUCATION FOR AMERICANS. 405 



be right which tako.s from the trunk of the pupil 
this blessed Book, and robs the owner, not only of 
property, but of the only guide of youth to hap- 
piness and heaven? Is Rome afraid of the IVible ? 
Yes, we have eonie to the dilliculty. Rome is 
afraid of the Bible ! Rome is from beneatli, — the 
Bible is from al)ove. The light of truth shines too 
clearly for its toleration. The worship of the 
Virgin Mary, the Pope, and his infallibility, his 
cardinals, and his supremacy, celibacy of the priests, 
purgatory, images, beads, relics, the mass, transub- 
stantiation of a wafer, penances, and all the pomp- 
ous ceremonies and pagan puerilities, have no 
place in this book of heaven. Popery is not found 
in the Bible ; but the Bible opposes Popery, ;ind all 
its w^orks of darkness. It must not be in the 
possession of the pupil, for then the human impos- 
tures and lucrative incomes of the priests and 
Jesuitesses Avould be exposed. Having removed 
this grand obstacle to their success, the new pupils 
are direci od to those popish observances to which 
they have been heretofore strangers. There is no 
consulting their inclinations, nor the inclinations 
of their parents. Unqu optioned and absolute sub- 

35 




1 



ii5 








406 PROTESTANT EDUCATION FOR AMERICANS. 

mission is required. They are compelled to con- 
form to these religious and pagan cereuionies. 

In the mean time, the pupil is totally unsuspecting 
of any design to alienate attaclnncnt to previous 
ideas and parental modes of thinking and worship, 
or to eradicate the lessons imbibed from Protestant 
education. Knowing nothing of Jesuitism, — its 
consummate art, its practised deceptions, its insid- 
ious approaches, and bland addresses, — the new 
pupil is easily deceived, and, by a gradual,, con- 
tinued process, becomes habituated to the impres- 
sions and instmctions of the teachers, until, like a 
bird in the snare of the fov/ler, the wob is woven, 
and the innocent son, or daughter, becomes a 
Papist. The elFect is, to I'ving the pupils to the 
feet of the monks and Jesuitesses, to reduce them 
under a yoke of superstitious dread and fear, to 
deprive the mind of all elastic energy, and to 
effeminate and dwarf the intellect and soul. An- 
other effect is to alienate the affections from the 
parents, . whom the daughter or son is taught to 
believe are heretics, and, therefore, unworthy of 
their confidence as guides in this world, much less 
as guides to the next. Have you ever reflecied, 
parents, upon the effect of these papal delusions ? 



MERICANS. 



PROTESTANT EDUCATION FOR AMERICANS. 407 



111 polled to con- 
cromoiiics. 
illy luisuspecting 
cut to previous 
ig arid worship, 
from Protestant 
Jesuitism, — its 
ptions, its insid- 
?ses, — the new 
a gradual,, con- 
to the imprcs- 
}rs, until, like a 
p web is woven, 
er, becomes a 
e pupils to the 
to reduce them 
d and fear, to 
nergy, and to 
und soul. An- 
tions from the 
n is taught to 
, unworthy of 
orld, much less 
ever reflected, 
pal delusions? 



— the poison which is inhaled ? The danger to which 
your children are exposed, in this respect, in these 
seminaries, is confirmed by numerous and incontro- 
vertible testimonies ; and, could the examples and 
the statements be set before you in all the truth 
and vividness of the reality, you would shrink from 
these institutions with horror. 

"Experience," says a writer, "furnishes many signal and 
mournful examples of the perversion of the minds of ingen- 
uous youth, when committed to the instruction of Roman- 
ists. Never shall I forget one remarkable instance, which 
occurred many years ago, not only within tiie bounds of my 
own knowledge, but in one of the families of my own pas- 
toral charge. An amiable, elegant, and highly-promising 
youth was sent to a Koman Catholic seminary, for the 
single object of learning, to rather more advantage than wa3 
otherwise practicable, a polite living language. He attained 
his purpose, but at a dreadful expense. »lle very speedily 
became a zealous Papist : began in a few weeks to address 
and reproach his parents, by letter, as blinded heretics, out 
of the way of salvation ; was deaf to every remonstrance, 
both from tiiem and their pastor, and remains to the present 
day a devoted, incorrigible Romanist. And similar to this 
is the mournful story of hundreds of the sons and daughters 
of Protestant parents in our land, who have inconsiderately 
and cruelly committed their children to papal training, and 
found, when too late, that they had contracted a moral con- 
tagion never to be eradicated." 

" I am well ac(|uainted," says Dr. Sandwith, " with a 
gentleman of great influence, and great ability, who has 




f*,lf( 



'•a 









408 PROTESTANT EDUCATION FOR AMERICANS, 

seen much of the world, and in the course of his travels on 
the Continent avjis so impressed with the importance of a 
knowledge of the continental languages, tlult, in an evil 
hour, he brougiit home a Roman Catholic governess to 
instruct his ciiihhcn in tliat accomj)lishment. T^ow, tliu 
effect of that did not nppear at first. His children had been 
generally taught the principles of Protestantism, and for a 
while all went on smoothly. But, so insidious is the prog- 
ress of Popery, the foundations of Protestantism in tliat 
family were being sap[)ed while no external eflect appeared; 
but, after a while, his wife went over to the Roman Catholic 
church, and then 1 need not say in what danger the whole 
family were placed. Thus is Roman Catholicism ever seek- 
ing to undermine and overthrow Protestantlsn; ; l)y indus- 
triously introducing Roman Catholic governesses and Roman 
Catholic servants into Protestant families, the mischief is 
accomplished ere we are aware. It is well lor us to be on 
our guard."' 

The opposition of Popery to Protestantism is 
Avell known. Every Papist, as well as th(; priests, 
is bonnd by the deerees of the Council of Trent to 
oppose, to the utmost of his power, " heretics," 
that iS) Protestants. Hence Papists, in the United 
States, are laid under a solemn obligation, at the 
peril of exconununication, never to enter a Prot- 
estant church. The system of education, infusing 
into the minds of pupils this bitter hostility to 
Protestants, is, in the most dangerous sense, anti- 
republican. '' Spreading over our cities, towns, 



AMERICANS, 



PROTESTANT EDUCATION FOR AMERICANS. 409 



ami rural districts, enjoying all the advantages of 
native citizens, tliey are not luitli us, but a(/ai?ist us. 
"While our Protestant people had charita])ly supposed 
that Romanism had undeigont^ some modification 
for the better, yet // is uucliau(jecl in all i's cssenliai 
points. It has lost none of its virulence and enmity 
to Protestants.'' Hence, on " ^launday Thurs- 
day," once every year, in Rome, and in all Catho- 
lic churches of the United States, Protest.. nts, liere 
and all over the world, are solemnly, with " hell 
and candle," cursed and damned. Archhis]io[> 
Hughes, in his organ, the Freeman's Journal^ tells 
us, ^^ Protestant is?n is daivjerous to the country. 
All ivho love truth and sustain right must seek the 
counter balanciufj power to disunion in the Catholic 
population of the country," The dogmas enjoining 
this unchristian hatred and umuitigated bigotry to 
Protestants, and to all who entertain dilTerent sen- 
timents, are spread all over the canons of the 
Romish church, and have been acted out in every 
period of its history. A gentleman writing from 
Italy states the following fact : 

'• An English ludy lost u daughter at Rome, and on the 
tonil). ^Yhil■h ^\as in the English riotesiant cemeteiy, she 
^vished to have the verse from St. jNIatthew, ' Blessc^l are 
the pure iu heart, for they shall see God,' inscrihcd; but an 

35* 




410 PB-OTESTANT EDUCATION FOR AMERICANS. 

officer of the Pope, connected -with the jcnsorsliip, entered 
the workshop of the statuary who was working at the tomb, 
and forbade him inscribin'j; more than the first half of the 
verse, as he said it was neither right nor just that heretics 
should see the Lord."' 

Thousands of Protestants in the United States 
are ignorant of the workings of this system ; that 
it is a system chiefly of proselytism to gain their 
sons and daughters over to Rome, to secure, as iar 
as possible, the control of their faculties, and, as a 
consequence, to ruin their moral and mental fjuali- 
ties, and all their dearest hopes of heaven. 

4th. TlIEY ARE DANGEROUS, BECAUSE RoMANISM IN 
ITS INSTRUCTIONS AND FRUITS IS IMMORAL. 

The moral profligacy of the Romish priests and 
nuns has for ages characterized the histories of that 
church, and filled with. astonishment, loathin,^', 
and horror, the Christian world." The evidence 
on this subject is clear and overwhelming. The 
Popes of Rome, from Gregory VIII. , through all 
the succeeding centuries, with scarcely an excep- 
tion, were notorious for peculation, extortion, glut- 
tony, concubinage, murder, perjury., theft, lying, 
for^ory, and other crimes, which served to show 
more than anything else to what shameless degra- 
dation these lordly pontiffs could descend, and how 



± 



EIIICANS. 



PROTESTANT EDUCATfON FOR AMERICANS. 411 



risorsliip, entered 

:ing at the tomb, 

first liulf of the 

ust that heretics 

United States 
system ; thiit 
to gain their 
secure, as far 

ties, and, as a 
mental fjiiali- 

iaven. 

^. llOMANISM IN 
L. 

di priests and 
istories of that 
ent, loathin;!', 
The evidence 
lehning. The 
., through all 
ely an excep- 
xtortion, glut- 
theft, lying, 
rved to show 
imeless degra- 
;end, and how 



much they ha\'e deserved the universal execration 
of mankind. Parallel with these, and in natural 
consistency with their immoral tenets and instruc- 
tions, have been the vices and {iwful corruptions 
of monasteries and nunneries. 

Unless w^e are prepared to discard the accumu- 
lating testimony of a thousand years ; unless we 
are willing to set at naught the suffrages of the 
o-reatest and best men that ever adorned the church 
of God ; nay, unless w^e are prepared to reject the 
confessions of some of the most respectable Roman- 
ists themselves, — we cannot evade the evidence 
that many, very many, of those Ijoasted seats of 
celibacy and peculiar devotcdness, have been, in 
reality, sinks of deep and awful licentiousness. 
Indeed, if it w^ere not so, considering wdiat human 
nature is, and considering the nature and manage- 
ment of those institutions, it would encroach on the 
province of miracle. 




CriAPTERIV. 

The tree is known bv its fruits ; the fruits are 
known by the tree. The fruits of priestly educa- 
tion are strikingly seen in all Roman Catholic coun- 
tries. What a picture do Austria, Rome, Spain, 
Portugal, P»ulgium, Roman Catholic Ireland, Mex- 
ico, Cuba, Central America, and the South Ameri- 
can states, present ! T!^e annals of the world, in 
no coun trios, can present such an amount of pau- 
perism, ignorance, crimes, and licenticasness. By 
official documents, submitted to the House of Com- 
mons, in 1654, there Avere, in Catholic Ireland, 700 
cases of murders in three years, or 54 to every mil- 
lion of inhabitants, besides filth, ignorance, vices, 
vnd ot]]or crimes of every phase and degree. In 
papal Frantv, the existence and fruits of the Rom- 
ish rciMrion, \vlth priestly instruction, have produced 
a natio. of infidels ; while, in the city of Paris 
alone, acording to the census in 1854, there were 
29,0GC legitimate, and 19,000 illegitimate cbil- 



PROTESTANT EDUCATION FOR AMERICANS. 413 



the fruits are 
)riestly educa- 
Catholic coun- 
Roinc, Spain, 
Ireland, Mex- 
South Ameri- 
the world, in 
nount of pan- 
ic as ness. By 
fouse of Com- 
; Ireland, TOO 
to every mil- 
France, vices, 

degree. In 
of the Rom- 
Mvc produced 
'^ty of Paris 
, there were 
timate chil- 



dren. In the city of Yienna, regarded as the model 
city of the Papacy, there were 8,081 legitimate, 
and 10,000 illegitimate ; — more than half. But 
priestly education in Rome itself, the very fountain 
of the Papacy, shows its striking elfects. On the 
authority of ^letamier, out of 4, 04;} ])irths, 3,100 
were foundlings, three fourths of whom die in the 
Romish asylums, while misery, rags, beggary, indo- 
lence, and every species of vice and immorality, 
ahound. And this in the consecrated city of the 
Pope, Avith its 10,000 papal priests, monks, nuns, 
and in a population of only 130,000 ! Mirabcau 
says : 

" A peasant Avho knows how to read, in papal countries, 
is a rare being. There is often only one school for a whole 
bailiwick ; and, moreover, the selioohnasters are ignorant and 
ill-paid. The priests govern the whole nation ; and they 
wish this state of thinsrs to last, as it is advantaireous to 
them. They increase superstition all tliey can, and this 
superstition is destructive of every kind of industry. The 
infinite numbers of fetes, pi]giinia;i:;es. and piocessions. keep 
np idleness and misery. In the island of Sicily alone, 
tliere are 2<S.000 monks and 18,0i!0 nuns~in all, 40,000 
useless individuals out of a populatio!i of l.(i.'>0,000 bouIs ; 
that is to say, one idle monk amongst every 35 iiihabitants. 
It is a phenomenon to fmd a person among the lower classes 
who can either read or write, throughout the insular and 
coutii'iental part of the kingdom of Naples. This is, I say, 



414 PROTESTANT EDUCATION FOR AMERICANS. 



Is. , 



IS;- 



from personal cognizance. As a necessary consequence, :he 
pco{)lo are a prey to the n;ost alMLir<l superstitions ; credu- 
lous believers in the sacrilegious farces called miracles, such 
as the liquefaction of the blood of St. Janunrius, and other 
similar tricks of priestly legerdemain, and the blind instru- 
ments of scheming priests." 

Dr. Giustiiiijini, in a late work, described the 
iiiinioral lives of the priests in Rome as a thing so 
common that it excites little surprise, except with 
strangers. lie speaks of the moral corru])tions of 
auricular confession, the depth of pollutions which 
characterize this feature of priestly power. "But 
why," says he, "should I speak of this moral 
depravity of Popery in Rome ? It is everywhere 
the same. It appears dilferently, but never changes 
its character. In America, where female virtue is 
the 'diaracteristic of the nation, it is under the con- 
trol of the priest. If a Roman Catholic lady, the 
wife of a free American, should choose to have the 
priest in her bedroom, she has only to pretend to 
be indisposed, and, asking for the spiritual father, 
the confessor, nc other person, not even the hus- 
band, dare enter. In Rome, it would bo at the 
risk of his life ; in America, at the risk of being 
excommunicated, and deprived of all spiritual priv- 
ilesfcs of the church and even excluded from 



PROTESTANT EDUCATION FOR AMERICANS. 415 



hepven." Such, parents, jill ovur tlic pMpjil world, 
ai'J the baiiel'iil ami (laii<j;en)iis ell'ects of coming in 
sontjict with priests and Popery. Can you consent 
to place your children under their influence and 
power? Arc you willing to hazard their mental 
and moral training to such hjinds ? — to hazard all 
that is dear in life ? 

5th. Roman Catholic Seminaries are dangerous, 

BECAUSE THEY DENV LIBERTV OF OPINION, AND SUBJU- 
GATE THE CONSCIENCE. 

The conscience belongs to the individual, and is 
responsible to no human being, but to God alone. 
In the Declaration of Independence and the i'ederal 
constitution, no more sacred principle was enunci- 
ated than the lihertij of private juclfjjncnt, or opin- 
ion^ and freedom of conscience. This right is 
inherited by creation ; no human or ecclesiastical 
governments can conter it or take it away. It is 
the birthright of the individual, and inalienable. 
But the hierarchy of Rome, in its insatiable thirst 
for power and blasphemous presumption, claims the 
conscience of every human being. We need not ask 
where it derived this claim ; for the demand is so 
absurd that nature, reason, and heaven, at once be- 
lie it, and declare its foul usurpation. It, of course, 






410 PROTESTANT EOIK.'ATION FOR AMKRICANS. 





like every other tynniiiical usurpation of tliat cor- 
rupt elmrch, only piovcs its astonishin;^" impudence 
in making the demand. Hut, nevertheless, it issues 
ils dogmas and decrees to this eilect, and from the 
eleven! h century to this liour has sul)jugated the 
conscience of its votaries. They nnist think as the 
church — that is, the priests — tliink. They must 
not dare to assume the exercise of rensou and free- 
dom of conscience in any matters of faith, or in 
what concerns tlie [priesthood ; for the priests alone, 
not the Bible, nor heaven, enact their rules and 
pu^>li-h their dogmas by which they claim the con- 
science. Pope Pius IX., only a few years ;igo, de- 
nounced the liberty of the press, and all Bible 
societies ; and Archbishop Hughes confines the 
same liberty of conscience to the interior of the 
soul. "There is not," ^ays he, '<a single reli- 
gious book, of common reputation, in the Roman 
Catholic church, which does not make unlimited 
obedience to a priestly confessor the safest and 
most perfect way to salvation." 

Are you ready, parents, to coniuiit your daugh- 
ters to the guidance and care of Jesuits and Jesuit- 
esses, whose one great aim is to teach them to re- 
nounce the njitive sentiment of liberty, to proselyte 



PROTESTANT KUUCATIOxN FOR AMERFCANS. 417 



c siifest and 



thorn to tlicir iMitli, and to ^-ot liold of tlio ron- 
scicnct' ? Do you consciH (hat ihvy sliouM surren- 
der this right, tliis Aincricaii luinciple, tho grand 
principhj of tli"ir 'nih'Ccasihlc inheritance 7 But, by 
pLicing th<Mn in Ilomish senutiaries, you phice tlieui 
in a situation wlicre, iVoni all past expcricnco^ not 
one in twenty, if one at all, (^ver escapes the snare. 
The conductors of these establishnients make to you 
V'ory fair promises, and will deny any attempt at 
creating a S(M*tarian feeling^, with a, Aiew to detach 
their alVections from the ties of family or homo, or 
to alienate their free Protestant preferences ; hut 
it is the art of their prol'ession to deceive, and their 
very oath and their invariable practice contradict 
these statements. One of the maxims of Jesuits 
is, to prevaricate, to athrm, or deny, as the case 
requires. Another maxim is, " the end justifies 
the means ; " and as any means for their interest 
are justified, so truth or lying is erpially ready at 
their command. And so conunon is this vice of 
lying, not only among the Jesuits, ])ut among the 
more ignorant Papists, that the remark of the fact 
is proverbial among Protestants. And the wonder 
ceases when it is known that the maxims of the 
Jesuits inculcate duplicity and deceit in all their 
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418 PROTESTANT EDUCATION FOR AMERICANS. 

phases. For the proof of this, wo need only refer 
to their rules and instructions contained in their 
published books, and in the "Moral Theologies" 
of Ligori, Escobar, Bellarniine, ar.d Dens, which 
are the text-books for candidates preparing for the 
priesthood in the Roman Catholic college at May- 
nooth, Ireland, jind in all similar institutions in 
Europe and America. 

6th. These seminaries are dangerous, because, 
UNDER their plausible disguise, Rome hopes to 

REPEL THE CHARGE THAT SHE IS HOSTILE TO KNOWL- 
EDGE, AND THUS ENTICE PrOTESTANT SONS AND DAUGH- 
TERS TO BECOME THE VICTIMS OF THEIR TREACHEROUS 
PURPOSES. 

This proposition, that Rome is hostile to knowl- 
edge, Avould seem paradoxical, since the Romish 
church boasts of being the channel of the transmis- 
sion of learning for six hundred years before the 
invention of printing in the fifteenth century, and 
exhibits such zealous endeavors to set up schools and 
colleges in the United States. But we shall show 
that these pretensions of Rome are but deception ; 
that they are intended to create a false impression 
over the minds both of Papists and Protestants in the 
United States. That Rome is the enemi/ of knowledge, 



m 



RICAVS. 



PROTESTANT EDUCATION FOR AMERICANS. 419 



'C(l only refer 
incil in their 
Theologies" 
Dens, which 
paring for the 
liege 5it May- 
nstitutions in 

OUS, BECAUSE, 
3ME HOPES TO 
LE TO KNOWL- 
NS AND DAUGII- 
TREACHEROUS 

jtile to knowl- 
the Romish 
the transmis- 
irs before the 
century, and 
up schools and 
,ve shall show 
ut deception ; 
Ise impression 
►testants in the 
/ of knowledge^ 



that is, opposed to the general dilTiision of it among 
the body of the people, is a truth conclusively estab- 
lished by such facts and considerations as the fol- 
lowing, namely : There have been other channels 
beside Rome to transmit the learning of previous 
centuries, namely, the Greek church, whose patri- 
archs, through the Avhole existence of the Romish 
church, have been cotemporary and in regular par- 
allel succession with the Popes, down to the present 
day. The Greek church is as old as the Roman ; 
and so is the Waldensian church, which, through 
all the persecuting wars wdiich Rome waged against 
her during the dark ages, still preserved her sep- 
arate identity. The Popes, certainly, have care- 
fully preserved whatever w^orks of great writers she 
possessed, for the simple reason that they very 
rigorously locked their books up in the libraries, 
not allowing any one to open a single volume, — 
they were forbidden books. It was no difficulty, it 
can easily be imagined, for the Popes to preserve 
their books for centuries, as we shall show in the 
next chapter. 



r 



\i . i 



8 




1*' 


• ^'J 




'S 




j^H 




'^'^ 


1 


■"t 




C II A P T E R V . 

Cardinal Wiseman, in his lecture^ delivered in 
Leeds, said lluit science, litomtnre, and the arts, 
never flourished more kixurianlly than under the 
papal systenij and that the Romisli church is the 
mother of all wisdom. In proof of this proposition, 
he refers to Italv. He said, in suhstance, Italv is 
the first country in Europe in point of talent and 
genius, and it is also the foremost country of the 
papal dominion ; therefore, the papal domination is 
the immediate creator and patron of lofty genius 
in science, literature, and art. That is evidently 
false ; for Ireland is the greatest country in the 
United Kingdom for talent, producing the best 
order of poets, orators, and scientific and literary 
men. But Ribbon Societies are an exclusively 
Irish institution ; tlierefore Ribbon Societies pro- 
duce the best orators, poets, statesmen, and literary 
people, of all the United King<lom. Is not that as 
good an argument as Cardinal Wiseman's? If in 
Italy there is still great genius, it is not because 



PROTESTANT EDUCATION FOR AMERICANS. 421 

Italy is under pnpal (loniinion, l»iit it is ])ooau?c 
Italy is Italy, and she produces great genius not 
by the ruling of the P(4)e, but because it is, as it 
were, the natural i)roduet of her sun and soil. It 
was not a Voi)q that called ibrth tlie genius of a 
Cicero, a Virgil, a Livy, and a Horace, and all 
the ancient poets and orators. Her giMiius is not 
from the Pope, but it is in spite oi* the Poi»e and 
Popery. Tlierefore, the great men ol' that country 
appertain to Italy, and not to the Vatican. In 
Eome itself, the Popes, in many instances, have 
been destroyers instead of conservators of the glo- 
rious works of antifpiity. Pope ]>ar])erini destroyed 
the Coliseum, in order to build jtalaces for his 
bastard children with the venera])le marbles of that 
once splendid edifice ; whilst Urban ro])bed the 
Pantheon of many of its glories. What has the 
Roman Catholic church done to conspare with the 
memorials of the ancient Roman civilization ? The 
dome — the great beauty of the Basilica of St. Peter 
— is the dome of the ancient Pantheon ; that is, 
the idea was taken by Michael Angelo from that 
building. Certainly, the Popes, not for the sake 
of the people, but for their own advantage, built 
many very fine churches, and they employed able 

36* 



i 



422 i»iioTi:;^TANT kducation for amkricans. 



ffc-.v 



arfi^sts to ])oniitiry tlu'in. Wisomnn spoke of Danto, 
Pctr.ircli, Boccacio, and CJalilco, in support of 
his proposition, l^nt Danto was porsccnIcMl by tho 
Popes, and liis works wore i'orbiddcn to l)o road 
until two contnrios ago ; tho Jesuits (»ven now 
cxcUkiO Ids writings from their schools. Petrarch 
was forhi(hU'U to he re.ad, too, ])eeausc lio wrote 
two sonnets satirizing a Pope. Boeeaeio is also 
denouneed ; in faet, all the great writers of Italy 
have been placed in the In([uisitorial Index Expur- 
gator'nis. That is the patronage of the Roman 
church for men of letters. 

The figure of St. Peter, Avhich Rome boasts of 
being such a noble specimen of art, and which is 
placed for admiring reverence in her temple, is an 
ancient bronze Jupiter. The splendid ruins of art 
left by pagan Rome to papal Rome only served to 
the Litter as quarries. By accident of position, 
papal Rome became trustee ; but a more recklesn 
and scjindalous trustee there never was than the 
Vatican proved for ages. The fairest colunms of 
the Ionic and Corinthian orders were torn down 
from their porticos, and broken up for building 
material. The marbles of Pares and Numidia were 
burned for lime. J]ver sijace the admiration of 



u 



IKRICANS. 



PROTESTANT EDUCATION FOll AMERICANS. 423 



|)<)k(» of Danto, 
in siijiport of 
rseciilcd l)V the 
v\\ to ]k' road 
nits ('vcn now 
M»lrf. Potrnr(;h 
cansc ho wrote 
occacio is also 
n'itors of Italy 
il Index Expur- 
of tho Roman 

^ome boasts of 

t, and which is 

)v temple, is an 

lid ruins of art 

only served to 

it of position, 

more reckless 

was than the 

est columns of 

ere torn down 

p for building 

Nuniidia were 

admiration of 



stranp^ers for what remained, after ages of such 
waste, awoke Home to the vahic of her treasures, 
she has ]>een their careful custodian, lint, without 
doubt, all the destruction wrought upon tlie monu- 
ments of antiquity ])y all tlic (Jotlis and Vandals 
that ever set foot in Rome was a bagatelle to the 
dilapidation carried on by the l^)pes. Let this 
boast, therefore, of Cardinal Wiseman, and the 
priestly and lay lecturers in tho UnitcMl States, of 
Rome's l)eing the warm and liberal patron of ex- 
paiisivc genius and learning, no longer impose upon 
superficial minds and credulous Protestants. Rome 
has always shackled the human faculties ; always 
cramped human genius ; always kept the Scriptures 
shut up from the people ; always performed much 
of her service in an unknown tongue ; always op- 
posed liberal investigations of either morals, phi- 
losophy, or theology. 

Did she not condenm Galileo for asserting a true 
problem of science ? Did not her hostility to the 
culture of the masses, and closing the fountains of 
literature, and discouraging light and knowledge, 
create the *' Dark Ages"? Did she not thunder 
forth her bull against the inventor of the art of 
printing, and tremble when the first Bible appeared 



' *■'■ 



m 



424 PROTESTANT EDUCATION FOR AMERICANS. 




u I 



, > 



'tv 



\k 



in tiipe? Did slio not frame tlic Tmlvx Ej-purfjaio- 
rlus, wliicli put Mil interdict uixju many oi' tlio 
most splendid works of learning', and wliich is still 
in Cull Corco, with many additions (d' the most vahi- 
{ddo and popular hooks, such a Milton, ^lacaulay's 
History, Irvin;i,'s Lil'c (d' Washin^'ton, ;iad mimcrous 
other kindred works, Avhich contain liheral ideas, 
and advocate the freedom of man ? What anathe- 
mas and execrations did she pour out upon the 
illustrious reformer, Luther, for advocating free 
inquiry, and opening the sources of knowledge ! 
And have not her priests and most prominent 
writers, participating in this spirit of defamation, 
assailed that defender, and all the reformers who 
shone as bright lights amid Kcmie's moral and 
intellectual darkness, and emitted their fruitful 
venom? Have not the priests and Ivomish presses 
in our country denounced liberal incjuiry and Prot- 
estant education, which favors the free and manly 
improvement of the mind, and the development of 
all its rational and noble fjiculties ? 

Macaulay, in his History, observes that, *' The 
loveliest provinces in Europe have, iinder the rule 
of Rome, been sunk in poverty, in political servi- 
tude, and in intellectual torpor ; while Protestant 



lERICANS. 



PROTESTANT EDUCATfON FOH AMERICANS. 425 



countries, onre ])r<)vorbijil lor iho'w sterility and 
])<Mrl>arisni, liavo been turned by skill and industry 
into gardens, and can boast ol'a long list of beroos, 
statosnu'n, pliilosopjuu-s, and jxiets." Yes, Rome 
is an oneniy to tbe bunian race, and seeks to bi(h3 
tbc "key of knowledge!" IVoni all witbin ber 
withering influence. AVo could write not merely a 
few brief paragraphs, but a volunie, to iUustrate 
this truth. The following specimens, among num- 
berless others wliich are passing in the worhl, to 
establish the proof of our proposition, we present 
to the reader. 



" The Univtrs, the mo8t celebrated organ of the Jesuits 
in France," says the CoiiyrrfjutiondUst, "is speaking 
openly against the use of the living languages or popular 
idioms in the sciences, letters, and arts, as well as in theol- 
ogy, and regrets that books are not now written in Latin, as 
in thv3 middle ages. All knowledge must he confined to a 
few select minds, in order that the priests may retain an 
unbroken hold on the multitude ; wide and thorough discus- 
sions on any subject are dangerous, because they liberalize 
the mind, and cherish the thirst for intellectual improve- 
ment that ill comports with the great aims of Romanisn, — 
to bind the world over to ignorance, for the sake of pecuni- 
ary accumulation. The time was, till tbe seventeenth cen- 
tury, when books on medicine, history, the natural sciences, 
astronomy, and politics, were written in Latin, and the 
common people were excluded from all knowledge, except 



42G rROTESTANT EDUrATION POU AMERICANS. 



I' 

m 



N 




of tlu* catceliism. wliicli tlic curate taught tlieni ; the return 
of sueli linie.s is ecjuivalciit to tin* rctuin of ' tlie «;<>l(leii .'go' 
ii) tlic eves of the Jesuit liitlii is. and for it they are hihoriug, 
though ill tlii'ir laliors at .sowing the wind, tliey arc prepar- 
ing to reaj) the wliirlwind."' 

Sir Walter Seott, in hi.s "Life of Napoleon,'' alluding to 
Si)ain, says, "The education of the nohility was coniniitted 
to the priests, who took care to give them no lights beyond 
Catholic l)igotry."' 

M. Leone, an llalian, settlecl in England, now 
engaged on the great work of the codification oi' 
the conunercial laws of Great Britain, paid a visit 
to Italy during* the Italian republic. 

"On the fall of the pontifical governmont," said he, 
'' the republicans immediately established schools in every 
town, and village, and rural district. There were day- 
Bchools, and night-schools, and Sabbath-schools. I was 
inexpressibly deliglited at the wonderful change. But, ah ! 
back came the Pope ; and in a week, in one short week, 
every one of these schools was closed ! Italy is again sunk 
in its old torpor and stagnation, and one black cloud of 
barbiric ignorance extends from the Mediterranean to the 
Adriatic! I sat down,'' says he, "on the steps of the 
Temple of A'esta. which, though crumbling with ago, is one 
of the most beautiful of the ruins of Rome. Three boys, 
the eldest fifteen years of age, came about me, to beg a few 
baicchi. I took an opportunity of putting a few questions 
to thorn, judging them a fair sample of the Roman youth. 
The followin"; dialonjue occurred : 

"'Can you tell me,' J a.sked, 'who made the world? 



• ii'.. ■■V 



lEIllCANS. 



PROTKSTANT KDIICATION FOR AMKIUCANS. 427 



tlieiii ; the return 
:' ' tilt' iioldc'ii .'i^e ' 
[hvy are lal)uriiig, 
, ihvy arc prepar- 

leoii." allu(lin<j; to 

\iy ^vas coniniitted 

no li«^hts beyond 

En<^l}ni(l, now 

codification of 

I in, paid a visit 



nmont," said he, 
I schools in every 

Tiicre were daj- 
-schools. I Ava3 
hange. But, ah ! 
one short -week, 

aly is again sunk 
e black cloud of 

iterranoan to the 

the steps of the 
Avith age, is one 
no. Three boys, 

me, to beg a few 
a few questions 

le Roman youth. 



nr 



lade tl^e world? 



The (pu'stion start* d a sul'jfct on \\bi<|i tlicy sccnu'd never 
to liave tli<)u._dit l»e!bre. Tliev stoud in a muse for some sec- 
onds : and llieii all ibrec looked around llieni. a:^ if tliey 
expected to .<ee the woi Id .s Muker. or to iiiid iiis mime 
somewliere. At last the yomi;^"est and smartest of the three 
sjioke bri>kly up, ' Tiie masons, Signorc.' It was now my 
turn to feel llie exeilemcnt of a new idea. Yet I tliou^ht I 
couhl see the tiain of thou;rht that led to the answer. The 
masons had made the baths of Caracalla : the ma>ons had 
made the Coliseum, and those other stnjiendous structures 
>vliich in bulk rival the hills, and seem as eternal as the 
earth on \\hich they rest ; and N\hy might not the masons 
have made the A\hole afVair? I might have puzzled the boy 
by asking, ' l>ut who made tlu masons ? ' My object, 
however, was simjily to ascertain the amount of liis knowl- 
edge. I denmrred to the proposition that the masons had 
made the world, and desired them to try again. They did 
try again : and at last the eldest of the three found his way 
to the right answer, — ' God.' ' Have you ever heard of 
Christ?' I asked. 'Yes.' ' AVho is ho? Can you tell 
me anything about him?' I could elicit nothing under 
these heads. 'Whose Son is he?' I then a.sked. ' lie is 
Mary's Son." was the reply. 'Where is Christ?' I in- 
(|uired. 'He is on the Cross,' replied the boy. folding his 
arms, and making the representation of a crucifix. ' Was 
Christ ever on earth? ' I asked. lie did not know. 'Are 
you aware of anything he ever did? ' lie had never heard 
of anything ihat Christ had done. I saw that he was think- 
ing of those hideous representations A\hicli are to be seen in 
all the churciies of Rome, of a man han<fin;»; on a cross. 
Tliat was the Cluist of the boys. Of Christ the Son of the 
living God, — of Christ the Savioijr of sinners, ai^d of his 
death as an atonement for human guilt. — they had never 



428 1»U()TKSTANT I'.UUCATION FOR AMKIUCANS. 




'Mil' 




hojinl. In a rity swarniin;]^ witli proPcssod niiiiistcrs of tlio 
(jospt'l, tlicse l)()ys knew no moic of (.'liristiaiiity than it" thuy 
had been lloUciitotd.'' 

And HOW, ill tlio vi(?w of all llicso dear and 
positiM' cxidciiccs, (Voni ]uv liislory and uniform 
piacticM', that Homo is liostih) to kno\vle(l«^(', wo 
ask, lioNV is it that Kouio is so /('ah)usly i'n«ia;i('(l 
in scttin«i' np siliools and seminaries in ihv l'nit(Ml 
States ? The answer is ready at liand : It is to 
create an impression on tlie minds of our Protest- 
ant people that she is a warm friend to edneation. 
In this Lmd of li«i,ht and intelligence, she is neces- 
sarily forced to put on an aj>i)C(trancc of ])eing that 
patron, to avoid the impntation of the opposite 
charge, which she, with adroit Jesuitism, knows 
wouhl be injurious to her interests, and might 
entirely frustrate all her plans of papal aggrandize- 
ment and influence. She must, therefore, assume 
this pretension, and appear to be the friend of 
education. But, in the midst of all these attempts 
to delude superficial Protestants, the ''cloven foot" 
protrudes, the symbolic type of its owner. She 
arrogantly approaches the state superintendent and 
committees of schools, and demands the exclusion 
of the Bible from Protestant schools. These Prot- 



IKIUCANS. 



PROTESTANT EDUCATION FOR AMEllICANS. 429 



I jiiiiiistorH of tlio 
unity tlr.m if tlioy 

losc cloar and 
V :iiiil niiifonii 

klU)\vlcMl«i(', \\i', 

iloiisly {'H^iJi^cd 

s in i\\(\ InitcMl 

liand : It is to 

of our Protcst- 

(1 to cdiioation. 

0, slio is necos- 

)e of Ix'ing tluit 

►r the opposite 

suitisni, knows 

ts, and might 

)nl jiggrandize- 

rclbre, assume 

the friend of 

tliese attempts 

*'eloven foot" 

H owner. She 

intendent and 

s the exclusion 

These Prot- 



estant officers, not being adopts in the crafty 
schemes of this (Miemy of our nohk> system of 
education, tlioughth'ssly comprKMl, in sonn; in- 
stances, with the demand, and thus betrayed tho 
high trust r('[M)sed in (liem. The next subtle 
design was, to demand of the Legislature* to divide 
the school funds of the state, to favor lier J(\<uit 
sectarian plan of separate schools for her sectarian 
ends. In this she has not yet succeeded. Other 
demands she has made, all going to establish tho 
fact that Rome is hostile to knowledge, and, with 
a seeming zeal, estaldishes schools and senunaries, 
to entice Protestant parents to send their daughters 
and sons into them, more effectually to accomplish 
her objects. 

In conclusion, let mc appeal to all chissos of our 
people. Patriots, do you love your country ? Do 
you value the priceless legacy transmitted by the 
fathers of the Revolution ? Do you appreciate and 
rejoice in its Protestant lav.'s, institutions, and gov- 
ernment ; in its charter of independence ; in the 
value of its American system of education, and in 
its model schools, which approach nearer to perfec- 
tion than any yet devised by the skill, wisdom, 

experience, and genius, of man ? Are you awake 
37 



I H- 




•II 




m 




ii,f, 






430 PROTESTANT EDUCATION FOR AMERICANS. 

to guard inviolate these inestimable privileges and 
sentinels of liberty from the touch of ruthless 
hands, and from the spoliation and corruptions of 
the invader ? Then never let the public funds be 
used for sectarian, foreign purposes ; and give no 
countenance to papal approaches, "svhose hierarchy 
is the bane of knowledge, and in deadly hostility 
to this free republic. The following documentj 
from the Roman Catholic journal at Buffalo, Avill 
bhow the confidence with which that hierarchy is 
at work in the United States : 

" Whoever undervalues the spiritual power of the church 
in the United States wanders in a fearful labyrinth. Wo 
have not only seven archbishops, thirty-three bishops, and 
seventeen hundred and four priests, all in the service of the 
Pope and the church, but we have also thirty-one colleges, 
thirty-seven seminaries, and a hundred and seventeen fcinale 
academies, all founded by the Jesuits, bringing danger and 
death to unbelief and mischief, to American Know-nothing- 
ism, and un-American radicalism. And the hierarchal 
band which, like a golden thread, surrounds forty-one dio- 
ceses and two npostolic vicarites, and stretches from the 
Atlantic Ocean to the still waters of the Pacific, and main- 
tains an invisible secret magnetic connection with Rome, — 
this hierarchy is to us a sure guarantee that the church, 
perhaps after severe struggles and sufferings, will one day 
como off victorious over all the sects of America. It is 
computed that there are, at present, more than two millions 
of Catholic inhabitants in the United States who are bap- 



PROTESTANT EDUCATION FOR AMERICANS. 431 



tizcd and confirmed Catholic soldiers of the Lora, and who, 
at the first summons, w ill assemble in rank juid file ; then 
will men not undervalue the power of the Catholic church 
in the Unitod States. I will scatter sand in no ones eyes, 
and therefore I stand forth openly, and directly declare that 
the j)ower and the influence of the Catholic church are 
stronger than many believe. Whoever doubts this must be 
either a fool, or blind." 

In this document, my countrymen, weigh the 
expressions, " the secret magnetic connection with 
Rome, ' and that these papal seminaries and col- 
leges are *' all founded hy the Jesuits ; " and then 
consider the dangers which hover over our land. 

Fathers, mothers, do you love your children ? 
Can you intrust the dearest objects upon which 
your parental hopes, and the joys of the family 
roof, centre, to the supervision and charge of Jes- 
uits and Jesuitesses ? Why do the conductors of 
these papal seminaries manifest such a remarkable 
zeal in pursuit of feiuales, and especially vhe 
daughters of Protestant parents ? They know 
that, in gaining them, they can secure the most 
powerful influence; and often gratify their avari- 
cious desires in greater profits ; but the one great 
end they have in view is, to proselyte them to their 
faith. Remember, they give a special preference 
to Protestants. They select the most wealthy and 



ffl 



\M\ 



¥ 



li X 



432 PROTESTANT EDUCATION FOR AMERICANS. 

beautiful, and persuade them to the confessional 
and into the convent ; and, when once secured 
there, they become the slaves of a tyrannic priest- 
hood. 0, could you comprehend their designs, — 
could you penetrate into one tithe of their art, and 
ruinous plots against the life, honor, and liberty, 
of your daughters, — you would start back aghast 
at the insidious and fatal sacrifice of the objects 
and images of your affection. Could the secrets 
of the confessionals be uncovered, there is not a 
priest thai could stay in the city of New York, or 
Baltimore, or Philadelphia, one week. Pause, 
then, parents, I beg of you, while your daughters 
are safe on this side of an admission into these 
pestiferous and ruinous establishments ! 



HON. EDWIN 0. PERRIN. 



TriE father of this American, the Lite Judge Perrin, of 
Maryhind, became one of the earliest settlers of Ohio, and 
at Springfield, in that state, the subject of this sketch was 
born. The death of his father, and the ''onse({Uont depri- 
vation of young Perrin's patrimony by the injudicious 
mana<rement of his estate, cblii^ed him, like most of the 
pubhc men of our country, to become the architect of his 
own fortune. After acquiring a suitable education by his 
industry and energy, he adoptet^ the law a.^ his profession, 
and studied Avith Judge Mason, of Ohio. Mr. Perrin sub- 
sequently removed to Memphis, Tennessee, -where he mar- 
ried Miss Stanton, sister of the lions. Richard and Fred- 
erick P. Stanton, late Representatives in Congress from 
Kentucky and Tennessee ; and who, estimable for every 
excellence and virtue, is also admired for her intelligence, 
beauty, and accomplishments. 

Under the administration of Gen. Taylor, Mr. Perrin was 
appointed navy agent of Mempliis, and discharged the duties 
of that oflficc with fidelity and faithfulness, until the acces- 
sion of Franklin Pierce, who found Mr. Perrin's ])olitical 
piinci[)les good cause for removal, lie then removed to the 
city of New York to pursue his profession, and united with 
tiie great American party in the attempt to r(?store the 
country to its pristine integrity and purity. In the elections 
of 1805 he became the eloc|uent defender of Americau 

37* 






4-i 




484 



HON. EDWIN 0. PEKRIN. 





m 




principles upon the hustings, and the people greeted him 
with enthusiasm wherever he was heard in that cause. A 
company of volunteers, soon after the success of the Ameri- 
can ticket in New York, was organized as the " Perrin 
Guard," in that city ; and in contending for the prize of a 
magnificent silver basket, presented by Mr. Perrin, tlic cap- 
tain of that company said : " Our distinguished guest, Edwin 
0. Periin : One of Tennessee's ablest orators. We extend 
to him a cordial welcome to the home of his adoption, the 
Empire City of the Empire State. Long may he live to 
defend with eloquent tongue our common country and our 
country's cause ! Having adopted his name, let us enmlate 
his devotion ! " Mr. P'rrin closed his speech with the follow- 



ing: 



"The Volunteer Soldiery of New York: A standing 
army in time of peace, and no runn.ing army in time of war. 
Their discipline and courage at home have only been equalled 
by their patriotism and bravery abroad. May the junior 
American corps prove Avorthy descendants of their gallant 
seniors; maintaining for the future what they have so 
gallantly achieved in the past." 

After the nomination of the Am'^rican Presidential ticket, 
Mr. Perrin appeared again in the political field, to press wit!i 
eloquence and earnestness the election of Millard Fillmore 
to the chief magistracy of the nation. Ld^e the heroes of 
our Revolutionary battles, he put aside all other pursuits for 
the American cause, and is now winning "golden opinions,"' 
throughout the State of New Yoik, for the intelligent per- 
suasions and thrilling appeals li* is making to the patriotism 
of tlie people, and which are the more effectively enforced 
because of the impregnable defences which surround and 
ehjvate his character. 



COL. GARDNER B. LOCKE. 



Col. Gardner B. Locke was born in Kutlicrford 
County, Tennessee. His parents Averc Virginians, and his 
father served in the Revolutionary War. 

Col. Locke moved to Memphis when that city was but a 
small trading-point, and its principal connnerce was with 
the Indians. lie has been undeviating, through life, in his 
devotion to the principles which now control and influence 
the action of the American party, and was always a warm 
admirer and personal friend of Henry Clay. 

Col. Locke is remarkable for tlie untiring energy and 
pertinacity which he brings to the accomplishment of his 
undertakings, and is a prominent and active advocate of the 
election of Mr. Fillmore. He has been elected by the peo- 
ple to the mayoralty of Memphis, and h;is filled other posts 
of trust and confidence in bis native state. 

Col. Locke has a strong hold upon the respect and con- 
fidence of the people of the West. His faithfulness to 
duty, and the integrity and uprightness of his character, 
are the sure guarantees that his popularity will be as lasting 
as it is elevated. 





ALFRED BEEWSTER ELY 

Was born in Monson, Ilumpden County, Massachusetts, 
on the 30th of January, A. D. 1817, and is now, conse- 
quently, in the fortieth year of his age. His fatlier is the 
Rev. Alfred Ely, D.D., who for fifty years has been pastor of 
the Orthodox Congregational church in Monson ; and Avhose 
good report, as one of the noblest and best of Christian men 
and devoted ministers, is in all the churches. His mother 
was a daughter of Major-General Timothy Newell, who 
served with distinction in the Revolutionary War. Through 
his grandmother, on the father's side, Mr. Ely traces his 
descent directly, and with only five removes, from Elder 
William Brewster, one of the original riymouth pilgrims, 
and famous among the passengers of the Mayflower. With 
such an ancestry, he may well be proud of his decided 
American and Puritan proclivities. 

Mr. Ely at an early age evinced talents of a superior 
character. His natural abilities were of hiii:h order, and 
his facilities fur ac(^uiring an education were, fortuiiatfly, 
excellent. lie was industiious as a student, and. having 
finishod his academical course, entered the freshman cliuss of 
Amherst College in tlie fall of 1832. Ilei-,) he remained 
four years, and giaduated with distinguished honor. Mr. 
Ely left college in the fall of 183G, and, after spending a 
year in Brattleboro', Vermont, as the principal of the high 
school 11 chat village, went to Fayetteville, North Carolina, 



ALFRED BREWSTER ELY. 



437 



where he remained two years, ag assistant to his old pre- 
ceptor, Rev. S. Colton, then principal of the Donaldson 
Academy in that j)lace. Thence he went to New York, and 
mtered upon the duties of a casliier of one of the banks in 
that state. But our limited space will not allow of a 
detailed account of Mr. Ely's rapid ri.se to an oniiaent posi- 
tion at the bar, and in the political party wlio-se cause he has 
espoused. Even in college Mr. Ely Avas noted for what is 
now called Native Aniericanisin. His fust public perfurm- 
anco, after loavintj; colle;j;e, was of a Nati.ve American char- 
acter ; and his first lyceum lecture, delivered at Spring- 
field, soon after he went there, was decidedly of that stamp. 
Consequently, Avhen the American movement of 1844 wag 
first staited, Mr. Ely was already indoctrinated aid prepared 
to act. He was an able and indefatigable champion in the 
election of Deceniber, 1844, which resulted in the election 
of an Amei'ican mayor. He participated in the convention 
held at Pliiladelpbia, presided ever by that noble man and 
true-hearted patiiot. General Henry A. S. Dearborn, of 
Massachusetts. In the enumeration of the principles in the 
declaration emanating from that body, Mr. Ely's mind and 
hand were both conspicuous. Always prominent and efl[icient 
at all the subseciuerit conventions, it is unnecessary to 
enumeiate them. In 184G, jNIr. Ely introduced the 
patriotic Order of Unite;l Americans into Massachusetts ; 
the fii'st cliMpter thereof (Hancock cha[)tcr) being instituted 
in his oiTioe. I)y Hon. Thomas R. Whitney, of New York. 
Rising rapidly tlnougli the dilterent gradations of this noble 
order. Mr. Ely has attained to the highest position (that of 
Arch Grand Sachem), being the third in succession; the 
other two having been Hon. Thomas R. Whitney, M C, and 
Hon. Jacob Broom, M.C. He still holds this high honor, 
and is the head and fiont of that purely American body of 



438 



ALFRED BUEWSTEK ELY. 





true patriocs, who form tlie breakwater against which the 
floods and storms of the factional elements beat in vain. 
They cannot be driven from their position, although treason 
may thwart their efforts, and traitors betray them. If tliere 
is gratitude in the American heart of Massachusetts, the 
subject of this brief memoir will be rewarded for his many 
years of hard labor in behalf of the cause dear to all 
Americans. Possessing executive talents of the highest 
order, and gifted with a large stock of common sense, and 
great independence and integrity of character, he is rarely 
wrong in his judgments, and is seldom turned from his 
opinions. He is eminently a national man. Never willing 
to commit an aggression, he is always the first to resent one. 
With his stern sense of right, and his unflinching will to 
vindicate that right, into no safer hands could the welfare 
of any party or the people be committed. 

One of the Old Guard Americans, firmest and truest 
when least was to be gained, Mr. Ely deserves the gratitude, 
the respect, and the warm esteem and confidence, of all 
tr?ie patriots and Americans. 



MR. SIDNEY KOPMAN. 



The father of this ski 2I1 was the late Louis Kopnian, 
of New York. He was introduced into the United States 
by Robert Southey, the poet, and William Koscoc, the his- 
torian, of Liverpool, and was eminent in liis day as one of 
the largest importers of British goods in New York and 
Savannah, Georgia. Mr. Kopman was a scholar, an ac- 
complished gentleman, and an unobtrusive Christian, in 
communion with the Church of England ; and after enjoying 
for njore than eighty years the most faultless reputation 
in erery relation in life, he has transmitted these excellences 
of character to his son. whose portrait appears in these 
pages. 

Mr. Sidney Kopman was born in New Yoik, and was 
educated to the mercantile profession ; and, after a long ex- 
perience as clerk in his own city, he became a merchant in 
Mem[)his, Tennessee. During the period of the Mexican 
war, he acted as the efficient chief cleik to Capt. Wm. K. 
Latimer, of the United States Navy, at the Pensacohi Navy 
Yard. He there founded a lodge of the benevolent society 
of Odd Fellows, and for many years has been an active and 
prominent member of the Masonic fraternity. He con- 
tributed the leading editorials of the Pcnsccola Gazette^ 
when in Florida. 

After the Mexican war closed, Mr. Kopman was among 
the first to make a commerciul exploration to California, by 






f' 



V'.'i' 



i? 



hi 





440 



MR. SIDNKY KOPMAN. 



the way of Cape Horn. In this perilous voyage of six 
months, he most miraculously escaped shipwreck at Terra 
del Fuego, the extreme point of Putiigonia. He was at 
Juan Fernandez, visited the Island of Madeira, was present 
at the opening of the Chilian congress, and slept two weeks 
upon the Andes Mountains. He was presented, with several 
other Americans, to the Emperor of Brazil, at Ilio Janeiro, 
and penetrated the interior of that state to visit the diamond 
mines; and, finally, after the comiiletion of a most hazard- 
ous voyage of twcnty-tlirce thousand miles, with the attend- 
ant evils, at one time, of u threatened famine, he settled 
down in San Francisco and Sacramento, California, for 
some months, to make a survey of the country, and then 
return to New York, by the way of Mexico. 

The Mercantile Library of his native city, New York, 
was for many years an object of the deepest solicitude to 
Mr. Kopman, and to whose energy and action, as a member 
of that association, may be attributed much of the present 
position and standing of the institution. He has recently 
been elected an honorary member of the historical society 
at Madison, Wisconsin. 

Mr. Kopman early enlisted in the great national move- 
ment to regenerate the country, and has been one of the 
most earnest and active members of the American party. 
In the fornjation of organizations in the country, he has 
eiliciently contributed in the three past years, by inducing 
pvoniinont men, "who have visited New York, to unite with 
the Anieriean order, which prepared the way for their indi- 
vidual co-operation when they returned to their own homes. 
From four lo five hundred members, who are now exerting 
an extended inliuence in their respective localities, gave 
their first adhesion to the cause under the earnest pleadings 
of this true American; while the author cannot neglect 



MR. SIDNEY KOPMAN. 



441 



as voyage of six 
ipwrt'ck at Terra 
)nia. He was at 
It'ira, was present 
(1 slept two weeks 
jnted, with several 
il, lit llio Janeiro, 
visit tlie diamond 
of a most hazard- 
i, with the attend- 
'amine, he settled 
to, California, for 
country, and then 

CO. 

city, New York, 

3pe8t solicitude to 

ption, as a member 

ich of the present 

He has recently 

historical society 

at national move- 
been one of the 
American party, 
e country, he has 
years, by inducing 
^ork, to unite with 
\\i\y for their indi- 
their own homes. 
are now exerting 
re localities, gave 
! earnest pleadings 
or cannot neglect 



tJ acknowledge the valuable data furnished by Mr. Kopman 
in connection with this work. 

Few possess more extended literary acfiuiremcnts. or a 
better-cultivated taste, than Mr. Kopman; and his rcnuirk- 
il)le gift of remembering all that he has read would not 
make it inappropriate to style him a moving ryrjopcdia 
of useful knowledjie. But the crowning virtue of tbe man 
is in the beauty of his character, his high moral rectitude, 
and his pure integrity. 

38 



; --■- • 



]f 



1^ 

It t .. 
Il *■ 

It ': 



II' s 



•al 



THOMAS n. CLAY, E8Q 

Thomas II. Clay, Eacj., the second son of the illustrious 
Henry Clay, was horn in Lexington, Ky., on the 23d Sep- 
teinher, 1803. He was educated partly at the United 
States Military Academy at We^^t Point, and in Transyl- 
vania University. Lexington, Ky. 

He studied law in 1825 and '2G with Judge Boyle, Chief 
Justice of the State of Kentucky, and one of the judges of 
the Court of Appeals. In 1826 he was licensed to practise 
law by the C urt of Appeals, consisting of Judges Boyle, 
Ouseley, and Mills. Early in life he became disgusted with 
the practice of the profession, and abandoned it. 

In 1837 Mr. Clay married the daughter of a French 
gentleman residing near Lexington, by whom he has a 
family of five children, three daughters and two sons. 

He has never aspired to any political station ; but, having 
been appointed a delegate to the National Council, held in 
Philadelphia, in February last, by the Americiin Councils 
of the Ashland District, he thought it his duty to attend 
the Council and Nominating Convention, to which, as a 
delegate, he was also appointed. 

Endorsing fully the action of the Council and Conven- 
tion, he ardently desires the success of Fillmore and Donel- 
son at the approaching election for President and Vice- 
President. Perhaps in the election of no individual could 
the son of Henry Clay feel so great an interest as in that 



THOMAS II. CLAY, ESQ. 



4i3 



of his father's old nnd tried friend, Millard Fillmore; nnd, 
actuated by the holio.st love for the Union, and the eoninioii 
welfare of all sections, that j^reat patriot, Htatosniiin, and 
Christian, declared, as he went down to his grave, conscious 
of having given his best services and his whole heart to his 
country, that he preferred and wisled that Millard Fill- 
more might be elected by the people to rule over it. 

Thomas II. Clay avows his belief that, did his father still 
live, he would now preside over the destinies of the Anieri- 
ciin party, as the only national party, and the last refuge 
of the American Union. He inmself has, within a few 
weeks, been elected to the Presidency of the Council of tlie 
State of Kentucky, and, honoring the high name of his 
illustrious parent, is laboring to save the Union^in its pres- 
ent emergency. 





GENERAL NATHAN KANNEY. 





The subject of this sketch was born in Bethlcliem. in 
the State of Connecticut, the 27th of April, 1797. In the 
war with Enghind, 1812, he entered the army of the United 
States, though })ut sixteen years of age; and his deter- 
mined bravery, and fearlessness in the discharge of his 
duties, made him prominent in every battle, and exposed 
him to every danger in the thickest of the fight. But, his 
only purpose in enlisting in the war being a patriotic one, 
he was steadfast in his refusal of all promotion tendered 
him, and adhered to his original intention of remaining in 
the service during the five years for which he had enlisted. 
It cannot be doubted that, had his ambition led him to a 
different decision, he would long since have occupied the 
highest rank among the gallant men of the army. 

In 1819, Gen. Ranney located in St. Louis, Missouri, 
where, as a prominent member of society and an enterpris- 
ing merchant, he has eminently assisted in the opening 
prosperity of St. Louis, and possesses a hold upon the con- 
fidence and esteem of the community eijual to that enjoyed 
by any other resident. 

In 1827, he became a member of the Presbyterian 
Church. And so faithful, active, and consistent, has he 
proved, in the discharge of every Christian duty belonging 
to his religious profession, that he has held the important 
and responsible position of elder, almost ever since, in the 



GKN. NATHAN UANNKV. 



445 



^ANNEY. 



congregation with vviiich he worships. "All thiit I am is 
tlirougli the blessing of God,'' has been the glorious sen- 
timent whieh has emulated this noble American to action, 
and given him a name that kings, with their sceptres, might 
wisely envy. 

In 1855, the convention of the soldiers of 1812 met in 
Philadelphia. Gen. Ranney addressed that assembly in 
these words : 

" Fellow-Citizexs and Fellow-Soldiers: Muchhai^ 
been said in relation to the militia of this country, and their 
services in the late war with Great Britain. They arc, 
indeed, the bulwark and safety of our country ; but, while 
just honors have been p:;i>l to them, tlie gallant spirits who 
fought by their side witli e(ju;il honor and e(jual success — 
the soldiers of the regular army of 181*2 — were not men- 
tioned. I propose, on this occasion, to make a few remarks 
in relation to the regular soldiers of that eventful war. 

"It will be recollected by most of you. perhaps, that 
the soldiers and officers of 1812 came from the first fam- 
ilies of the land. They entered the army, not as mercena- 
ries, but from patriotic motives, with a determination to 
serve their country, and diive buck tlie myrmidons of 
Biitain from our sacred soil. [Applause.] I will give 
you briefly the history of one of those soldiers, which, with 
some modifications, may be the history of every soldier in 
the regular army. 

"There was a lad belonging to one of the most respecta- 
Uo families of *he United !Stat*es, who, at the age of sixteen 
years, was the favored of his family. At that age he 
left his home and his school, and enlisted as a private in 
the 29th Regiment for five years. Ilis father's brother, 
"who was a colonel in the army, obtained an order for the 
boy's discharge. The discharge came, and was I'jfiised. 
[Great ajiplause.] A commission was also oflered him, 
and that, too, was refused. This Lid served under General 
Wool. He was one of the three hundred who met Gov- 
ernor Provost eighteen miles from Plattsburg, and who cut 



pi'-Tr' 



440 



GEN. NATIIAxN llANNEY. 







tlieh' way, inch by inch, until they re.aclieil tlie bimks of the 
Saranac. lie was one of thirty who cross3d the Saranac 
and set fire with hay and tar to tlio underhrush of dry pine 
directly under tlie guns of the British battery, and ret rued 
across the Saranac by iloatiiiii; a hundred yards down that 
stream, and fainting from the loss of blood. He 'vas but 
one of a regiment through whose instrumentality, i.i part, 
the British lion Avas made to turn in defeat from the Amer- 
ican eagle. [Applause.] This same j)erson, in the dark- 
ness ot night, led twenty men into a British town of five 
hundred inhabitants, and where British guards were sta- 
tioned to defend it, and took tlirce distinguished prisoners, 
and carried them safely into the American camp, with loss 
of only one man wounded. He was made a sergeant, and 
afterwards a provost-marshal, that being the highest non- 
connni.^sioned officer in the army. But he did not seek the 
]"fe of a soldier as a profession. He determined to serve 
his country as a patriot, and when national honor and na- 
tional ii(];hts were vindicated to return into civil life. Now, 
in the lar West, the lad then, but man now, has reared an 
interesting family, and maintains a good name there, and 
conmiands the respect and honor of his fellow-men. [Voices 
— ''Give us his name! 'J III come to that by and by. 
I know, fellow-soldiers, that so dearly does that man love 
the quiet and unostentatious position which he now occu- 
pies, that were Congress at this day to offer to confer upon 
him a title of Lieutenant-General of our army, or any 
other trust of a like character, that he would refuse it. If 
ho has served his country, it alone is satisfaction. lie has 
but discharged his duty. [Applause.] 

Fellow-soldiers, many of us will never meet each other 
aurain on this side of Jordan. This meeting is interestinj; 
to me — more so than any which it has been my fortune to 
ever attend, since the scenes of that war. We have all 
fought our last fight — but we have still the warfare of life 
belbre us. Let us. then, so contend that we shall win a 
crown of victory, and be led by the eternal Captain of our 
salvation to our last, our eternal home in heaven ! [Great 
applause, and cries of 'Tell us the name of that boy.'] 



(JEN. NATHAN UANNEY. 



447 






Fellow-soldicrSj he stan(l3 now before you. [Renewed ap- 
plause, and nine cheers for General Ranney.J" 

In 1886, General Ranney was induced to accept the post 
of Brigadier-General in the Missouri militia ; ^vhich he 
filled with honor to himself, and entire acceptability to those 
under his command. This cons^titutes the only military 
situation he ha^ consented to occupy in his adopted state. 

In politics, he was an original Jackson democi'at, and 
until the American party was organized he was well 
known as a leader in the ranks of the democracy of the 
state. He wa3 among the first to enrol his name upon the 
records of the party to which he is now attached, and of 
which he is a firm, bold, and eloquent advocate. He feels, 
as do his brethren everywhere, all over America, that the 
safety of the Union and of the nation depends upon guard- 
ing the ballot-box from the inroads that are being made 
upon it by the influx of foreigners ; opposition to extremists 
both of the South and the North ; a conservative, peace- 
loving, and country-loving band of patriots, Avho are ready 
and willing to sacrifice themselves for the good of their 
native land. In his youth, he fought for his country ; in 
his manhood, he has prayed for it; and in his old age, he is 
ready to die for it. 

The same influences which led Gen. Ranney to battle for 
his country when a youth of only sixteen summers have 
again brought him into the present American revolution ; 
and to an immense gathering of freemen in the rotunda of 
the court-house of St. Louis, in March, 18")6, who had 
convened to ratify the American nominations for President 
and Vice President, he spoke as follows : 

"Americans : We are here, not as Northern men from 
the North, not as Southern men from the South, but as 







' 1 



448 



GEN. NATHAN RANNEY. 



Union men of the United States. We meet to give a hearty 
sanction to the IMiiladelpliia nomination of IVesidciit and 
Vice rrcsidcnt. 

'" We have liad l)iit one Wasliington and Jackson, one 
AVebster and Chiy, and l)Ut one Calhoun. 

" Filhnore and Domdson are good men. — the best in the 
Union. A better, a stronger, a more suitable n<;niiiiation, 
cannot be made ])y any piirty, nor one better calcuLited lo 
succeed. Three times m my life I have rejoiced with ex- 
ceeding great joy • first when, in 1814, at Plattsburgh, one 
tliousand lour hundred Americans defeated fourteen thou- 
sand of Lord Wellington's best trocps."' 

TV -iv 'irf TV ^ 

'' The constitution must be preserved from violation. 
The one billion five hundred million dollars (»f slave property 
is nothing, compared with the worth of the Union. Ay, can 
the ten thousand millions of property in the world purchase 
of us the fame of Washin^iton, or the memory of York- 
tow^n, of Momnouth, of Saratoga, or of Plattsburgh and 
New Orleans ? No ! the Union Jtinsl — it shall — it 
will be saved ! The nation looks to us for its safety. The 
good men of the North will help us. and our prospects are 
good. We take no step backward : our i)latform is the con- 
stitution and the rights of the states. 

'•The Christian who throws away his Bible has no re- 
ligion. Tlie American who throws away the constitution 
has no country. Americans, let our party do right, and 
act right, if the heavens fall ! 

" The third time of my joy was at the nomination of 
Fillmore and Donelson. My reasons are, that the nominees 
are worthy ; that the country looked for such men, with the 
determination to elect them." 

On the 4th of June, 1856, the American party of Mis- 
souri held a mass meeting at Hannibal, in that state. Gen. 
Banney was present to enforce the principle that " Ameri- 
cans alone should rule America." And he did it with a 



GEN. NATHAN llANNEY. 



441) 



lirI Jackson, onu 



will, which found its way with electric power into the hearts 
of thousands, lie told tlic people that 

" For more than thirty years he was a consistent, an un- 
flinching democrat, and that he liad acted wilh them in 
good faith as long as they had contiiuu'd lionest and pure in 
principles; l)ut two years ago his conviction was certain that 
the democratic -party had changed, had become corrupt; 
and he had done what every lionest man sliould do, — thrown 
himself body and soul into the great American cause ; that 
he had become a member of the only })arty truly national, 
and truly devoted to the preservation ot this Union." 

At a convention held in Burlington, Iowa, in October, 
1851, a member from St. Louis, in a set speech, declared 
that '• while tlie rains of heaven were refieshinjr and 
fructifying the earth, and swelling the tide of the Missis- 
si})pi, he thanked his (Jod that not una drop came from 
South Carolina ! ! ! '' 

Gen. Ranney, his personal friend, born in New England, 
but loving the whole Union, rebuked him, with this signifi- 
cant language, for his wanton attack upon a sister state : 
"Why, sir," said he, "attempt to goad men on to mad- 
ness, who were placed under different circumstances with 
ourselves, and of which we know but little ? "' 

He then referred to the glorious history of this chivalric 
and heroic state, — to the memory of Marion, Sumpter, 
Greene, and others ; to the battles of Yorktown, Cowpens, 
and the Eutaw Springs, and asked the President, in a mild 
but emphatic manner, if all these were to be forgotten. lie 
stated that there was one delegate in that assembly whose 
body had been scarred, and whose limbs had been disfigured, 
while fighting side by side with the Carolinian against our 
ancient foe in the war of 1812. 

He also referred to the choicest blood of South Carolina 



Jfc* 



450 



GEN. NATHAN llANNEY. 



r; 

1*1 



«8| 



I 



Avliich had enriched the plains of Mexico, and said, '"Mr. 
President, shuU we be no lonf^er allowed to revere and 
honor tliese events, and be compelled to steel our hearts 
jigiunst the noble actors in them ? 

" Sir, the rains of heaven, falling upon the eastern slope 
of the Alleghany Mountains, refreshing and fructifying the 
soil of South Caiolina, ran some of it down her rivers, and 
some of these ' drops ' helped to swell the tide of the sea 
that floated the Constitution, the Guerriere, the Wasp, and 
the Hornet, and enabled the American navy to obtain vic- 
tory and renown." 

Said Gen. Ranney, " Is this gallant state to be made 
accountable for all the vagaries of some of her Hotspurs, 
and mistaken friends ? 

" Why not attack good old New England, the land of 
churches and school- houses, and make her accountable for 
the infamy of the Hartford Convention, and the infernal 
acts of her hosts of abolitionists, ■who cast aside the laws of 
the land, and the authority of the liible, and ridicule our 
holy religion? No, Mr. President," said Gen. Ranney. 
"I love New England, and I love South Carolina; and, 
"with all their faults, I will love them still." 

As president of the Missouri Bible Society, Gen. Ran- 
ney is also known for his distinguished efforts to advance 
the circulation of the Word of God, as well as diffuse its 
spirit among his fellow-men. 

Gen. Ranney is the artificer of his own fortune, and his 
industry, intelligence, and energy, have more than supplied 
any defi':iency of early culture ; while the history of his 
life is replete with every virtue, and, without flaw or blem- 
ish, may well serve as a model for every American patriot. 



and 


said, 


'=Mr. 


to 


revere and | 


steel 


our 


hearts 1 



the eastern slope 
(1 fructifying the 
1 her rivers, and 
i tide of the sea 
J, the Wasp, and 
vy to obtain vic- 

tate to be made 
>f her Hotspurs, 

md, the land of 
' accountable for 
ind the infernal 
aside the laws of 
and ridicule our 
I Gen. Ranney. 
1 Carolina ; and, 

ciety. Gen. Ran- 
iforts to advance 
ell as diflfuse its 

. fortune, and his 
)rc than supplied 
[le history of his 
jut flaw or blem- 
.merican patriot. 



LETTER FROxM MR. FILLMORE. 



"■Wnshinrjfnn, Feb. 10, 1852. 

"nnxRY O'RiKLLY, Esq. Dear Sir: I have your let- 
ter of the 12th [which enclosed a Meniorialj, and h;>vo 
perused it with pleasure, as I take a deep interest in any 
project calculated to fticilitate the intercommunication 
between the Atlantic and the Pacific states. 

"If we cannot bind those states to us by roads, railroads, 
and telegraph lines, we may soon see them setting up for 
independence. 

"The 'home tie' which binds the Californian to his 
native state on the Atlantic will grow weaker every day; 
and a new generation will soon arisC; that ' know not tke 
East, and then the ONLY BOND OF UNION will be 
a COMMON COUNTRY, and a COMMON GLORY, 
and a COMMON INTEREST, that can only be eqwdJed 
by a free and uninterrupted conimunication from the seat 
of government to Q,\^\y part of this wide-spread republic. 

" I shall be happy to receive a copy of that part of the 
Report of the St. Louis National Convention to which you 
reLr ; and after I have liad time to peruse it, it will give me 
pleasure to receive from you any verbal explanations which 
you may be pleased to give. 

" I am your obedient servant, 

"MILLARD FILLMORE." 



LIST OF BOOKS 



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on which the method of teaching is based. — Illustrated by on- 
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This little treatise seems well fitted to teach everything which 
can be taught of the theory of Penmanship. The style proposed 
is very simple. The copperplate fac-similes of Mr. French's 
writing are as neat as anything of the kind we ever saw. — • 
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Mr. French has illustrated his theory with some of the moat 
elegant specimens of execution, which prove him master of lug 
science. — Comber. 

1 






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This little work of his is one of the bowt and most useful publi 
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BEAUTIES OF WRITING, containing twenty large 
speeiiaens of Ornamental Penmanship, Pen Drawing, and off-hand 
Flourishing 75 

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LADIES' COPY-BOOK, containing many beautiful en- 
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writing ; also including Cierman Text and Old Engilsli. . . 17 

BOSTON ELEMENTARY COPT-BOOK, comprising 
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Mayor of Boston. 320 pages. 12mo. Cloth 75 

It is a most excellent work. It will have a largo ssile, for it 
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first to make, and they conduct him, by natural and ajipropriato 
steps, to those styles of tlie art which indicate the ehirography 
not only of the fmislied penman, but whicli arc adapted to the 
■wants of those who wish to become accomplished accouatants. — 
Courier. 

A now and original system of Writing Books, which cannot fail 
to meet Avith favor. They consist of a series, and at the top of 
each page is a finely-executed copy. We cordially recommend the 
work. — Bee. 

It is easily acquired, practical and beautiful. — F'Uchburg SintincJ. 

We have no hesitation in pronouncing them superior to anything 
of the kind ever issued. — Star Spanfjkd Banner. 

FRENCH'S PRACTICAL WRITING BOOK, for 

the use of Schools and Academies ; in 1'hrec Numbers, with a 

co[)y for each page. 
No. 1, Commencing with the First Principles. ... . . 10 

No. 2, Running-hand copies for Business Purposes 10 

\o. 3, Very fine copias. together with German Text and Old Eng- 
lish* ... 10 

7 




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1^ 



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JAMES I'lENCH AND CO.'s PUBLICATIONS. 

NEW MINIATURE VOLUMES. 

THE ART OF CONVERSING. Written for the in- 
struction of Youth in the polite manners and language of the 
drawing-room, by a Society of Gentlemen ; with an illustrative 
title. Fourteenth Edition. Gilt Edges 37i 

THE SAME, Gilt Edges and Sides 50 

FLORAL GEMS : or, The Songs of the Flowers. 

By Mrs. J. Thayer. Thirteenth Edition, with a beautiful frontis- 

piei'o. Gilt Edges .... ST-i 

THE SAME, Gilt Edges and Sides 50 

THE AMETHYST : ou, Poetical Gems. A Gift Book 

for all seasons. Illustrated. Gilt Edges. . . ... o7i 

THE SAME, Gilt Edges and Sides 40 

ZION. With Illustrative Title. By Rev. Mr. Taylor. 42 
THE SAME, Gilt Edges and Sides 5G 

THE TRIUNE. With Illustrative Title. By Rev. Mr. 
Taylor ^..37.^ 

TRIAD. With Illustrative Title. By Rev. Timothy A. 
Taylor 37^ 

TWO MOTTOES. By Rev. T. A. Taylor. . . . 37.i 

SOLACE. By Rev. T. A. Taylor 'S7S 

THE SAME, Gilt Edges and Sides 50 

SONNETS. By Edward Moxon sij 

THE SAME, Gilt Edges and Sides 50 

GRAY'S ELEGY, and other Poems. The Poetical 

Works of Thomas Gra}'. *' Poetry — Poetry ; — Gray — (Jray ! " 

[Daniel Webster, the night before his death, Oct. 24, 1852 ] . 31 

ilIE SAME, Gilt Edges and Sides 50 

8 



IIONS. 



lES. 

in for the iii- 

lanoriiage of the 

th an illustrutjvo 

. . . . 37i 

.... 50 

DUE Flowers. 

beautiful fruntis- 

. 37i 

.... 50 

A Gift Book 

. o7i 

40 

^Ir. Taylor. 42 
5G 

B" Rev. Mr. 

37.^ 

BV. Timothy A. 
37^ 

L-. ... 37i 

• • 37A 
. 50 



• • 



3li 

50 



The Poetical 

■Gray — (Jruy ! " 

24, 1852 1 . 3i 

.... 50